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  • Armenian chant (vocal music)

    Armenian chant, vocal music of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the religious poetry that serves as its texts. Armenia was Christianized quite early by missionaries from Syria and Greek-speaking areas of the eastern Mediterranean and accepted Christianity as the state religion about ad 300. The

  • Armenian Church

    Armenian Apostolic Church, independent Oriental Orthodox Christian church and the national church of Armenia. According to tradition, Armenia was evangelized by the apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus. Armenia became the first country to adopt Christianity about 300 ce, when St. Gregory the

  • Armenian Genocide (Turkish-Armenian history)

    Armenian Genocide, campaign of deportation and mass killing conducted against the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire by the Young Turk government during World War I (1914–18). Armenians charge that the campaign was a deliberate attempt to destroy the Armenian people and, thus, an act of

  • Armenian Highland (region, western Asia)

    Armenian Highland, mountainous region of western Asia. It lies mainly in Turkey, occupies all of Armenia, and includes southern Georgia, western Azerbaijan, and northwestern Iran. The highland covers almost 154,400 square miles (400,000 square km). The average elevation of the Armenian Highland is

  • Armenian language

    Armenian language, language that forms a separate branch of the Indo-European language family; it was once erroneously considered a dialect of Iranian. In the early 21st century the Armenian language is spoken by some 6.7 million individuals. The majority (about 3.4 million) of these live in

  • Armenian literature

    Armenian literature, body of writings in the Armenian language. There is evidence that a pagan oral literature existed in Armenia before the invention of the Armenian alphabet in the 5th century ce, but, owing to the zeal of the early Christian priests, little of this was preserved. For about a

  • Armenian massacre of 1915 (Turkish-Armenian history)

    Armenian Genocide, campaign of deportation and mass killing conducted against the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire by the Young Turk government during World War I (1914–18). Armenians charge that the campaign was a deliberate attempt to destroy the Armenian people and, thus, an act of

  • Armenian National Movement (political organization, Armenia)

    Armenia: Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: …a popular democratic organization, the Armenian National Movement (ANM). In the 1990 elections the ANM won a majority in parliament. Armenia declared sovereignty on August 23, 1990, and independence on September 23, 1991. In October Levon Ter-Petrossian was elected the first president of Armenia.

  • Armenian oak (plant)

    oak: Other cultivated ornamentals are the Armenian, or pontic, oak (Q. pontica), chestnut-leaved oak (Q. castaneaefolia), golden oak (Q. alnifolia), Holm, or holly, oak (Q. ilex), Italian oak (Q. frainetto), Lebanon oak (Q. libani), Macedonian oak (Q. trojana

  • Armenian rite (Armenian liturgy)

    Armenian rite, the system of liturgical practices and discipline observed by both the Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox) Church and the Armenian Catholics. The Armenians, who regard themselves as the “first Christian nation,” were converted to Christianity by St. Gregory the Illuminator about ad 300.

  • Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (Marxist-Leninist group)

    Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), terrorist group formed in 1975 to force Turkey to admit its guilt for the Armenian Genocide of 1915–16. At its founding, the group’s stated goals were to force the Turkish government to acknowledge the genocide, pay reparations, and

  • Armeniya

    Armenia, country of Transcaucasia, lying just south of the great mountain range of the Caucasus and fronting the northwestern extremity of Asia. To the north and east Armenia is bounded by Georgia and Azerbaijan, while its neighbours to the southeast and west are, respectively, Iran and Turkey.

  • Armentières (France)

    Armentières, town, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. It lies along the Lys River, near the Belgian frontier. The town was entirely rebuilt after being destroyed in World War I, and its red brick buildings present a uniform appearance. Armentières was 2 miles (3 km) behind

  • Armero (Colombia)

    Colombia: Relief: …downslope, destroying the city of Armero and killing more than 25,000 in one of the country’s greatest catastrophes.

  • Armes Prydain Fawr (medieval Welsh poem)

    Celtic literature: The Middle Ages: …the future is represented by Armes Prydain Fawr (“The Great Prophecy of Britain”), a stirring appeal to the Welsh to unite with other Britons, with the Irish, and with the Norse of Dublin to oppose the Saxons and to refuse the unjust demands of their “great king,” probably Athelstan of…

  • Armfelt, Gustaf Mauritz (Swedish statesman)

    Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, Swedish statesman prominent in diplomacy and military affairs. Appointed gentleman to Gustav III of Sweden in 1781, Armfelt was employed in the negotiations with Catherine II of Russia (1783) and with the Danish government (1787) and was one of the king’s most trusted and

  • Armia Krajowa (Polish history)

    Warsaw Uprising: …Polish underground, known as the Home Army, was anxious because the Soviet Union had already assumed direct control of eastern Poland and had sponsored the formation of the Polish Committee of National Liberation to administer the remainder of Soviet-occupied Polish territory. Hoping to gain control of Warsaw before the Red…

  • Armida (opera by Rossini)

    Gioachino Rossini: Italian period: Armida, a grand opera requiring a trio of tenors and a dramatic soprano (Colbran), appeared in 1817. Rossini was now finding interpreters that suited his music. Colbran, the tenor Manuel del Popolo García, the bass Filippo Galli (“the most beautiful voice in Italy”), and the…

  • Armidale (New South Wales, Australia)

    Armidale, city, northeastern New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the valley slopes of Dumaresq Creek in the New England Range. Armidale was founded in 1839 by G.J. Macdonald, commissioner of crown lands, who named it for his father’s Scottish baronial estate on the Isle of Skye It developed a

  • Armies of the Night, The (work by Mailer)

    American literature: New fictional modes: …or “fiction as history” in The Armies of the Night and Miami and the Siege of Chicago (both 1968) that Mailer discovered his true voice—grandiose yet personal, comic yet shrewdly intellectual. He refined this approach into a new objectivity in the Pulitzer Prize-winning “true life novel” The Executioner’s Song (1979).…

  • Armijo, Antonio (Spanish trader)

    Las Vegas: The early period: …led by Santa Fe trader Antonio Armijo and a scout, Rafael Rivera, who were seeking a new route from Santa Fe to Los Angeles. Arriving in the area in 1829 and noting its wetlands and meadows, Armijo described it on his map as Las Vegas. In that same year the…

  • Armillaria (fungus genus)

    Armillaria, genus of about 35 species of parasitic fungi in the family Physalacriaceae (order Agaricales), found throughout northern North America and Europe, principally in forests of hardwoods or mixed conifers. In suitable environments, members of this genus may live for hundreds of years, and

  • Armillaria bulbosa (fungus)

    Armillaria: Largest specimens: In 1992 a mat of A. bulbosa was identified in a mixed oak forest near Crystal Falls, in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Genetic testing on sample mushrooms gathered throughout the area determined that all were produced by a single supporting mycelium that extended over more than 15 hectares (37 acres); its…

  • Armillaria mellea (fungus)

    Agaricales: Other families and genera: The edible honey mushroom (A. mellea) causes root rot in trees and can be a destructive forest pathogen. Its yellowish clusters are often found at the bases of trees and stumps, and black shoestringlike fungal filaments can be found in the decaying wood.

  • Armillaria ostoyae (fungus)

    Armillaria: Largest specimens: …that year, a specimen of A. ostoyae was identified on Mount Adams, in southwestern Washington state. Its age was estimated at 400 to 1,000 years, and it far exceeded the Michigan fungus in size, covering some 607 hectares (1,500 acres).

  • Armillaria ponderosa (fungus)

    Agaricales: Other families and genera: Pholiota (family Strophariaceae) is found almost exclusively on wood. Some species are known to cause heartwood rot in trees. The cap and stalk of P. squarrosa, an edible mushroom, are covered with dense dry scales.

  • armillary sphere (astronomy)

    Armillary sphere, early astronomical device for representing the great circles of the heavens, including in the most elaborate instruments the horizon, meridian, Equator, tropics, polar circles, and an ecliptic hoop. The sphere is a skeleton celestial globe, with circles divided into degrees for

  • Armilus (Jewish legend)

    Armilus, in Jewish legends, an enemy who will conquer Jerusalem and persecute Jews until his final defeat at the hands of God or the true Messiah. His inevitable destruction symbolizes the ultimate victory of good over evil in the messianic era. Some sources depict Armilus as partially deaf and

  • Armin, Robert (English actor)

    Robert Armin, English actor and playwright best known as a leading comic actor in the plays of William Shakespeare. He performed with the Chamberlain’s Men from approximately 1598 to 1610 and originated some of the most famous comic roles in Elizabethan theatre. Armin was an apprentice to a

  • Arminian (Dutch Protestant)

    Remonstrant, any of the Dutch Protestants who, following the views of Jacobus Arminius, presented to the States-General in 1610 a “remonstrance” setting forth their points of divergence from stricter Calvinism. The Remonstrants, assailed on all sides, were expelled from the Netherlands by the

  • Arminian Baptist Church (religion)

    National Association of Free Will Baptists: …traces its history back to Free Will, or Arminian, Baptists in the 18th century. These Baptists believed in free will, free grace, and free salvation, in contrast to most Baptists, who were Calvinists (i.e., who believed that Christ died only for those predestined to be saved).

  • Arminianism (Christian theology)

    Arminianism, a theological movement in Christianity, a liberal reaction to the Calvinist doctrine of predestination. The movement began early in the 17th century and asserted that God’s sovereignty and man’s free will are compatible. The movement was named for Jacobus Arminius (q.v.), a Dutch

  • Arminius (German leader)

    Arminius, German tribal leader who inflicted a major defeat on Rome by destroying three legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus in the Teutoburg Forest (southeast of modern Bielefeld, Germany), late in the summer of 9 ce. This defeat severely checked the emperor Augustus’s plans, the exact nature

  • Arminius, Jacobus (Dutch theologian)

    Jacobus Arminius, theologian and minister of the Dutch Reformed Church who opposed the strict Calvinist teaching on predestination and who developed in reaction a theological system known later as Arminianism. His father died when Arminius was an infant, and one Theodore Aemilius adopted the child

  • Armistice (European-United States history)

    World War I: The Armistice: The Allies’ armistice terms presented in the railway carriage at Rethondes were stiff. Germany was required to evacuate not only Belgium, France, and Alsace-Lorraine but also all the rest of the left (west) bank of the Rhine, and it had to neutralize that river’s…

  • armistice (law)

    Armistice, an agreement for the cessation of active hostilities between two or more belligerents. Generally, the terms, scope, and duration of an armistice are determined by the contracting belligerents. An armistice agreement may involve a partial or temporary cessation of hostilities—called a

  • Armistice Day (British holiday)

    Remembrance Sunday: …holiday has its origins in Armistice Day, which was dedicated in Great Britain on Nov. 11, 1919, in commemoration of the one-year anniversary of the peace agreement that ended World War I. In response to a politician’s suggestion, King George V requested that the country pause in silence for two…

  • Armistice Day (holiday)

    Veterans Day, in the United States, national holiday (November 11) honouring veterans of the armed forces and those killed in the country’s wars. The observance originated in 1919 on the first anniversary of the 1918 armistice that ended World War I and was known as Armistice Day. It was

  • Armitage, John (British editor)

    Encyclop?dia Britannica: Corporate change: From 1949, when John Armitage became London editor, until 1965, when he retired from that position, the London office again produced a separate yearbook. From 1966 onward a single international yearbook was produced.

  • Armitage, Kenneth (English sculptor)

    Kenneth Armitage, British sculptor (born July 18, 1916, Leeds, Eng.—died Jan. 22, 2002, London, Eng.), created semiabstract bronzes, many of which displayed quirky humour, that put him at the forefront of post-World War II British art. Armitage was the head of sculpture at the Bath Academy of Art (

  • Armitage, Simon (British poet, playwright, and novelist)

    Simon Armitage, British poet, playwright, and novelist whose poetry is attuned to modern life and vernacular language and has been regarded as both accessible and revelatory. His works were widely anthologized and have been broadly popular. In 2019 Armitage became poet laureate of Great Britain.

  • Armitage, Simon Robert (British poet, playwright, and novelist)

    Simon Armitage, British poet, playwright, and novelist whose poetry is attuned to modern life and vernacular language and has been regarded as both accessible and revelatory. His works were widely anthologized and have been broadly popular. In 2019 Armitage became poet laureate of Great Britain.

  • Armitage, William Kenneth (English sculptor)

    Kenneth Armitage, British sculptor (born July 18, 1916, Leeds, Eng.—died Jan. 22, 2002, London, Eng.), created semiabstract bronzes, many of which displayed quirky humour, that put him at the forefront of post-World War II British art. Armitage was the head of sculpture at the Bath Academy of Art (

  • armlet (jewelry)

    Armlet, decorative band, usually of gold, silver, or other metal and sometimes featuring precious gems, worn for ornament around the arm, especially the upper arm. Armlets have been worn since ancient times: in Assyrian art, for instance, deities, monsters, and men are shown wearing armlets.

  • armoire (furniture)

    Armoire, large two-door cupboard, usually movable and containing shelves, hanging space, and sometimes drawers. It was originally used for storing arms. The armoires designed by André-Charles Boulle, the cabinetmaker to Louis XIV in the late 17th century, are among the most sumptuous and imposing

  • armonica a manticino (musical instrument)

    Accordion, free-reed portable musical instrument, consisting of a treble casing with external piano-style keys or buttons and a bass casing (usually with buttons) attached to opposite sides of a hand-operated bellows. The advent of the accordion is the subject of debate among researchers. Many

  • Armont, Marie-Anne-Charlotte Corday d’ (French noble)

    Charlotte Corday, the assassin of the French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat. Descended from a noble family, educated in a convent at Caen, and royalist by sentiment, yet susceptible also to the ideals of the Enlightenment, Corday was living with an aunt in Caen when it became a centre of the

  • armor (protective clothing)

    Armour, protective clothing with the ability to deflect or absorb the impact of projectiles or other weapons that may be used against its wearer. Until modern times, armour worn by combatants in warfare was laboriously fashioned and frequently elaborately wrought, reflecting the personal importance

  • armor (military technology)

    tactics: The armoured offensive: …particularly popular in Britain, was armour: improved tanks, operating much like the heavy cavalry of old, were supposed to overcome the defense and restore mobility to the battlefield. There were even visions of armies consisting entirely of tanks.

  • Armor Wars (comic-book saga)

    Iron Man: From Armor Wars to the silver screen: …this era was the “Armor Wars” saga, which pitted Iron Man against a stable of armoured villains who had capitalized on stolen Stark designs. The 1990s were characterized by uneven stories that too frequently relied on Stark’s apparent death as a plot device. As the Vietnam War became an…

  • Armoracia lapathifolia (plant)

    Horseradish, (Armoracia rusticana), hardy perennial plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) known for its hotly pungent fleshy root, which is made into a condiment or table relish. Native to Mediterranean lands, horseradish is now grown throughout the temperate zones and is a troublesome weed in

  • Armored Car Robbery (film by Fleischer [1950])

    Richard Fleischer: Early life and work: The heist drama Armored Car Robbery (1950) is considered a leading example of film noir; it featured Charles McGraw as a police detective on the trail of a gang leader (William Talman). Fleischer enjoyed further success with The Narrow Margin (1952), one of the best noirs of its…

  • armored vehicle

    Armoured vehicle, military vehicle that is fitted with partial or complete armour plating for protection against bullets, shell fragments, and other projectiles. Armoured vehicles for military use can move either on wheels or on continuous tracks. The tank is the principal fighting armoured

  • armorial achievement (heraldry)

    heraldry: The achievement: The term achievement, properly armorial achievement, means the whole display showing shield, helmet, crest, mantling, wreath, and, if appropriate, additaments such as a motto and supporters. In addition, an achievement may include representations of various knightly orders or companionships of knightly orders to which…

  • armorial bearings (heraldry)

    Coat of arms, the principal part of a system of hereditary symbols dating back to early medieval Europe, used primarily to establish identity in battle. Arms evolved to denote family descent, adoption, alliance, property ownership, and, eventually, profession. The origin of the term coat of arms is

  • Armorial de Berry (work by Bouvier)

    heraldry: Rolls of arms: A notable roll is the Armorial de Berry, dating from about 1445, the work of a French herald, Gilles le Bouvier, who traveled widely and recorded arms borne in France, England, Scotland, Germany, Italy, and other European countries.

  • armorial ensign (heraldry)

    Armorial ensign, heraldic symbol carried on a flag or shield. The term is much misunderstood because of the popular use of ensign as a generic term for flag. A grant of arms or a matriculation (registration of armorial bearings) may in its text use the term ensigns armorial to mean the heraldic

  • Armorica (ancient region, France)

    Armorica, (from Celtic ar, “on,” and mor, “sea”), Latin name for the northwestern extremity of Gaul, now Brittany. In Celtic, Roman, and Frankish times Armorica also included the western part of what later became Normandy. In Julius Caesar’s time it was the home of five principal tribes, the most

  • Armorican Massif (area, France)

    Armorican Massif, flattened erosional upland, or peneplain, of France, encompassing the western départements of Finistère, C?tes-d’Armor, Morbihan, and Ille-et-Vilaine and parts of Manche, Orne, Mayenne, Maine-et-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, and Vendée. The region has an area of approximately 25,000

  • Armory Show (art show, New York City, New York, United States)

    Armory Show, an exhibition of painting and sculpture held from Feb. 17 to March 15, 1913, at the Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory in New York City. The show, a decisive event in the development of American art, was originally conceived by its organizers, the Association of American Painters and

  • armour (protective clothing)

    Armour, protective clothing with the ability to deflect or absorb the impact of projectiles or other weapons that may be used against its wearer. Until modern times, armour worn by combatants in warfare was laboriously fashioned and frequently elaborately wrought, reflecting the personal importance

  • armour (military technology)

    tactics: The armoured offensive: …particularly popular in Britain, was armour: improved tanks, operating much like the heavy cavalry of old, were supposed to overcome the defense and restore mobility to the battlefield. There were even visions of armies consisting entirely of tanks.

  • armour (animal protection)

    armadillo: …(family Dasypodidae), any of various armoured mammals found mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America. Most of the 20 species inhabit open areas, such as grasslands, but some also live in forests. All armadillos possess a set of plates called the carapace that covers much of…

  • Armour & Company (American corporation)

    Philip Danforth Armour: …entrepreneur and innovator whose extensive Armour & Company enterprises helped make Chicago the meatpacking capital of the world.

  • Armour Institute of Technology (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Illinois Institute of Technology, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chicago, Illinois, U.S. It dates to 1890, when the Armour Institute of Technology was founded (its first classes were held in 1893). The institute owes its heritage to a sermon by Chicago minister Frank

  • armour plate (metallurgy)

    tank: Armour: Until the 1960s, tank armour consisted of homogeneous steel plates or castings. The thickness of this armour varied from 8 mm on early tanks to 250 mm at the front of the German Jagdtiger of 1945. After World War II, opinions differed about the…

  • Armour, Philip Danforth (American entrepreneur)

    Philip Danforth Armour, American entrepreneur and innovator whose extensive Armour & Company enterprises helped make Chicago the meatpacking capital of the world. Armour earned his first capital in California mining endeavours and cofounded a grain-dealing and meatpacking business in Milwaukee,

  • armour-piercing bomb (military technology)

    bomb: Conventional bomb types: Armour-piercing bombs have a thick case and a pointed tip and are used to penetrate armoured or hardened targets such as warships and bunkers. Bombs of the aforementioned types generally range in size from 100 to 3,000 pounds (45 to 1,360 kg). The largest bomb…

  • armour-piercing discarding-sabot (shell)

    artillery: Antitank guns: In 1944 Britain perfected “discarding-sabot” projectiles, in which a tungsten core was supported in a conventional gun by a light metal sabot that split and fell free after leaving the muzzle, allowing the core to fly on at extremely high velocity.

  • armour-piercing projectile

    ammunition: Special-purpose ammunition includes armour-piercing rounds, which fire bullets that have cores of hardened steel or some other metal such as tungsten carbide. Tracer bullets have a column of pyrotechnic composition in the base that is ignited by the flame of the propellant; this provides a visible pyrotechnic display…

  • armour-piercing, fin-stabilized discarding-sabot (ammunition)

    tank: Ammunition: …began to be superseded by armour-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding-sabot (APFSDS) ammunition. These projectiles had long-rod penetrator cores of tungsten alloy or depleted uranium; they could be fired with muzzle velocities of 1,650 metres (5,400 feet) per second or more, making them capable of perforating much thicker armour than all earlier types…

  • armoured car

    T.E. Lawrence on guerrilla warfare: Armoured cars: On some occasions tribal raids were strengthened by armoured cars, manned by Englishmen. Armoured cars, once they have found a possible track, can keep up with a camel party. On the march to Damascus, when nearly 400 miles off their base, they were…

  • armoured cavalry (military unit)

    cavalry: …known as mechanized cavalry or armoured cavalry. By the 1950s there were no horse-mounted cavalry units in either the U.S. or British armies. In the early 1960s the United States converted its 1st Cavalry Division to an “air mobile” division, with helicopters and air-portable weapons and vehicles. The division saw…

  • armoured cruiser (warship)

    cruiser: …only on their decks, while armoured cruisers also had armour extending down the sides of the hull. Though smaller than battleships, cruisers were powerful warships because of their great speed and relatively big guns.

  • armoured division (military unit)

    division: infantry and armoured. Infantry divisions, known as rifle divisions in the Russian army, are organized and equipped for combat under all conditions of terrain and weather; they comprise the principal portion of the fighting forces of an army. An infantry division consists chiefly of foot soldiers equipped…

  • armoured face conveyor (mining)

    coal mining: Haulage: …mechanized longwall systems is an armoured face conveyor (AFC). In addition to carrying coal from the face, the AFC serves as the guide for the longwall shearer, which rides on it (see above, Mining methods: Longwall mining).

  • armoured fighting vehicle (military technology)

    armoured vehicle: …tank is the principal fighting armoured vehicle. Other types armed with large-calibre main guns include tank destroyers and assault guns. This article traces the development of armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, and other armoured vehicles designed primarily as platforms for assault troops.

  • armoured mud ball (geology)

    Armoured mud ball, large ball of silt and clay, coated (armoured) with a poorly sorted mixture of gravel and sand. In many cases they are nearly spherical, with diameters ranging from a fraction of a centimetre to 50 centimetres (20 inches) but commonly 5–10 centimetres (2–4 inches). As the size

  • armoured personnel carrier (military vehicle)

    armoured vehicle: Armoured personnel carriers: Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are tracked armoured vehicles that are used for transporting infantry into battle. APCs first appeared in large numbers early in World War II, when the German army adopted them to carry the infantry contingents of their panzer and…

  • Armoured Train 14–69 (work by Ivanov)

    Vsevolod Ivanov: In 1927 he reworked Armoured Train 14–69— which had been severely criticized for neglecting the role of the Communist Party in the partisan movement—into a play, correcting this flaw. The drama enjoyed immediate success and has become one of the classics of the Soviet repertory. In his works composed…

  • armoured vehicle

    Armoured vehicle, military vehicle that is fitted with partial or complete armour plating for protection against bullets, shell fragments, and other projectiles. Armoured vehicles for military use can move either on wheels or on continuous tracks. The tank is the principal fighting armoured

  • armouring (marine engineering)

    harbours and sea works: Breakwater design: …covering of larger boulders, or armouring, to protect it from removal by the sea. The design of this outer armouring has fostered considerable ingenuity. The larger the blocks, the less likely they are to be disturbed, but the greater the cost of placing them in position and of restoring them…

  • Armoury Museum (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Armoury Museum, in Moscow, oldest museum in Russia. It is housed in a building between the Great Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin wall, was designed by Konstantin A. Thon, and was built between 1844 and 1851. The museum was originally founded to house the treasures accumulated over the centuries by R

  • Armoury Palace (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Armoury Museum, in Moscow, oldest museum in Russia. It is housed in a building between the Great Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin wall, was designed by Konstantin A. Thon, and was built between 1844 and 1851. The museum was originally founded to house the treasures accumulated over the centuries by R

  • armoury practice (production system)

    Armoury practice, Production system for the assembly of finished products, in this case arms. With the adoption of the Model 1842 musket, the U.S. military achieved the large-scale assembly of weapons from uniform, interchangeable parts. By the mid-1850s arms makers around the world were beginning

  • Arms and the Man (play by Shaw)

    Arms and the Man, romantic comedy in three acts by George Bernard Shaw, produced in 1894 and published in 1898. The play is set in the Petkoff household in Bulgaria and satirizes romantic ideas concerning war and heroism. A battle-weary officer, a Swiss mercenary fighting for the Serbian army,

  • arms control

    Arms control, any international control or limitation of the development, testing, production, deployment, or use of weapons based on the premise that the continued existence of certain national military establishments is inevitable. The concept implies some form of collaboration between generally

  • Arms Export Control Act (United States legislation)

    20th-century international relations: The distraction of Watergate: …in Angola and passed the Arms Export Control Act, removing presidential discretion in supplying arms overseas. New financial controls limited the president’s ability to conclude executive agreements with foreign powers, of which some 6,300 had been signed between 1946 and 1974 as compared with only 411 treaties requiring the Senate’s…

  • arms limitation treaty (international relations)

    United States: Peace and prosperity: …Hughes negotiated the first effective arms-reduction agreement in history. On the whole, however, the policies of the United States were narrow and nationalistic. It did not cooperate with the League of Nations. It insisted that Europeans pay their American debts but in 1922 passed the Fordney–McCumber Tariff, which raised duties…

  • arms of bastardy

    heraldry: Ordinaries: …used in fiction as a symbol for illegitimacy. It has no such significance, illegitimacy being denoted heraldically in several other ways, and a bar, being horizontal, cannot be either dexter or sinister. Since the European nations were Christian when heraldry was invented, the cross appears in many forms in heraldry.…

  • arms race

    Arms race, a pattern of competitive acquisition of military capability between two or more countries. The term is often used quite loosely to refer to any military buildup or spending increases by a group of countries. The competitive nature of this buildup often reflects an adversarial

  • Arms Race in Sporting Goods

    Modern athletes, it is said, stand on the shoulders of yesteryear’s greats; increasingly, however, improvements in conditioning, technique, training, and coaching are augmented not only by the advances made by earlier athletes but also by technological breakthroughs in equipment that help today’s

  • Arms, Assize of (England [1181])

    United Kingdom: Government of England: In the Assize of Arms of 1181 Henry determined the arms and equipment appropriate to every free man, based on his income from land. This measure, which could be seen as a revival of the principles of the Anglo-Saxon fyrd, was intended to provide for a local…

  • arms, coat of (heraldry)

    Coat of arms, the principal part of a system of hereditary symbols dating back to early medieval Europe, used primarily to establish identity in battle. Arms evolved to denote family descent, adoption, alliance, property ownership, and, eventually, profession. The origin of the term coat of arms is

  • arms, roll of (heraldry)

    Roll of arms, illuminated manuscript describing (blazoning) and often illustrating (emblazoning) the arms of persons present at a particular battle or tournament. In addition to their historical interest, these rolls are excellent examples of heraldic art. There has been no break in the compilation

  • Arms, Union of (Spanish military organization)

    Spain: The government of Olivares: …with no alternative but his Union of Arms, which caused the revolts of Catalonia and Portugal. The Union of Arms was a scheme for the creation of a reserve army of 140,000 men that was to be paid for by the dominions of the Spanish empire in proportion to their…

  • Armscor (South African company)

    South Africa: The National Party and apartheid: …to South Africa in 1964, Armaments Corporation of South Africa (Armscor) was created to produce high-quality military equipment.

  • Armstrong (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Armstrong, county, west-central Pennsylvania, U.S., bounded to the north by the Allegheny River and Redbank Creek and to the south by the Kiskiminetas River. It consists of a hilly region on the Allegheny Plateau, through which the Allegheny River has cut a deep valley roughly north-south in the

  • Armstrong Bills (United States [1906])

    Henry Baldwin Hyde: …passage, in 1906, of the Armstrong Bills reorganizing the insurance business and regulating its management of surplus funds.

  • Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA center, California, United States)

    Vance Brand: …of positions, mainly at the Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California, until his retirement in 2008.

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