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  • Arisaema dracontium (herb)

    Arisaema: The green dragon, or dragonroot (A. dracontium), with leaves up to 25 cm in length on petioles up to 90 cm (35 inches) long, has an 8-centimetre-long greenish spathe, with an erect hood, surrounding a spadix that extends beyond the spathe by several times its length.

  • Arisaema fimbriatum (plant)

    Arisaema: A. fimbriatum, from the Malay Peninsula, has a tasseled spadix.

  • Arisaema speciosum (plant, Arisaema species)

    Arisaema: The curious cobra lily (A. speciosum), from Nepal and Sikkim state of India, has a slightly drooping spathe and a spadix decorated by a long threadlike extension. A. fimbriatum, from the Malay Peninsula, has a tasseled spadix.

  • Arisaema triphyllum (plant)

    Jack-in-the-pulpit, (species Arisaema triphyllum), a North American plant of the arum family (Araceae), noted for the unusual shape of its flower. The plant is native to wet woodlands and thickets from Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southward to Florida and Texas. It is a stoutish perennial, 1 to

  • Arise, My Love (film by Leisen [1940])

    Mitchell Leisen: Films of the 1940s: Another romantic comedy, Arise, My Love (1940), followed. Colbert starred as a war correspondent who rescues an incarcerated American pilot (Ray Milland) who has been serving in the Spanish Civil War. In France the two fall in love as Europe descends into World War II. Milland played a…

  • ?Arīsh, Al- (Egypt)

    Al-?Arīsh, town and largest settlement of the Sinai Peninsula in the northeastern section, on the Mediterranean coast, the capital of Egypt’s Shamāl Sīnā? (Northern Sinai) mu?āfa?ah (governorate). It was under Israeli military administration from 1967 until 1979, when it returned to Egyptian rule.

  • ?Arīsh, Convention of Al- (Egyptian history)

    Egypt: The French occupation and its consequences (1798–1805): …the Ottomans and by the Convention of Al-?Arīsh (January 24, 1800) agreed to evacuate Egypt. Sir Sydney Smith, the British naval commander in the eastern Mediterranean, sponsored the convention, but in this he had exceeded his powers and was instructed by his superior officer, Admiral Lord Keith, to require the…

  • Arish, El- (Egypt)

    Al-?Arīsh, town and largest settlement of the Sinai Peninsula in the northeastern section, on the Mediterranean coast, the capital of Egypt’s Shamāl Sīnā? (Northern Sinai) mu?āfa?ah (governorate). It was under Israeli military administration from 1967 until 1979, when it returned to Egyptian rule.

  • ?Arīsh, Wadi Al- (river, Egypt)

    Shamāl Sīnā?: Wadi Al-?Arīsh, a seasonal stream 155 miles (250 km) long, lies in the northeastern section of the governorate and empties into the Mediterranean Sea near Al-?Arīsh. Along the northern coast lies the large and brackish Bardawīl Lake (266 square miles [690 square km]); this lake…

  • Arishima Takeo (Japanese writer)

    Arishima Takeo, Japanese novelist known for his novel Aru onna (1919; A Certain Woman) and for his strong humanitarian views. Arishima was born into a talented and aristocratic family. His younger brothers included the painter Arishima Ikuma and the novelist Satomi Ton. He attended the Peers School

  • Arishtanemi (Jaina saint)

    Arishtanemi, the 22nd of the 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford-maker,” i.e., saviour) of Jainism, a traditional religion of India. While the last two Tirthanakaras may be considered historical personages, Arishtanemi is a legendary figure. Said to have lived 84,000 years before the coming of the next

  • Arista Records (American company)

    Thomas Middelhoff: …more than 50 countries, including Arista and RCA in the United States). In 2001 the firm gained a controlling interest in the Luxembourg-based RTL Group, Europe’s largest producer of radio, television, and movie content and operator of numerous radio and TV stations across the continent.

  • Arista, I?igo (Basque ruler)

    Kingdom of Navarre: History: …about 798 one of them, I?igo Arista, established himself as an independent ruler. For a time, I?igo accepted Frankish suzerainty, and by the time Garcia I?iguez took power in the late ninth century, this dynasty was strong enough to assume regal titles and to establish diplomatic and family relations with…

  • Aristaeus (Greek mythology)

    Aristaeus, in Greek mythology, divinity whose worship was widespread but concerning whom myths are somewhat obscure. The name is derived from the Greek aristos (“best”). Aristaeus was essentially a benevolent deity; he introduced the cultivation of bees and the vine and olive and was the protector

  • Aristagoras (tyrant of Miletus)

    Aristagoras, Tyrant of Miletus. He assumed his regency from his father-in-law, Histiaeus (d. 494 bc), who had lost the trust of the Persian emperor, Darius I. Possibly incited by Histiaeus, and with support from Athens and Eretria, Aristagoras raised the Ionian revolt against Persia. Defeated, he

  • Aristaneminatha (Jaina saint)

    Arishtanemi, the 22nd of the 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford-maker,” i.e., saviour) of Jainism, a traditional religion of India. While the last two Tirthanakaras may be considered historical personages, Arishtanemi is a legendary figure. Said to have lived 84,000 years before the coming of the next

  • Aristarain, Adolfo (Argentine director and screenwriter)

    Adolfo Aristarain, Argentine film director and screenwriter known for his filmic sophistication and subtle examination of issues of political oppression. Captivated by film from childhood, Aristarain eventually abandoned his studies and—while earning his living teaching English—devoted the rest of

  • aristarch (literature)

    Aristarch, a severe critic. The term is derived from the name of the Greek grammarian and critic Aristarchus, who was known for his harsh

  • Aristarchus (lunar crater)

    Moon: Effects of impacts and volcanism: …result is the great crater Aristarchus, with slumping terraces in its walls and a central peak. Aristarchus is about 40 km (25 miles) in diameter and 4 km (2.5 miles) deep.

  • Aristarchus of Samos (Greek astronomer)

    Aristarchus of Samos, Greek astronomer who maintained that Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun. On this ground, the Greek philosopher Cleanthes the Stoic declared in his Against Aristarchus that Aristarchus ought to be indicted for impiety “for putting into motion the hearth of

  • Aristarchus of Samothrace (Greek critic and grammarian)

    Aristarchus Of Samothrace, Greek critic and grammarian, noted for his contribution to Homeric studies. Aristarchus settled in Alexandria, where he was a pupil of Aristophanes of Byzantium, and, c. 153 bc, became chief librarian there. Later he withdrew to Cyprus. He founded a school of

  • Aristeas (ancient Egyptian official)

    Letter of Aristeas: …because it was addressed by Aristeas to his brother Philocrates. The narrative draws upon a wide variety of sources: a report on Egyptian Jews from official archives, texts of Ptolemaic legal decrees, administrative memoranda preserved in royal files or in the Alexandria library, accounts of pilgrimages to Jerusalem, a treatise…

  • Aristeas, Letter of

    Letter of Aristeas, pseudepigraphal work of pseudo-history produced in Alexandria, probably in the mid-2nd century bc, to promote the cause of Judaism. Though the size and prestige of the Jewish community had already secured for itself a definite place in Alexandrian society and serious

  • Aristeides the Just (Greek statesman)

    Aristides The Just, Athenian statesman and general and founder of the Delian League, which developed into the Athenian Empire. Little is known of Aristides’ early life. He appears to have been prominent within the party that favoured resistance to Persia, but in 482 he was ostracized, probably

  • Aristida (plant genus)

    Africa: Desert vegetation: Aristida is the dominant grass, and for brief periods it can yield a nutritious forage called ashab.

  • Aristide, Jean-Bertrand (president of Haiti)

    Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Haitian politician and Roman Catholic priest of the Salesian order, who was a vocal champion of the poor and disenfranchised. He was president of the country in 1991, 1994–96, and 2001–04. Aristide attended a school in Port-au-Prince run by the Roman Catholic Salesian order,

  • Aristides (Athenian philosopher)

    Aristides, Athenian philosopher, one of the earliest Christian Apologists, his Apology for the Christian Faith being one of the oldest extant Apologist documents. Known primarily through a reference by the 4th-century historian Eusebius of Caesarea, Aristides addressed his Apology either to the

  • Aristides (racehorse)

    Kentucky Derby: History: …that day) was won by Aristides. The track’s famed grandstand, completed in 1895, is crowned by twin spires that have become a recognized emblem of the Kentucky Derby and Churchill Downs.

  • Aristides of Miletus (Greek author)

    Greek literature: Late forms of prose: …the lost Milesian Tales of Aristides of Miletus (c. 100 bc), though these last appear to have depended on a pornographic interest that is almost completely absent from the Greek romances. Only fragments survive of the Ninus romance (dealing with the love of Ninus, legendary founder of Nineveh), which was…

  • Aristides Quintilianus (Greek author)

    Aristides Quintilianus, Greek author of the treatise Perì musikē (De musica, “On Music”). This three-volume work constitutes one of the principal sources of modern knowledge of ancient Greek music and its relationship to other disciplines. In the opening of book 1, the author compares music to

  • Aristides the Just (Greek statesman)

    Aristides The Just, Athenian statesman and general and founder of the Delian League, which developed into the Athenian Empire. Little is known of Aristides’ early life. He appears to have been prominent within the party that favoured resistance to Persia, but in 482 he was ostracized, probably

  • Aristides, Aelius (Greek rhetorician)

    panegyric: In the 2nd century ad, Aelius Aristides, a Greek rhetorician, combined praise of famous cities with eulogy of the reigning Roman emperor. By his time panegyric had probably become specialized in the latter connection and was, therefore, related to the old Roman custom of celebrating at festivals the glories of…

  • Aristippus (Greek philosopher)

    Aristippus, philosopher who was one of Socrates’ disciples and the founder of the Cyrenaic school of hedonism, the ethic of pleasure. The first of Socrates’ disciples to demand a salary for teaching philosophy, Aristippus believed that the good life rests upon the belief that among human values

  • Aristippus, or The Joviall Philosopher (work by Randolph)

    Thomas Randolph: Two of Randolph’s university plays—Aristippus; or, The Joviall Philosopher and The Conceited Pedlar, both comedies—were performed at Cambridge and were published in 1630. Aristippus is a debate about the relative virtues of ale and sack, full of the terms of Aristotelian logic and innumerable puns drawn from Randolph’s Classical…

  • Aristo of Chios (Greek philosopher)

    Ariston Of Chios, Greek philosopher who studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy; he combined Stoic and Cynic ideas in shaping his own beliefs. Ariston believed that the only topic of genuine value in philosophy is the study of ethics and went even further in claiming t

  • Aristo of Pella (Christian apologist)

    patristic literature: The Apologists: …names known to scholars are Aristo of Pella, the first to prepare an apology to counter Jewish objections, and Apollinaris, bishop of Hierapolis, said to be the author of numerous apologetic works and also of a critique of Montanism. An early apology that has survived intact is that of Aristides,…

  • Aristobulus I (king of Judaea)

    Aristobulus I, Hasmonean (Maccabean) Hellenized king of Judaea (104–103 bc). The son of Hyrcanus I, he broke his late father’s will and seized the throne from his mother and jailed or killed his brothers. According to the historian Josephus, Aristobulus conquered the Ituraeans of Lebanon and

  • Aristobulus II (king of Judaea)

    Aristobulus II, last of the Hasmonean (Maccabean) kings of Judaea. On the death (67 bc) of his mother, Salome Alexandra, he succeeded to the throne, defeating his brother and rival, John Hyrcanus II (q.v.). When Hyrcanus sought help from the Nabataeans, the Romans under Pompey intervened and

  • Aristobulus of Paneas (Jewish philosopher)

    Aristobulus Of Paneas, Jewish Hellenistic philosopher who, like his successor, Philo, attempted to fuse ideas in the Hebrew Scriptures with those in Greek thought. Aristobulus lived at Alexandria in Egypt, under the Ptolemies. According to some Christian church fathers, he was a Peripatetic, but he

  • aristocracy

    Aristocracy, government by a relatively small privileged class or by a minority consisting of those felt to be best qualified to rule. As conceived by the Greek philosophers Plato (c. 428/427–348/347 bce) and Aristotle (384–322 bce), aristocracy means the rule of the few best—the morally and

  • Aristodemus (Greek rhetorician)

    Strabo: …was the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, a former tutor of the sons of Pompey (106–48 bce) in Nysa (now Sultanhisar in Turkey) on the Maeander (now Menderes) River. He moved to Rome in 44 bce to study with Tyrannion, the former tutor of Cicero, and with Xenarchus, both of whom…

  • Aristogeiton (Greek tyrannicide)

    Harmodius and Aristogeiton: Aristogeiton, (died 514 bce), the tyrannoktonoi, or “tyrannicides,” who, according to popular but erroneous legend, freed Athens from the Peisistratid tyrants. They were celebrated in drinking songs as the deliverers of the city, their descendants were entitled to free hospitality in the prytaneion (“town hall”),…

  • Aristolochia (plant genus)

    Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia includes more than 400 species of vines and herbs, many of them tropical. The calyx (outer part of the flower) is three-lobed. The flowers of some species lack petals, while those of others are large and foul-smelling. North American species include Virginia snakeroot (Aristolochia…

  • Aristolochia clematitis (plant)

    Aristolochiaceae: The European birthwort (A. clematitis) bears pale yellow trumpet-shaped flowers in clusters of two to eight. The plant has heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed edges and pear-shaped hanging fruits. The plant is poisonous, but an extract from it has been used in the past to facilitate…

  • Aristolochia durior (plant)

    Dutchman’s-pipe, (Aristolochia durior), climbing vine of the birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae), native to central and eastern North America. The heart-shaped or kidney-shaped leaves are about 15 to 35 cm (about 6 to 14 inches) wide. The yellowish brown or purplish brown tubular flowers resemble a

  • Aristolochiaceae (plant family)

    Aristolochiaceae, birthwort family (order Piperales), which contains seven genera and about 590 species of mostly tropical woody vines and a few temperate-zone species. Several species are important as herbal medicines, and a number are grown as ornamentals or curiosities. Phylogenetic evidence has

  • Aristomenes (Greek hero)

    Aristomenes, traditional hero of an unsuccessful revolt against the Spartans by the Messenians, who had been enslaved by Sparta in the 8th century bc. Although Aristomenes is probably a historical figure, his career has been heavily overlaid with legend; the standard version makes him a leader of

  • Ariston of Alexandria (Greek logician)

    history of logic: Syllogisms: …have been first recognized by Ariston of Alexandria (c. 50 bce). In the Middle Ages they were called “subalternate” moods. Disregarding them, there are 4 valid moods in each of the first two figures, 6 in the third figure, and 5 in the fourth. Aristotle recognized all 19 of them.

  • Ariston of Chios (Greek philosopher)

    Ariston Of Chios, Greek philosopher who studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy; he combined Stoic and Cynic ideas in shaping his own beliefs. Ariston believed that the only topic of genuine value in philosophy is the study of ethics and went even further in claiming t

  • Aristophanes (Greek dramatist)

    Aristophanes, the greatest representative of ancient Greek comedy and the one whose works have been preserved in greatest quantity. He is the only extant representative of the Old Comedy—that is, of the phase of comic dramaturgy (c. 5th century bce) in which chorus, mime, and burlesque still played

  • Aristophanes of Byzantium (Greek critic and grammarian)

    Aristophanes Of Byzantium, Greek literary critic and grammarian who, after early study under leading scholars in Alexandria, was chief librarian there c. 195 bc. Aristophanes was the producer of a text of Homer and also edited Hesiod’s Theogony, Alcaeus, Pindar, Euripides, Aristophanes, and perhaps

  • Aristophanic comedy (Greek theatre)

    Old Comedy, initial phase of ancient Greek comedy (c. 5th century bc), known through the works of Aristophanes. Old Comedy plays are characterized by an exuberant and high-spirited satire of public persons and affairs. Composed of song, dance, personal invective, and buffoonery, the plays also

  • Aristos: A Self-Portrait in Ideas, The (work by Fowles)

    John Fowles: This was followed by The Aristos: A Self-Portrait in Ideas (1964), a collection of essays reflecting Fowles’s views on such subjects as evolution, art, and politics. He returned to fiction with The Magus (1965, rev. ed. 1977; filmed 1968). Set on a Greek island, the book centres on an…

  • Aristoteles (Greek philosopher)

    Aristotle, ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the

  • Aristotelian criticism

    literary criticism: Antiquity: …of all discussions of literature—Aristotle countered Plato’s indictment by stressing what is normal and useful about literary art. The tragic poet is not so much divinely inspired as he is motivated by a universal human need to imitate, and what he imitates is not something like a bed (Plato’s…

  • Aristotelianism

    Aristotelianism, the philosophy of Aristotle and of those later philosophical movements based on his thought. The extent to which Aristotelian thought has become a component of civilization can hardly be overestimated. To begin, there are certain words that have become indispensable for the

  • Aristotle (work by Randall)

    John Herman Randall, Jr.: In his Aristotle (1960) Randall again placed Aristotle’s thought into its own historical context and drew out its implications and relevance for modern man. His other works include The School of Padua and the Emergence of Modern Science (1961), The Role of Knowledge in Western Religion (1958),…

  • Aristotle (Greek philosopher)

    Aristotle, ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the

  • Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (painting by Rembrandt)

    Sotheby's: …three years later, when Rembrandt’s Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer was purchased by New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art for $2.3 million.

  • Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (painting by Rembrandt)

    Sotheby's: …three years later, when Rembrandt’s Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer was purchased by New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art for $2.3 million.

  • Aristotle’s lantern (anatomy)

    echinoderm: Symmetry and body form: …of plates and muscles called Aristotle’s lantern.

  • Aristoxenus (Greek philosopher)

    Aristoxenus, Greek Peripatetic philosopher, the first authority for musical theory in the classical world. Aristoxenus was born at Tarentum (now Taranto) in southern Italy and studied in Athens under Aristotle and Theophrastus. He was interested in ethics as well as in music and wrote much, but

  • Arita (Japan)

    Japanese pottery: Edo period (1603–1867): …in the Izumi Mountain near Arita (Saga prefecture); this version is feasible since no porcelain made before the end of the 16th century has been identified.

  • Arita ware (Japanese porcelain)

    Imari ware, Japanese porcelain made at the Arita kilns in Hizen province. Among the Arita porcelains are white glazed wares, pale gray-blue or gray-green glazed wares known as celadons, black wares, and blue-and-white wares with underglaze painting, as well as overglaze enamels. Following the late

  • arithmancy (symbolism)

    number symbolism: Arithmomancy: Arithmomancy, also called arithmancy, from the Greek arithmos (“number”) and manteia (“divination”), was practiced by the ancient Greeks, Chaldeans, and Hebrews; its successor is numerology. In these forms of number mysticism the letters of an alphabet are assigned numbers by some rule, typically A…

  • arithmetic

    Arithmetic, branch of mathematics in which numbers, relations among numbers, and observations on numbers are studied and used to solve problems. Arithmetic (a term derived from the Greek word arithmos, “number”) refers generally to the elementary aspects of the theory of numbers, arts of

  • arithmetic function

    Arithmetic function, any mathematical function defined for integers (…, ?3, ?2, ?1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …) and dependent upon those properties of the integer itself as a number, in contrast to functions that are defined for other values (real numbers, complex numbers, or even other functions) and that

  • arithmetic geometry

    Jean-Pierre Serre: …into a separate subclass called arithmetic geometry. He was one of the second generation of members of Nicolas Bourbaki (publishing pseudonym for a group of mathematicians) and a source of inspiration for fellow medalists Alexandre Grothendieck and Pierre Deligne.

  • Arithmetic Machine (technology)

    Pascaline, the first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used. The Pascaline was designed and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between 1642 and 1644. It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating

  • arithmetic mean

    mean: The arithmetic mean, denoted x, of a set of n numbers x1, x2, …, xn is defined as the sum of the numbers divided by n:

  • Arithmetic of Infinities (work by Wallis)

    John Wallis: In his Arithmetica Infinitorum (“The Arithmetic of Infinitesimals”) of 1655, the result of his interest in Torricelli’s work, Wallis extended Cavalieri’s law of quadrature by devising a way to include negative and fractional exponents; thus he did not follow Cavalieri’s geometric approach and instead assigned numerical values…

  • arithmetic operation (mathematics)

    East Asian mathematics: The Nine Chapters: …how to perform the four arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. In it the numbers are written in Chinese characters, but, for most of the procedures described, the actual computations are intended to be performed on a surface, perhaps on the ground. Most probably, as can be inferred…

  • arithmetic progression

    Endre Szemerédi: …mathematics is a theorem about arithmetic progressions. The theorem, which became known as Szemerédi’s theorem, proved a 1936 conjecture by Erd?s and Hungarian mathematician Paul Turán. In number theory, an arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers that proceeds in steps of the same amount. For example, 2, 4, 6,…

  • arithmetic sequence (mathematics)

    mathematics: Numerical calculation: …called the base) and the arithmetic sequence 1, 2, 3,…and interpolating to fractional values, it is possible to reduce the problem of multiplication and division to one of addition and subtraction. To do this Napier chose a base that was very close to 1, differing from it by only 1/107.…

  • arithmetic, fundamental theorem of

    Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Fundamental principle of number theory proved by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1801. It states that any integer greater than 1 can be expressed as the product of prime numbers in only one

  • arithmetic-logic unit (computer)

    computer science: Architecture and organization: …of a control unit, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a memory unit, and input/output (I/O) controllers. The ALU performs simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and logic operations, such as OR and AND. The memory stores the program’s instructions and data. The control unit fetches data and instructions from memory and…

  • Arithmetica (work by Diophantus)

    Diophantus: …of Diophantus reposes, is his Arithmetica. Its historical importance is twofold: it is the first known work to employ algebra in a modern style, and it inspired the rebirth of number theory.

  • Arithmetica Infinitorum (work by Wallis)

    John Wallis: In his Arithmetica Infinitorum (“The Arithmetic of Infinitesimals”) of 1655, the result of his interest in Torricelli’s work, Wallis extended Cavalieri’s law of quadrature by devising a way to include negative and fractional exponents; thus he did not follow Cavalieri’s geometric approach and instead assigned numerical values…

  • Arithmetica Logarithmica (work by Briggs)

    Henry Briggs: The Arithmetica Logarithmica (“Common Logarithms”), published in 1624, advertised the utility of logarithms in expediting calculations. In addition to tables of logarithms from 1 to 20,000 and from 90,000 to 100,000 calculated to 14 decimal places, an extended preface provided ample testimony of Briggs’s originality. The…

  • arithmetical magic square

    magic square: In the arithmetical magic squares, the numbers are generally placed in separate cells and arranged so that each column, every row, and the two main diagonals can produce the same sum, called the constant. A standard magic square of any given number contains the sequence of natural…

  • Arithmētikē eisagōgē (work by Nicomachus)

    Nicomachus of Gerasa: …who wrote Arithmētikē eisagōgē (Introduction to Arithmetic), an influential treatise on number theory. Considered a standard authority for 1,000 years, the book sets out the elementary theory and properties of numbers and contains the earliest-known Greek multiplication table.

  • arithmomancy (symbolism)

    number symbolism: Arithmomancy: Arithmomancy, also called arithmancy, from the Greek arithmos (“number”) and manteia (“divination”), was practiced by the ancient Greeks, Chaldeans, and Hebrews; its successor is numerology. In these forms of number mysticism the letters of an alphabet are assigned numbers by some rule, typically A…

  • Arithmometer (calculating machine)

    Arithmometer, early calculating machine, built in 1820 by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France. Whereas earlier calculating machines, such as Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline in France and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz’s Step Reckoner in Germany, were mere curiosities, with the Industrial Revolution

  • aritmetica della storia, L’? (work by Ferrari)

    Giuseppe Ferrari: …at his death was writing L’aritmetica della storia, in which he set forth the mechanistic view that history was statistically determined both in manner and in time.

  • Arius (river, Central Asia)

    Harīrūd, river, Central Asia. It rises on the western slopes of the rugged Selseleh-ye Kūh-e Bābā range, an outlier of the Hindu Kush mountains, in central Afghanistan. Flowing west past Chaghcharān and the ancient city of Herāt (whence its name is derived), then north, it forms sections of the

  • Arius (Christian priest)

    Arius, Christian priest whose teachings gave rise to a theological doctrine known as Arianism. Arianism affirmed a created, finite nature of Christ rather than equal divinity with God the Father and was denounced by the early church as a major heresy. An ascetical moral leader of a Christian

  • ariya (Buddhism)

    Ariya-puggala, (Pali: “noble person”) in Theravada Buddhism, a person who has attained one of the four levels of holiness. A first type of holy person, called a sotapanna-puggala (“stream-winner”), is one who will attain nibbana (Sanskrit nirvana)—release (moksha) from the cycle of death and

  • ariya-puggala (Buddhism)

    Ariya-puggala, (Pali: “noble person”) in Theravada Buddhism, a person who has attained one of the four levels of holiness. A first type of holy person, called a sotapanna-puggala (“stream-winner”), is one who will attain nibbana (Sanskrit nirvana)—release (moksha) from the cycle of death and

  • ?ārīyah (Islamic law)

    ?ārīyah, (Arabic: “gratuitous loan”), in Islāmic law, the gratuitous loan of some object—e.g., a utensil, a tool, or a work animal—to another person for a specific period of time, after which the object is returned to the lender. The recipient is required under law to restore the object after use.

  • Ariyaramna (king of Persia)

    Ariaramnes, early Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned c. 640–c. 615). The son of the previous king, Teispes, Ariaramnes ruled over Persis (modern Fārs, in southwestern Iran); his brother Cyrus I was given control of Anshan in Elam, north of the Persian Gulf. A campaign by the Medes, however, broke

  • Ariyoshi Sawako (Japanese author)

    Ariyoshi Sawako, Japanese novelist, short-story writer, and playwright who reached a popular audience with serialized novels of social realism that chronicled domestic life in Japan. Ariyoshi studied literature and theatre at the Tokyo Women’s Christian College from 1949 to 1952. After graduation

  • Arizin, Paul (American basketball player)

    Paul Arizin, (“Pitchin’ Paul”), American basketball player (born April 9, 1928, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Dec. 12, 2006, Philadelphia), was a jump-shot specialist who was hailed in 1996 as one of the 50 greatest players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). During his 10 years (1950–52 and 1

  • Arizona (film by Ruggles [1940])

    Wesley Ruggles: Later films: …returned for the popular western Arizona (1940), portraying a determined woman who heads west to start a cattle ranch; William Holden played her love interest. Less successful was You Belong to Me (1941), a screwball romance that starred Henry Fonda and Barbara Stanwyck. Marginally better was the glossy wartime romance…

  • Arizona (state, United States)

    Arizona, constituent state of the United States of America. Arizona is the sixth largest state in the country in terms of area. Its population has always been predominantly urban, particularly since the mid-20th century, when urban and suburban areas began growing rapidly at the expense of the

  • Arizona (United States ship)

    USS Arizona, U.S. battleship that sank during the Japanese attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Oahu island, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. More than 1,170 crewmen were killed. The Arizona is commemorated by a concrete memorial that spans the wreckage. The Arizona was built at the naval yard in

  • Arizona Cardinals (American football team)

    Arizona Cardinals, American professional gridiron football team based in Phoenix. The Cardinals are the oldest team in the National Football League (NFL), but they are also one of the least successful franchises in league history, having won just two NFL championships (1925 and 1947) since the

  • Arizona City (Arizona, United States)

    Yuma, city, seat (1871) of Yuma county, southwestern Arizona, U.S. It is situated on the Colorado River at the mouth of the Gila River, just north of the Mexican frontier. Founded in 1854 as Colorado City, it was renamed Arizona City (1862) and Yuma (1873), probably from the Spanish word humo,

  • Arizona coral snake

    coral snake: The Arizona coral snake (Micruroides euryxanthus) is a small (40–50-cm) inhabitant of the American Southwest. The rhyme “Red on yellow, kill a fellow, red on black, venom lack” distinguishes coral snakes from similar North American snakes. There are 50 genera of coral snake mimics such as…

  • Arizona cottontop (plant)

    crabgrass: Arizona cottontop (D. californica) is a useful forage grass in southwestern North America.

  • Arizona Coyotes (American hockey team)

    Arizona Coyotes, American professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona, that plays in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). As the Winnipeg Jets, the franchise won three World Hockey Association (WHA) titles (1976, 1978, and 1979). The franchise, a founding member

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