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  • Arizona Diamondbacks (American baseball team)

    Arizona Diamondbacks, American professional baseball franchise based in Phoenix that plays in the National League (NL). In 2001, in only their fourth season in Major League Baseball, the Diamondbacks won the World Series. The Diamondbacks were founded in 1998 as an expansion franchise, along with

  • Arizona Dream (film by Kusturica [1993])

    Emir Kusturica: Hollywood and a second Golden Palm: …directed his first English-language movie, Arizona Dream, a dramedy starring Johnny Depp, Faye Dunaway, and Jerry Lewis. His headstrong creative spirit did not fit well into the Hollywood mold, and at one point he left the production and moved to Serbia. Nevertheless, he won a Silver Bear award for direction…

  • Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System Administration (public health program, Arizona, United States)

    Arizona: Health and welfare: …the legislature created the controversial Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System Administration as an alternative to the federal Medicaid program. The system includes an insurance program designed to provide health care for those citizens who are indigent or who cannot otherwise afford adequate medical care. At the same time, it…

  • Arizona Meteor Crater (crater, Arizona, United States)

    Meteor Crater, rimmed, bowl-shaped pit produced by a large meteorite in the rolling plain of the Canyon Diablo region, 19 miles (30 km) west of Winslow, Arizona, U.S. The crater is 4,000 feet (1,200 metres) in diameter and about 600 feet (180 metres) deep inside its rim, which rises nearly 200 feet

  • Arizona State College at Flagstaff (university, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States)

    Northern Arizona University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S. The university comprises colleges of business administration, ecosystem science and management, engineering and technology, health professions, social and behavioral sciences, and arts and

  • Arizona State University (university, Arizona, United States)

    Arizona State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning with its main campus in Tempe, Arizona, U.S. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degrees in areas including agriculture, engineering, business, education, and the arts and sciences. It also includes

  • Arizona white oak (plant)

    white oak: The Arizona white oak (Q. arizonica), which is about 18 m (60 feet) tall, is found in the southwestern United States on the slopes of canyon walls, at altitudes from 1,500 to 3,000 m (5,000–10,000 feet). Its narrow leaves are about 8 cm (3 inches) long…

  • Arizona woodrat (rodent)

    woodrat: The Arizona woodrat (N. devia) is one of the smallest, weighing less than 132 grams and having a body length of up to 15 cm. Its tail, measuring up to 14 cm long, is more typical in being densely haired but not bushy. Woodrats’ eyes are…

  • Arizona, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of red and yellow rays emanating from a copper-coloured star above a horizontal blue stripe.On February 27, 1917, just five years after attaining statehood, Arizona adopted its state flag. Unlike many other state flags, which were based on military colours or other

  • Arizona, University of (university, Tucson, Arizona, United States)

    University of Arizona, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Tucson, Arizona, U.S. The university has a broad curriculum in liberal arts, sciences, agriculture, architecture, engineering, business and public administration, and education. It also offers instruction in nursing and

  • Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (museum, Tucson, Arizona, United States)

    Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, zoo, natural history museum, and botanical garden located outside Tucson, Arizona, U.S., near the western entrance to Saguaro National Park. Founded in 1952, the museum houses indoor and outdoor displays of living animals and plants native to the Sonoran Desert, an

  • Arjan (Sikh Guru)

    Arjan, the Sikh religion’s fifth Guru and its first martyr. One of the greatest of the Sikh Gurus, Arjan took over the leadership of the Sikh community from his father, Guru Ram Das, in 1581 and successfully expanded it. He quickly completed the Harimandir, the Golden Temple, at Amritsar, where all

  • Arjumand Banu (Mughal queen)

    Mumtaz Mahal, (born c. 1593—died June 17, 1631, Burhanpur, India), wife of Shah Jahān, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58). Having died at a young age only a few years into her husband’s reign, her memory inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she is entombed. Born Arjumand Banu, she was a

  • Arjumand Banu Begum (Mughal queen)

    Mumtaz Mahal, (born c. 1593—died June 17, 1631, Burhanpur, India), wife of Shah Jahān, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58). Having died at a young age only a few years into her husband’s reign, her memory inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she is entombed. Born Arjumand Banu, she was a

  • Arjun (Sikh Guru)

    Arjan, the Sikh religion’s fifth Guru and its first martyr. One of the greatest of the Sikh Gurus, Arjan took over the leadership of the Sikh community from his father, Guru Ram Das, in 1581 and successfully expanded it. He quickly completed the Harimandir, the Golden Temple, at Amritsar, where all

  • Arjuna (Hindu mythology)

    Arjuna, one of the five Pandava brothers, who are the heroes of the Indian epic the Mahabharata. Arjuna, son of the god Indra, is famous for his archery (he can shoot with either hand) and for the magical weapons that he wins from the god Shiva. His hesitation before the decisive battle against a

  • Arjunavivāha (work by Mpu Kanwa)

    Erlangga: …Kanwa composed the Javanese epic Arjunavivāha, a modification of the Indian Mahābhārata that was an allegory of Erlangga’s own life.

  • Arjunayanas (people)

    India: Oligarchies and kingdoms: …important politically were the Audambaras, Arjunayanas, Malavas, Yaudheyas, Shibis, Kunindas, Trigartas, and Abhiras. The Arjunayanas had their base in the present-day Bharatpur-Alwar region. The Malavas appear to have migrated from the Punjab to the Jaipur area, perhaps after the Indo-Greek invasions; they are associated with the Malava era, which has…

  • Arjuno, Mount (mountain, Indonesia)

    East Java: …cones, including the highest one, Mount Arjuno, rising to 10,955 feet (3,339 metres), runs lengthwise through East Java from west to east. The cones constitute an upland zone that acts as a barrier to communication. Broad valleys, roughly one every 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km) and mostly…

  • ark (Judaism)

    Ark, (“holy ark”), in Jewish synagogues, an ornate cabinet that enshrines the sacred Torah scrolls used for public worship. Because it symbolizes the Holy of Holies of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem, it is the holiest place in the synagogue and the focal point of prayer. The ark is reached by

  • Ark (mosque, Tabrīz, Iran)

    Tabrīz: The citadel, or Ark, which was built before 1322 on the site of a collapsed mosque, is remarkable for its simplicity, its size, and the excellent condition of its brickwork. Also noteworthy are the remains of the 12-sided tomb of Ma?mūd Ghāzān, ruler of the Mongol dynasty in…

  • Ark of the Covenant (religion)

    Ark of the Covenant, in Judaism and Christianity, the ornate, gold-plated wooden chest that in biblical times housed the two tablets of the Law given to Moses by God. The Ark rested in the Holy of Holies inside the Tabernacle of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem and was seen only by the high priest

  • Ark Royal (British aircraft carrier)

    naval ship: Light carriers: Illustrious, and Ark Royal. These 20,000-ton ships carried eight Sea Harriers and about a dozen antisubmarine helicopters. They also incorporated a further British contribution to aircraft carrier design: an upward-sloping “ski jump” at the end of the short (170-metre, or 558-foot) flight deck to assist the Sea…

  • ark shell (mollusk)

    Ark shell, any of the species of predominantly marine bivalve mollusks of the family Arcidae. Such clams are characterized by boat-shaped shells with long, straight hinge lines bearing many small, interlocking teeth. The shells are usually coated with a thick, sometimes hairy periostracum (outer

  • Arkadelphia (Arkansas, United States)

    Arkadelphia, city, seat (1842) of Clark county, south-central Arkansas, U.S., about 29 miles (47 km) south of Hot Springs. It lies along the Ouachita River south of that river’s confluence with the Caddo River, at the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. The site was settled in about 1811 by John

  • Arkadhía (region, Greece)

    Arcadia, mountainous region of the central Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos) of ancient Greece. The pastoral character of Arcadian life together with its isolation are reflected in the fact that it is represented as a paradise in Greek and Roman bucolic poetry and in the literature of the

  • Arkadia (garden, Warsaw, Poland)

    Western architecture: Poland: Zug also designed Arkadia (1777–98), one of the many picturesque gardens in Poland. Laid out on the Radziwi?? family estate of Nieborow, the garden contains numerous Romantic buildings. After 1815, Warsaw was rebuilt as a model Neoclassical city with major public buildings by Merlini’s pupil Jakub Kubicki and…

  • Arkalyk (Kazakhstan)

    Arqalyq, city, north-central Kazakhstan. It is located about 75 miles (120 km) west of Lake Tengiz. Settlement of the site began in 1956 in connection with the exploitation of the Turgay bauxite deposits, and it became a city in 1965. Arqalyq is linked to the rail line between Nursultan and Tobyl

  • arkan (medicine)

    Unani medicine: Arkan and mizaj: elements and temperament: As four simple, indivisible entities—arz (earth), maa (water), nar (fire), and hawa (air)—arkan not only constitutes the primary components of the human body but also makes up all other creations in the universe. There are predictable consequences to the…

  • Arkan (Serbian paramilitary leader)

    ?eljko Ra?natovi?, Serbian nationalist who headed the paramilitary Serbian Volunteer Guard (known as the Tigers), which was accused of committing atrocities during the conflicts that accompanied the breakup of Yugoslavia in the first half of the 1990s. Ra?natovi?’s father was an officer in the

  • Arkān al-Islām

    Pillars of Islam, the five duties incumbent on every Muslim: shahādah, the Muslim profession of faith; ?alāt, or prayer, performed in a prescribed manner five times each day; zakāt, the alms tax levied to benefit the poor and the needy; ?awm, fasting during the month of Ramadan; and hajj, the major

  • Arkansas (people)

    Quapaw, North American Indian people of the Dhegiha branch of the Siouan language stock. With the other members of this subgroup (including the Osage, Ponca, Kansa, and Omaha), the Quapaw migrated westward from the Atlantic coast. They settled for a time on the prairies of what is now western

  • Arkansas (state, United States)

    Arkansas, constituent state of the United States of America. Arkansas ranks 29th among the 50 states in total area, but, except for Louisiana and Hawaii, it is the smallest state west of the Mississippi River. Its neighbours are Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east,

  • Arkansas City (Kansas, United States)

    Arkansas City, city, Cowley county, southern Kansas, U.S. It lies near the confluence of the Arkansas and Walnut rivers. Founded in 1870, it was successively named Walnut City, Adelphi, and Creswell; the present name was adopted at the city’s incorporation (1872). It was a starting place for the

  • Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (American newspaper)

    Charles Portis: …the Arkansas Gazette (now the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette) before being hired in 1960 by the New York Herald-Tribune, for which he frequently covered the civil rights movement. In 1963 he was assigned to the newspaper’s London bureau, but he returned to Arkansas a year later to devote himself to writing fiction…

  • Arkansas Gazette (American newspaper)

    Charles Portis: …the Arkansas Gazette (now the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette) before being hired in 1960 by the New York Herald-Tribune, for which he frequently covered the civil rights movement. In 1963 he was assigned to the newspaper’s London bureau, but he returned to Arkansas a year later to devote himself to writing fiction…

  • Arkansas kingbird (bird)

    kingbird: The western kingbird (T. verticalis), found westward from the Great Plains, is light gray above and yellow below, with whitish edges on the outermost tail feathers. Both species have a red spot (usually concealed) on the crown.

  • Arkansas Post (historical village, Arkansas, United States)

    Arkansas Post, historic village site, Arkansas county, southeastern Arkansas, U.S., on the Arkansas River, near its confluence with the Mississippi River. A fort, the first permanent European settlement in the lower Mississippi valley, was built there in 1686 by Henri de Tonty, a lieutenant of

  • Arkansas River (river, United States)

    Arkansas River, large tributary of the Mississippi River, rising in the Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains near Leadville in central Colorado, U.S., and flowing generally east-southeastward for 1,460 miles (2,350 km) through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas before entering the Mississippi 40 miles

  • Arkansas River Navigation System (waterway, United States)

    Arkansas River Navigation System, improved portion of the Verdigris and Arkansas rivers, extending southeastward for 439 mi (767 km) from Catoosa (near Tulsa) in northeastern Oklahoma, U.S., through Arkansas to the Mississippi River 25 mi north of Arkansas City, Ark. Approved by the U.S. Congress

  • Arkansas State Press (American newspaper)

    Lucius Christopher Bates: …was the publisher of the Arkansas State Press, a weekly pro-civil rights newspaper. In 1957, after Governor Orval Faubus called out the state’s National Guard in an attempt to thwart the racial integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, Bates and his wife, Daisy, ushered nine African American…

  • Arkansas State University (university, Arkansas, United States)

    Arkansas State University, public, coeducational institution of higher education in Jonesboro, Arkansas, U.S. The university offers bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in agriculture, business, communications, nursing and health professions, engineering, education, and the arts and sciences.

  • Arkansas toothpick (weapon)

    James Bowie: …is also associated with the Bowie knife, a weapon (sometimes called the “Arkansas toothpick”) invented by either him or his brother Rezin.

  • Arkansas, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of a red field (background) bearing a blue-and-white design. In the centre is a white diamond with four blue stars and the name of the state also in blue; surrounding the diamond is a blue band with 25 white stars.In 1911 the Arkansas legislature failed to approve a flag

  • Arkansas, University of (university system, Arkansas, United States)

    University of Arkansas, state university system of Arkansas, U.S., with campuses in Fayetteville (main), Little Rock, Pine Bluff, and Monticello. A fifth campus, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, is also located in Little Rock. All campuses are coeducational and offer graduate

  • Arkatag Mountains (mountains, China)

    Arkatag Mountains, one of the complex mountain chains that form the Kunlun Mountains in western China. The Arkatag range is in the east-central portion of the Kunluns. Mount Muztag (Muztagh), at its western end, reaches an elevation of 25,338 feet (7,723 metres) and is the tallest peak in both the

  • Arkayev, Leonid Yakovlevich (Russian coach)

    Leonid Yakovlevich Arkayev, Russian gymnastics coach whose athletes dominated the sport. From 1980 to 2004 his Olympic teams won more than 80 medals, including 37 gold. Arkayev was the youngest of three children; his father died in 1943 while serving in World War II. In 1954, helped by the sister

  • Arkell, Anthony John (British Egyptologist)

    Anthony John Arkell, historian and Egyptologist, an outstanding colonial administrator who combined a passion for the past with a humanitarian concern for the peoples of modern Africa. After serving with the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force, Arkell joined the Sudan Political Service in

  • Arkell, William Joscelyn (British paleontologist)

    William Joscelyn Arkell, paleontologist, an authority on Jurassic fossils (those dating from 200 million to 146 million years ago). Arkell taught at Trinity College, Cambridge University. His work includes the classification of Jurassic ammonites and an interpretation of the environments of that

  • Arkha Tagh Mountains (mountains, China)

    Arkatag Mountains, one of the complex mountain chains that form the Kunlun Mountains in western China. The Arkatag range is in the east-central portion of the Kunluns. Mount Muztag (Muztagh), at its western end, reaches an elevation of 25,338 feet (7,723 metres) and is the tallest peak in both the

  • Arkham Asylum (comic by Morrison and McKean)

    Grant Morrison: …it was in 1989, with Arkham Asylum (art by Dave McKean), a strange tale suffused with Freudian, Jungian, and occult symbolism blending the Batman mythos with a medieval mystery play, that Morrison found major critical and financial success.

  • Arkhangelsk (Russia)

    Arkhangelsk, city and administrative centre of Arkhangelsk oblast (province), Russia, on the Northern Dvina River, 30 miles (50 km) from the White Sea. With its suburbs, Solombala and Ekonomiya, the city extends for 10 miles along the river. Founded in 1584 as the fortified monastery of the

  • Arkhangelsk (oblast, Russia)

    Arkhangelsk, oblast (province), Russia, along the northern coast of European Russia, from the Gulf of Onega to the Yugorsky Peninsula. Centred in Arkhangelsk city, it encompasses the Nenets autonomous okrug (district) in the east and a number of islands, including the Solovets, Novaya Zemlya, and

  • Arkhipelag GULag, 1918–1956: opyt khudozhestvennogo issledovaniya (work by Solzhenitsyn)

    The Gulag Archipelago, history and memoir of life in the Soviet Union’s prison camp system by Russian novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, first published in Paris as Arkhipelag GULag in three volumes (1973–75). Gulag is a Russian acronym for the Soviet government agency that supervised the vast

  • Arkhipova, Irina Konstantinova (Russian mezzo soprano)

    Irina Konstantinova Arkhipova, Russian mezzo soprano (born Dec. 2, 1925, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died Feb. 11, 2010, Moscow, Russia), sang with impressive range and dramatic intensity throughout an opera career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed some of the great mezzo (and,

  • Arkhypenko, Oleksander (Ukrainian-American artist)

    Alexander Archipenko, Ukrainian-American artist best known for his original, Cubist-inspired sculptural style. After studying in Kiev, in 1908 Archipenko briefly attended the école des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but he quickly abandoned formal studies to become part of more radical circles, especially

  • Arkin, Alan (American actor)

    Alan Arkin, American actor who won respect during a long career as a performer onstage, in television, and in films. His comedic skills were particularly admired. Arkin aspired to be an actor from an early age. His family moved to Los Angeles when he was 11 years old. After high-school graduation,

  • Arkin, Alan Wolf (American actor)

    Alan Arkin, American actor who won respect during a long career as a performer onstage, in television, and in films. His comedic skills were particularly admired. Arkin aspired to be an actor from an early age. His family moved to Los Angeles when he was 11 years old. After high-school graduation,

  • Arklow (Ireland)

    Arklow, port, seaside resort, and urban district on the Irish Sea coast in County Wicklow, southeast Ireland. In 431 St. Palladius, a Christian missionary, landed at the present site of Arklow. The Vikings had a settlement there, and the town was granted by John of England (then the lord of

  • Arkoff, Samuel Zachary (American producer)

    Samuel Zachary Arkoff, American film producer (born June 12, 1918, Fort Dodge, Iowa—died Sept. 16, 2001, Burbank, Calif.), was the cofounder (1954), with James Nicholson, of the company that became American International Pictures (AIP), which released low-budget B movies geared mostly to the p

  • Arkona (ancient temple, Rügen, Germany)

    Arkona, West Slavic citadel-temple of the god Svantovit, dating from the 9th–10th century ad and destroyed in 1168/69 by Christian Danes when they stormed the island of Rügen in the southwestern Baltic. Saxo Grammaticus, the 12th-century Danish historian, wrote that the Arkona was a wooden

  • arkose (sandstone)

    Arkose, coarse sandstone (sedimentary rock composed of cemented grains 0.06–2 millimetres [0.0024–0.08 inch] in diameter) primarily made up of quartz and feldspar grains together with small amounts of mica, all moderately well sorted, slightly worn, and loosely cemented with calcite or, less

  • arkosic arenite (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Classification of sandstones: …fragments), the rock is termed arkosic arenite or “arkose,” although such sandstones are also somewhat loosely referred to as feldspathic sandstones. In subarkosic arenite (or subarkose), feldspar sand grains likewise exceed rock fragments but range in abundance from 5 to 15 percent. Lithic arenites have rock fragments that exceed feldspar…

  • arkosic sandstone (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Arkosic sandstones: Arkosic sandstones are of two types. The most common of these is a mixture of quartz, potash feldspar, and granitic rock fragments. Chemically, these rocks are 60–70 percent silica (or silicon dioxide) and 10–15 percent aluminum oxide (Al2O3), with significant amounts of potassium…

  • Arkwright, Sir Richard (British industrialist and inventor)

    Sir Richard Arkwright, textile industrialist and inventor whose use of power-driven machinery and employment of a factory system of production were perhaps more important than his inventions. In his early career as a wig-maker, Arkwright traveled widely in Great Britain and began his lifelong

  • Arland, Marcel (French writer)

    Marcel Arland, French writer who first achieved wide literary recognition in 1929 when his novel L’Ordre earned him the prestigious Prix Goncourt. Arland received his baccalauréat in 1918 and attended classes at the Sorbonne, where he earned a licence-ès-lettres (equivalent to a B.A.) before giving

  • Arlanda Airport (airport, Sweden)

    airport: Unit terminals: , Heathrow, Arlanda Airport near Stockholm, Barajas Airport near Madrid), or terminals serving different airlines (e.g., Paris’s Charles de Gaulle, John F. Kennedy, Dallas–Fort Worth). The successful operation of unit terminal airports has often required the design of rapid and efficient automatic people movers such as those…

  • Arlandes, Fran?ois Laurent, Marquis d’ (French aviator)

    balloon: …Jean-Fran?ois Pilatre de Rozier and Fran?ois Laurent, marquis d’Arlandes, sailed over Paris in a Montgolfier balloon. They burned wool and straw to keep the air in the balloon hot; their flight covered 5.5 miles (almost 9 km) in about 23 minutes. In December of that year the physicist Jacques Charles,…

  • Arlberg (mountain pass, Austria)

    Arlberg, mountain pass and tunnel, at the northern end of the Rhaetian Alps, in western Austria. The pass (at 5,882 feet [1,793 m]) forms a divide between the Danube and Rhine river systems. The region is a noted winter sports area, and the Arlberg technique in skiing was perfected there by Hannes

  • Arlberg (tunnel, Austria-Switzerland)

    Arlberg: tunnel, at the northern end of the Rhaetian Alps, in western Austria. The pass (at 5,882 feet [1,793 m]) forms a divide between the Danube and Rhine river systems. The region is a noted winter sports area, and the Arlberg technique in skiing was perfected…

  • Arlberg technique (skiing)

    Hannes Schneider: …came to be called the Arlberg technique, based on the snowplow, stem, and stem Christiania turns. He helped popularize skiing in the United States.

  • Arlecchino (opera by Busoni)

    Ferruccio Busoni: Two other short operas, Arlecchino and Turandot, composed at Zürich, attempted to revive the commedia dell’arte in modern form. Busoni’s piano works include an immense concerto with choral finale; six sonatinas, which contain the essence of his musical thought; and the great Fantasia Contrappuntistica on an unfinished fugue by…

  • Arlecchino (theatrical character)

    Harlequin, one of the principal stock characters of the Italian commedia dell’arte; often a facile and witty gentleman’s valet and a capricious swain of the serving maid. In the early years of the commedia (mid-16th century), the Harlequin was a zanni (a wily and covetous comic servant), and he was

  • Arledge, Roone Pinckney (American executive)

    Roone Pinckney Arledge, American television executive (born July 8, 1931, Forest Hills, N.Y.—died Dec. 5, 2002, New York, N.Y.), transformed television sports broadcasting in the 1960s and ’70s by introducing an array of technical innovations and by creating such popular programs as Wide World of S

  • Arlen, Harold (American composer)

    Harold Arlen, American composer, arranger, pianist, and vocalist who contributed such popular songs as “Over the Rainbow,” “Blues in the Night,” “Come Rain or Come Shine,” “I Love a Parade,” and “Stormy Weather” to Hollywood movies and Broadway musicals. Arlen was most prolific from 1929 through

  • Arlen, Michael (British author)

    Michael Arlen, British author whose novels and short stories epitomized the brittle gaiety and underlying cynicism and disillusionment of fashionable post-World War I London society. The son of an Armenian merchant, Arlen was brought up in England, to which his father had escaped to avoid Turkish

  • Arlequin (theatrical character)

    Harlequin, one of the principal stock characters of the Italian commedia dell’arte; often a facile and witty gentleman’s valet and a capricious swain of the serving maid. In the early years of the commedia (mid-16th century), the Harlequin was a zanni (a wily and covetous comic servant), and he was

  • Arles (France)

    Arles, city, Bouches-du-Rh?ne département, Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur région, southeastern France. It is situated on the Camargue plain where the Rh?ne River divides to form its delta, northwest of Marseille. Already important in the days of the Ligurian tribes, Arles became a leading city of the

  • Arles, Council of (Christian history)

    Council of Arles, (314 CE), the first representative meeting of Christian bishops in the Western Roman Empire. It was convened at Arles in southern Gaul in August 314 by Emperor Constantine I, primarily to deal with the problem of the Donatists, a schismatic Christian group in North Africa.

  • Arles, Kingdom of (historical kingdom, Europe)

    Burgundy: History: …the 13th century as the kingdom of Arles—the name Burgundy being increasingly reserved for the county of Burgundy (Cisjurane Burgundy) and for the duchy of Burgundy.

  • Arlesiana, L’? (opera by Cilea)

    Francesco Cilea: His first important work, L’Arlesiana (1897), after Alphonse Daudet, was the vehicle for the tenor Enrico Caruso’s first success. Cilea’s best-known work, Adriana Lecouvreur, followed in 1902. Cilea was director of the Naples Conservatory from 1916 to 1935. In addition to operas he composed some chamber music.

  • Arlésienne, L’? (incidental music by Bizet)

    L’Arlésienne, incidental music for orchestra by French composer Georges Bizet, written to accompany Alphonse Daudet’s play of the same name, which premiered on October 1, 1872. The most famous movement is the “Farandole,” which sets a traditional Proven?al tune against a light and playful dance

  • Arlésienne, L’? (play by Daudet)

    Georges Bizet: …music for Alphonse Daudet’s play L’Arlésienne (1872), which is marked by a delicacy and tenderness quite new to his music. Besides the happiness of his marriage, which was crowned by the birth of a son in July of this same year, his letters show that he was deeply stirred by…

  • Arletty (French actress)

    Arletty, French actress with a distinguished international reputation for her film characterizations. Arletty worked for a time in a factory and as a secretary before becoming an artist’s model and chorus girl. In 1920 she joined the Théatre des Capucines and appeared there in innumerable revues a

  • Arline, Gene (American teacher)

    School Board of Nassau County v. Arline: The case centred on Gene Arline, an elementary school teacher in Nassau county, Florida, who had recurring lapses of tuberculosis. After a third bout with the disease, school board officials terminated her employment in 1979. Arline filed suit, claiming that because her dismissal constituted discrimination on the basis of…

  • Arling, Arthur (American cinematographer)
  • Arlington (Massachusetts, United States)

    Arlington, town (township), Middlesex county, east-central Massachusetts, U.S. It is a northwestern suburb of Boston. Settled in 1635 as part of Cambridge, it was known as Menotomy (from an Algonquian word meaning “swift waters”) until separately incorporated as West Cambridge in 1807. It was

  • Arlington (Texas, United States)

    Arlington, city, Tarrant county, northern Texas, U.S., between Fort Worth (west) and Grand Prairie and Dallas (east). Caddo Indians, the first known settlers in the region, were the victims of westward expansion. An early white settlement (1840), on an Indian council site, was called Bird’s Fort.

  • Arlington (county, Virginia, United States)

    Arlington, urban county in northern Virginia, U.S., lying across the Potomac River (southwest) from Washington, D.C., and adjoining the city of Alexandria (south). Arlington is connected to Washington by five bridges—Francis Scott Key, Arlington Memorial, George Mason, Theodore Roosevelt, and

  • Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy (law case)

    Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy, legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 26, 2006, ruled (6–3) that parents who prevail in legal disputes with their school districts under the 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are not entitled to

  • Arlington Heights (Illinois, United States)

    Arlington Heights, village, Cook county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. It lies about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of downtown Chicago. Settled in 1836, it was known as Dunton for William Dunton, the original settler, until 1874, when the present name was adopted. A rail connection with Chicago was

  • Arlington House (house, Virginia, United States)

    Arlington National Cemetery: Its central feature is Arlington House, a mansion that was constructed in 1802 in a Classical Revival style and modeled after the Theseum in Athens, Greece. The house, which is situated along the prominent ridges overlooking Washington, is operated by the National Park Service and serves as a memorial…

  • Arlington National Cemetery (cemetery, Virginia, United States)

    Arlington National Cemetery, U.S. national burial ground in Arlington county, Virginia, on the Potomac River directly opposite Washington, D.C. Located on the antebellum plantation of George Washington Parke Custis, the adopted son of George Washington, the first president of the United States, the

  • Arlington, Baron (English statesman)

    Henry Bennet, 1st earl of Arlington, secretary of state under King Charles II of England from 1662 to 1674 and a leading member of Charles’s “Cabal” ministry. Besides directing foreign policy for 12 years, Arlington, by creating the nucleus of a “court party” (the future Tories) in the House of

  • Arlington, Henry Bennet, 1st earl of (English statesman)

    Henry Bennet, 1st earl of Arlington, secretary of state under King Charles II of England from 1662 to 1674 and a leading member of Charles’s “Cabal” ministry. Besides directing foreign policy for 12 years, Arlington, by creating the nucleus of a “court party” (the future Tories) in the House of

  • Arlington, Lake (reservoir, Arlington, Texas, United States)

    Arlington: Lake Arlington, a 2,275-acre (921-hectare) reservoir that provides drinking water for the city, is also a popular recreation site. Inc. 1884. Pop. (2000) 332,969; Fort Worth–Arlington Metro Division, 1,710,318; Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metro Area, 5,161,544; (2010) 365,438; Fort Worth–Arlington Metro Division, 2,136,022; Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metro Area,…

  • Arliss, George (British actor)

    George Arliss, actor noted for his portrayal of historic personages in many motion pictures. Arliss began his acting career in 1887 but did not have his first substantial success until he appeared with Mrs. Patrick Campbell in London during the 1900–01 season. In 1902 he played in The Second Mrs.

  • Arlt, Roberto (Argentine author)

    Roberto Arlt, novelist, short-story writer, dramatist, and journalist who pioneered the novel of the absurd in Argentinian literature. A first-generation descendant of German immigrants, Arlt felt alienated from Argentine society. The world of his novels El juguete rabioso (1926; “The Rabid Toy”),

  • Arluck, Hyman (American composer)

    Harold Arlen, American composer, arranger, pianist, and vocalist who contributed such popular songs as “Over the Rainbow,” “Blues in the Night,” “Come Rain or Come Shine,” “I Love a Parade,” and “Stormy Weather” to Hollywood movies and Broadway musicals. Arlen was most prolific from 1929 through

  • ARM (South African company)

    Patrice Tlhopane Motsepe: …a successful multifaceted mining company, African Rainbow Minerals (ARM).

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