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  • Argo (work by Theotokis)

    Greek literature: Literature after 1922: …trenches in World War I; Argo (2 vol., 1933 and 1936) by Yórgos Theotokás, about a group of students attempting to find their way through life in the turbulent 1920s; and Eroica (1937) by Kosmás Polítis, about the first encounter of a group of well-to-do schoolboys with love and death.

  • Argo (submersible)

    Titanic: Discovery and legacy: …a means for testing the Argo, a 16-foot (5-metre) submersible sled equipped with a remote-controlled camera that could transmit live images to a monitor. The submersible was sent some 13,000 feet (4,000 metres) to the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, sending video back to the Knorr. On September 1, 1985,…

  • Argo (legendary ship)

    Mount Pelion: The ship Argo of the Argonauts allegedly was built of wood from the mountain’s trees.

  • Argo (film by Affleck [2012])

    Argo, American political thriller, released in 2012, that was based on events that took place during the 1979–81 Iran hostage crisis. It centres on several U.S. embassy workers who escaped the hostage takers, took refuge with Canadian diplomats, and were able to escape the country disguised as a

  • Argobba language

    Ethio-Semitic languages: …northern Ethiopia and central Eritrea; Argobba; Hareri; and Gurage. Although some scholars once considered the so-called Ethiopic languages to be a branch within Semitic, these languages are now referred to as Ethio-Semitic. They are generally grouped together with the dialects of the South Arabic language as Southern Peripheral Semitic or…

  • Argolikós Kólpos (gulf, Greece)

    Gulf of Argolís, deep inlet of the Mirtó?n Sea, a western arm of the Aegean, eastern Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos), Greece; it is separated from the Gulf of Saronikós by the Argolís peninsula. Some 30 miles (50 km) long and 20 miles (30 km) wide, it includes some small islands off the

  • Argolís (regional unit, Greece)

    Argolís, perifereiakí enótita (regional unit), periféreia (region) of Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos), southern Greece. It is a narrow, mountainous peninsula projecting eastward into the Aegean Sea between the Saronikós Gulf (to the northeast) and the Gulf of Argolís (Argolikós Kólpos; to

  • Argolís, Gulf of (gulf, Greece)

    Gulf of Argolís, deep inlet of the Mirtó?n Sea, a western arm of the Aegean, eastern Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos), Greece; it is separated from the Gulf of Saronikós by the Argolís peninsula. Some 30 miles (50 km) long and 20 miles (30 km) wide, it includes some small islands off the

  • argon (chemical element)

    Argon (Ar), chemical element, inert gas of Group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table, terrestrially the most abundant and industrially the most frequently used of the noble gases. Colourless, odourless, and tasteless, argon gas was isolated (1894) from air by the British scientists Lord Rayleigh

  • argon-40 (isotope)

    argon: The production of argon-40 from potassium-40 decay is utilized as a means of determining Earth’s age (potassium-argon dating).

  • argon-40-argon-39 dating (geochronology)

    dating: Potassium–argon methods: …this technique, known as the argon-40–argon-39 method, both parent and daughter can be determined in the mass spectrometer as some of the potassium atoms in the sample are first converted to argon-39 in a nuclear reactor. In this way, the problem of measuring the potassium in inhomogeneous samples is eliminated…

  • argon-oxygen decarburization (metallurgy)

    stainless steel: In the argon-oxygen decarburization process, a mixture of oxygen and argon gas is injected into the liquid steel. By varying the ratio of oxygen and argon, it is possible to remove carbon to controlled levels by oxidizing it to carbon monoxide without also oxidizing and losing expensive…

  • argonaut (cephalopod)

    nautilus: The paper nautilus is usually found near the surface of tropical and subtropical seas feeding on plankton; the females differ from other members of the order Octopoda in that they can secrete a thin, unchambered, coiled shell, formed by large flaps, or membranes, on the dorsal…

  • Argonaut (proto-submarine)

    Argonaut, first submarine to navigate extensively in the open sea, built in 1897 by the American engineer and naval architect Simon Lake. Designed to send out divers rather than to sink ships, the Argonaut was fitted with wheels for travel on the bottom of the sea and had an airtight chamber with

  • Argonaut (Greek mythology)

    Argonaut, in Greek legend, any of a band of 50 heroes who went with Jason in the ship Argo to fetch the Golden Fleece. Jason’s uncle Pelias had usurped the throne of Iolcos in Thessaly, which rightfully belonged to Jason’s father, Aeson. Pelias promised to surrender his kingship to Jason if the

  • Argonaut (United States long-range submarine)

    submarine: World War II: …first large long-range submarine, the Argonaut. Completed in 1928, it was 381 feet long, displaced 2,710 tons on the surface, was armed with two six-inch guns and four forward torpedo tubes, and could carry 60 mines. The Argonaut, the largest nonnuclear submarine ever built by the U.S. Navy, led to…

  • Argonaut Rose (poetry by Wakoski)

    Diane Wakoski: …City of Las Vegas (1995), Argonaut Rose (1998), Bay of Angels (2013), and Lady of Light (2018). The Butcher’s Apron (2000) features poems about food. Wakoski also published several essay collections.

  • Argonaut, Jr. (submarine)

    Simon Lake: Lake’s first experimental submarine, the “Argonaut, Jr.,” built in 1894, had a wooden hull and was about 14 feet (4 metres) long. It travelled the sea bottom on wheels turned by hand. The “Argonaut,” built in 1897, was 36 feet (11 metres) long and was powered by a 30-horsepower gasoline…

  • Argonauta (cephalopod)

    nautilus: The paper nautilus is usually found near the surface of tropical and subtropical seas feeding on plankton; the females differ from other members of the order Octopoda in that they can secrete a thin, unchambered, coiled shell, formed by large flaps, or membranes, on the dorsal…

  • Argonauta argos (cephalopod)

    Jeanne Villepreux-Power: …research on the paper nautilus Argonauta argo, a cephalopod that resembles members of the genus Octopus in most respects.

  • Argonautica (work by Valerius Flaccus)

    Gaius Valerius Flaccus: …epic poet, author of an Argonautica, an epic which, though indebted to other sources, is written with vivid characterizations and descriptions and style unmarred by the excesses of other Latin poetry of the Silver Age.

  • Argonautica (work by Apollonius of Rhodes)

    Apollonius of Rhodes: …was the author of the Argonautica.

  • Argonauts of the Western Pacific (work by Malinowski)

    magic: Sociological theories: …lesser extent by Malinowski in Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922) and Magic, Science and Religion (1925). Radcliffe-Brown posited that the function of magic was to express the social importance of the desired event, while Malinowski regarded magic as directly and essentially concerned with the psychological needs of the individual.

  • Argonne (region, France)

    Argonne, wooded, hilly region in eastern France that forms a natural barrier between Champagne and Lorraine. The Argonne is about 40 miles long and 10 miles wide (65 by 15 km). The hilly massif rarely exceeds 650 feet (200 m) in elevation but is slashed with numerous deep valleys formed by

  • Argonne National Laboratory (laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States)

    Argonne National Laboratory, the first U.S. national research laboratory, located in Argonne, Illinois, some 40 km (25 miles) southwest of Chicago, and operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was founded in 1946 to conduct basic nuclear physics research and to

  • Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (particle accelerator)

    Argonne National Laboratory: …Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS), and the High-Voltage Electron Microscope- (HVEM-) Tandem Facility—have been designated official U.S. Department of Energy National User Facilities.

  • Argonz-del Castillo syndrome (pathology)

    galactorrhea: …been pregnant is termed the Ahumada–del Castillo, or the Argonz–del Castillo, syndrome. Such galactorrhea appears to result from excesses of secretion from the pituitary eosinophils.

  • Argophyllaceae (plant family)

    Asterales: Other families: The two genera of Argophyllaceae have a total of 20 species of small trees and shrubs native to Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia. There are 12 species of trees in the single genus of Phellinaceae, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia.

  • árgos (Greece)

    árgos, city, seat of the dímos (municipality) of Argos-Mykínes in the northeastern portion of the periféreia (region) of Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos), Greece. It lies just north of the head of the Gulf of Argolís (Argolikós Kólpos). The name árgos apparently signified an agricultural

  • argot (linguistics)

    slang: …States, is more often called argot. The term dialect refers to language characteristic of a certain geographic area or social class.

  • Argovie (canton, Switzerland)

    Aargau, canton, northern Switzerland. It borders Germany to the north and is bounded by the demicanton of Basel-Landschaft and by the cantons of Solothurn and Bern to the west, Lucerne to the south, and Zug and Zürich to the east. It forms the northeastern section of the great Swiss Plateau between

  • Arguedas Mendieta, Antonio (Bolivian politician)

    Antonio Arguedas Mendieta, Bolivian political leader (born 1929?, Bolivia—died Feb. 22, 2000, La Paz, Bol.), rose to become Bolivia’s minister of the interior during the 1964–69 military dictatorship of Gen. René Barrientos; recruited by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in 1965, he aided e

  • Arguedas, Alcides (Bolivian author)

    Alcides Arguedas, Bolivian novelist, journalist, sociologist, historian, and diplomat whose sociological and historical studies and realistic novels were among the first to focus attention on the social and economic problems of the South American Indian. Arguedas studied sociology in Paris and

  • Arguedas, José María (Peruvian author)

    José María Arguedas, Peruvian novelist, short-story writer, and ethnologist whose writings capture the contrasts between the white and Indian cultures. Arguedas’s father was an itinerant judge. His mother, from a locally prominent family, died when he was only three years old. He was raised in part

  • Arguello, Alexis (Nicaraguan boxer and politician)

    Alexis Arguello, Nicaraguan professional boxer who was world featherweight, junior lightweight, and lightweight champion between 1974 and 1982. Arguello, who became a professional fighter in 1968, fought only in his homeland until 1974, when he went to Panama to seek the World Boxing Association’s

  • Arguin Island (island, Mauritania)

    Arguin Island, island off the coast of Mauritania; it lies about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Cape Blanc, in a sheltered Atlantic inlet (Arguin Bay). The island (4 by 2.5 miles [6 by 4 km]) was incorporated into the newly independent Mauritania in 1960. Aridity and poor anchorage have prevented

  • Arguloida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Order Arguloida (fish lice) Wide, flat carapace; paired compound eyes; unsegmented abdomen; 4 pairs of trunk limbs; fish parasites; capable of free swimming; mostly freshwater but some marine; about 125 species. ?Subclass Skaracarida Late Cambrian; 12 trunk segments; no thoracic appendages apart from maxillipeds.

  • argument (of a function)

    formal logic: Basic features of PC: …more given propositions, called the arguments of the operator. The operators ~, ·, ∨, ?, and ≡ correspond respectively to the English expressions “not,” “and,” “or,” “if …, then” (or “implies”), and “is equivalent to,” when these are used in the following senses:

  • argument (logic)

    Argument, in logic, reasons that support a conclusion, sometimes formulated so that the conclusion is deduced from premises. Erroneous arguments are called fallacies in logic (see fallacy). In mathematics, an argument is a variable in the domain of a function and usually appears symbolically in

  • Argument Against Abolishing Christianity (work by Swift)

    English literature: Swift: The Argument Against Abolishing Christianity (1708), for instance, offers brilliant ironic annotations on the “Church in Danger” controversy through the carefully assumed voice of a “nominal” Christian. That similar techniques could be adapted to serve specific political goals is demonstrated by The Drapier’s Letters (1724–25), part…

  • argument from design (philosophy)

    Argument from design, Argument for the existence of God. According to one version, the universe as a whole is like a machine; machines have intelligent designers; like effects have like causes; therefore, the universe as a whole has an intelligent designer, which is God. The argument was propounded

  • argument of the perihelion (astronomy)

    celestial mechanics: Perturbations of elliptical motion: Angle ω (called the argument of perihelion) is the angular distance from the ascending node to the perihelion measured in the orbit plane.

  • Arguments for Socialism (work by Benn)

    Tony Benn: …ideas in a book called Arguments for Socialism (1979). Benn believed that Britain’s consensus-based, Keynesian, managed welfare state economy had collapsed. The “democratic socialism” that he advocated would involve a large measure of public investment, public expenditure, and public ownership combined with self-management in the workplace, along with open (as…

  • argumentum ad baculum (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: …so, and (f) the argument ad baculum (an appeal “to force”), which rests on a threatened or implied use of force to induce acceptance of its conclusion. (4) The fallacy of circular argument, known as petitio principii (“begging the question”), occurs when the premises presume, openly or covertly, the very…

  • argumentum ad hominem (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: …include ( a) the argument ad hominem (speaking “against the man” rather than to the issue), in which the premises may only make a personal attack on a person who holds some thesis, instead of offering grounds showing why what he says is false, ( b) the argument ad populum…

  • argumentum ad ignorantiam (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: …respect, ( e) the argument ad ignorantiam (an appeal “to ignorance”), which argues that something (e.g., extrasensory perception) is so since no one has shown that it is not so, and (f) the argument ad baculum (an appeal “to force”), which rests on a threatened or implied use of force…

  • argumentum ad misericordiam (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: …injustice, ( c) the argument ad misericordiam (an appeal “to pity”), as when a trial lawyer, rather than arguing for his client’s innocence, tries to move the jury to sympathy for him, (d) the argument ad verecundiam (an appeal “to awe”), which seeks to secure acceptance of the conclusion on…

  • argumentum ad populum (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: …false, ( b) the argument ad populum (an appeal “to the people”), which, instead of offering logical reasons, appeals to such popular attitudes as the dislike of injustice, ( c) the argument ad misericordiam (an appeal “to pity”), as when a trial lawyer, rather than arguing for his client’s innocence,…

  • argumentum ad verecundiam (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: …for him, (d) the argument ad verecundiam (an appeal “to awe”), which seeks to secure acceptance of the conclusion on the grounds of its endorsement by persons whose views are held in general respect, ( e) the argument ad ignorantiam (an appeal “to ignorance”), which argues that something (e.g., extrasensory…

  • Argun River (river, Asia)

    Argun River, river rising in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, on the western slope of the Greater Khingan Range, where it is known as the Hailar River. Its length is 1,007 miles (1,620 km), of which about 600 miles (965 km) form the boundary between China and Russia. Near Luoguhe, the

  • Argungu (Nigeria)

    Argungu, town and traditional emirate, Kebbi state, northwestern Nigeria. The town is on the Sokoto (Kebbi) River and lies at the intersection of roads from Birnin Kebbi, Gwandu, Sokoto town, Augi, and Kaingiwa. The town is a collecting point for tobacco, grown in the surrounding riverine

  • Argus (Greek mythology)

    Argus, figure in Greek legend described variously as the son of Inachus, Agenor, or Arestor or as an aboriginal hero (autochthon). His byname derives from the hundred eyes in his head or all over his body, as he is often depicted on Athenian red-figure pottery from the late 6th century bc. Argus

  • Argus (ship)

    Argus, the first true aircraft carrier. Construction of the Argus began in 1914, and initially it was an Italian liner; it was purchased in 1916 by the British Royal Navy and converted, work being completed in September 1918. The Argus had an unobstructed flight deck about 560 feet (170.7 metres)

  • Argus Corp. (corporation)

    Conrad Black: …1978 Black assumed control of Argus Corp., an investment holding corporation in which his father was a major shareholder. At the time, Argus held controlling interests in several Canadian corporations, including Hollinger Mines, Dominion Stores (a grocery chain), Standard Broadcasting, and Massey Ferguson (a farm equipment company). Wishing to reposition…

  • argus fish (fish)

    scat: …best-known species, the scat, or argus fish (S. argus), is a popular freshwater aquarium fish when small. Scats commonly reach a length of 30 cm (1 foot). The young are colourful little fish with reddish or greenish bodies dotted with black spots, but the adults gradually lose their bright colours…

  • argus pheasant (bird)

    pheasant: The argus pheasants, of southeastern Asia, carry long feathers covered with “eyes.” Two distinct types are known: the crested argus, or ocellated pheasants (Rheinardia), and the great argus (Argusianus). The great argus of Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo (A. argus) can attain a length of 2 m…

  • Argyle, Lake (lake, Australia)

    Lake Argyle, one of Australia’s largest reservoirs, in the Kimberley plateau region, northeastern Western Australia. Formed by the Ord River Dam (1972), it has a storage capacity of 204,719,140,000 cubic feet (5,797,000,000 cubic m). The dam, fed by the 300-mile (480-kilometre) Ord River, measures

  • Argyll (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Argyllshire, historic county in western Scotland. Argyllshire lies mainly within the Argyll and Bute council area, but northern Argyllshire extends as far as Lochs Shiel, Eil, and Leven in southern Highland council area. In the 2nd century ad Gaelic-speaking Scots invaded Argyllshire from Ireland,

  • Argyll and Bute (council area, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Argyll and Bute, council area, western Scotland, extending from the southwestern Grampian Mountains into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and North Channel in ragged peninsulas indented and separated by deepwater lochs (sea inlets). Freshwater lochs (lakes) dot the inland areas. It includes many

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 10th Earl and 1st Duke of (Scottish revolutionary leader [1651-1703])

    Archibald Campbell, 10th earl and 1st duke of Argyll, one of the Scottish leaders of the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). Campbell was the eldest son of the 9th earl, and he tried to get his father’s attainder reversed by seeking the favour of King James II. Being unsuccessful, however, he went over

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 10th Earl and 1st Duke of, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, Earl of Campbell and Cowall, Viscount of Lochow and Glenyla, Lord of Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and Tirie (Scottish revolutionary leader [1651-1703])

    Archibald Campbell, 10th earl and 1st duke of Argyll, one of the Scottish leaders of the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). Campbell was the eldest son of the 9th earl, and he tried to get his father’s attainder reversed by seeking the favour of King James II. Being unsuccessful, however, he went over

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess and 8th Earl of (Scottish politician [1607–1661])

    Archibald Campbell, 1st marquess and 8th earl of Argyll, leader of Scotland’s anti-Royalist party during the English Civil Wars between King Charles I and Parliament. He guided his country to a brief period of independence from political and religious domination by England. He was the eldest son of

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess and 8th Earl of, Lord Campbell, Lord Lorne, Lord of Kintyre (Scottish politician [1607–1661])

    Archibald Campbell, 1st marquess and 8th earl of Argyll, leader of Scotland’s anti-Royalist party during the English Civil Wars between King Charles I and Parliament. He guided his country to a brief period of independence from political and religious domination by England. He was the eldest son of

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of (British politician [1682-1761])

    Archibald Campbell, 3rd duke of Argyll, brother of the 2nd Duke of Argyll, and a prominent politician during the early Hanoverian period in Britain. Campbell served in the army for a short time under the Duke of Marlborough, but he was appointed treasurer of Scotland in 1705 and the following year

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of, Duke of Greenwich, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, Earl of Campbell and Cowall, Earl of Greenwich, Viscount of Lochow and Glenyla, Baron of Chatham, Earl and Viscount of Ilay, Lord of Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and Tirie, Lord Oransay, Dunoon, and Arase (British politician [1682-1761])

    Archibald Campbell, 3rd duke of Argyll, brother of the 2nd Duke of Argyll, and a prominent politician during the early Hanoverian period in Britain. Campbell served in the army for a short time under the Duke of Marlborough, but he was appointed treasurer of Scotland in 1705 and the following year

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of (Scottish Protestant leader [1532–1573])

    Archibald Campbell, 5th earl of Argyll, Scottish Protestant who supported Mary, Queen of Scots. Campbell succeeded his father, Archibald, the 4th earl, in 1558. He was an adherent of John Knox and assisted Lord James Stewart (afterward the regent Moray) in the warfare of the lords of the

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of, Lord Campbell, Lord Lorne (Scottish Protestant leader [1532–1573])

    Archibald Campbell, 5th earl of Argyll, Scottish Protestant who supported Mary, Queen of Scots. Campbell succeeded his father, Archibald, the 4th earl, in 1558. He was an adherent of John Knox and assisted Lord James Stewart (afterward the regent Moray) in the warfare of the lords of the

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of (Scottish Protestant leader [1629–1685])

    Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, Scottish Protestant leader who was executed for his opposition to the Roman Catholic James II of Great Britain and Ireland (James VII of Scotland). In his youth Campbell studied abroad but returned to Scotland in 1649. He fought at Dunbar (Sept. 3, 1650) and,

  • Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of, Lord Campbell, Lorne, and Kintyre (Scottish Protestant leader [1629–1685])

    Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, Scottish Protestant leader who was executed for his opposition to the Roman Catholic James II of Great Britain and Ireland (James VII of Scotland). In his youth Campbell studied abroad but returned to Scotland in 1649. He fought at Dunbar (Sept. 3, 1650) and,

  • Argyll, earls, marquesses and dukes of (Scottish noble family)

    Campbell family, Scottish noble family. The Campbells of Lochow gained prominence in the later Middle Ages. In 1457 Colin Campbell, Baron Campbell (died 1493), was created 1st earl of Argyll. Archibald (died 1558), 4th earl, was a leading Protestant. Archibald (1532?–1573), 5th earl, was also a

  • Argyll, John Campbell, 2nd Duke of (British official and soldier)

    John Campbell, 2nd duke of Argyll, Scottish supporter of the union with England and commander of the British forces in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. The son of the 1st Duke of Argyll (in the Scottish peerage), he actively furthered the union of England and Scotland and was created a peer of

  • Argyll, John Campbell, 2nd Duke of, Duke of Greenwich, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, Earl of Campbell and Cowall, Earl of Greenwich, Viscount of Lochnow and Glenyla, Baron of Chatham, Lord of Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and Tirie (British official and soldier)

    John Campbell, 2nd duke of Argyll, Scottish supporter of the union with England and commander of the British forces in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. The son of the 1st Duke of Argyll (in the Scottish peerage), he actively furthered the union of England and Scotland and was created a peer of

  • Argyll, Margaret, Duchess of (British socialite)

    Margaret Argyll, Duchess of, British socialite (born Dec. 1, 1912, Newton Mearns, Renfrewshire, Scotland—died July 26, 1993, London, England), was an elegant society hostess and one of Britain’s most celebrated beauties, but she scandalized the nation when she became embroiled in a prolonged (

  • Argyllshire (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Argyllshire, historic county in western Scotland. Argyllshire lies mainly within the Argyll and Bute council area, but northern Argyllshire extends as far as Lochs Shiel, Eil, and Leven in southern Highland council area. In the 2nd century ad Gaelic-speaking Scots invaded Argyllshire from Ireland,

  • Argyranthemum frutescens (plant)

    Marguerite, (Argyranthemum frutescens), ornamental plant of the aster family (Asteraceae), grown for its daisylike flowers. The plant is native to the Canary Islands and has become naturalized in parts of Europe and North America. The marguerite plant is a short-lived shrubby perennial and is grown

  • argyraspide (ancient Greek soldier)

    ancient Greek civilization: Social and commercial exchanges: …known as “Silver Shields,” or argyraspides, had taken their name from the conquered Persian treasure of precious metal.

  • argyrodite (mineral)

    Argyrodite, heavy, dark sulfosalt mineral, a silver and germanium sulfide (Ag8GeS6), in which the element germanium was discovered (1886). It is a relatively scarce mineral found in sulfide veins in Germany and in Bolivia. It forms a solid solution series with canfieldite in which tin replaces

  • Argyrókastron (Albania)

    Gjirokast?r, town, southern Albania. It lies southeast of the Adriatic port of Vlor? and overlooks the Drin River valley from the eastern slope of the long ridge of the Gjer? mountains. The town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2005 for its well-preserved centre built by farmers

  • Argyrol (antiseptic)

    Albert C. Barnes: …American inventor of the antiseptic Argyrol (a mild silver protein anti-infective compound for mucous membrane tissues) and noted art collector, whose collection is a part of the Barnes Foundation Galleries.

  • Argyroneta aquatica (arachnid)

    Water spider, (Argyroneta aquatica), species of spider that is known for its underwater silk web, which resembles a kind of flexible diving bell. The water spider is the only species of spider known to spend its entire life underwater. It has been placed in the family Argyronetidae; however,

  • Argyropoulos, John (Byzantine educator)

    John Argyropoulos, Byzantine humanist and active promoter of the revival of Classical learning in the West. As a teacher in Constantinople, Argyropoulos had among his pupils the scholar Constantine Lascaris. Argyropoulos divided his time between Italy and Constantinople; he was in Italy (1439) for

  • A?hāi-dīn-kā-jhomp?ā mosque (mosque, Ajmer, India)

    South Asian arts: Islāmic architecture in India: period of the Delhi and provincial sultanates: The A?hāi-dīn-kā-jhomp?ā mosque (c. 1119), built at Ajmer, was similar to the Delhi mosque, the maq?ūrah consisting of engrailed (sides ornamented with several arcs) corbel arches decorated with greater restraint than the Qu?b example. The earliest Islāmic tomb to survive is the Sultān Gharī, built in…

  • Arhanniti (work by Hemachandra)

    Hemachandra: …King Kumarapala and wrote the Arhanniti, a work on politics from a Jain perspective. A prodigious writer, he produced Sanskrit and Prakrit grammars, textbooks on science and practically every branch of Indian philosophy, and several poems, including the Trishashtishalakapurusha-charita (“Deeds of the 63 Illustrious Men”), a Sanskrit epic of the

  • arhat (Buddhism)

    Arhat, (Sanskrit: “one who is worthy”) in Buddhism, a perfected person, one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana (spiritual enlightenment). The arhat, having freed himself from the bonds of desire, will not be reborn. The state of an arhat is considered

  • arheic system (hydrology)

    inland water ecosystem: The origin of inland waters: In arheic systems water falls unpredictably in small amounts and follows haphazard drainage patterns. Apart from rivers that arise outside the region (allogenic rivers) and areas fed from underground sources of water, most bodies of water within arheic regions are temporary.

  • Arhos, Bill (American TV executive)

    Bill Arhos, (Billy Philip Arhos), American TV executive (born Nov. 3, 1934, Teague, Texas—died April 11, 2015, Austin, Texas), helped create the long-running PBS live-music television show Austin City Limits and shepherded it to national prominence; the series, which started its 41st season in

  • Arhos, Billy Philip (American TV executive)

    Bill Arhos, (Billy Philip Arhos), American TV executive (born Nov. 3, 1934, Teague, Texas—died April 11, 2015, Austin, Texas), helped create the long-running PBS live-music television show Austin City Limits and shepherded it to national prominence; the series, which started its 41st season in

  • Arhuaco (people)

    Central American and northern Andean Indian: Traditional culture patterns: …terracing, by the Antillean Arawak, Arhuaco, Chibcha, Jirajara, Páez, and Timote, all of whom showed evidence of other cultural elaborations as well. In contrast with such highly developed groups, a few cultures in the area were based more on hunting or fishing than on even simple farming; among those were…

  • ?rhus (Denmark)

    ?rhus, city, eastern Jutland, Denmark. It lies along ?rhus Bay and has an extensive harbour. Its origin is unknown, although traces of a Viking settlement have been found near the outflow of the now-covered ?rhus stream. The oldest existing charter for the town (1441) refers to a still-earlier

  • ?rhus Convention (international agreement)

    environmental law: The public participation principle: …Rio Declaration and the 1998 ?rhus Convention, which committed the 40 European signatory states to increase the environmental information available to the public and to enhance the public’s ability to participate in government decisions that affect the environment. During the 1990s the Internet became a primary vehicle for disseminating environmental…

  • Arhynchobdellida (leech order)

    annelid: Annotated classification: Order Arhynchobdellida Pharynx with 3 toothed jaws or none, noneversible; terrestrial or freshwater; bloodsuckers or carnivorous; size, minute to 20 cm; examples of genera: Hirudo, Haemopis, Erpobdella.

  • Ari (Buddhism)

    Anawrahta: …from the influence of the Ari, a Mahāyāna Tantric Buddhist sect that was at that time predominant in central Myanmar. Primarily through his efforts, Theravāda Buddhism became the dominant religion of Myanmar and the inspiration for its culture and civilization. He maintained diplomatic relations with King Vijayabāhu of Ceylon, who…

  • Ari nohem (work by Modena)

    Leone Modena: Leone’s major work was Ari nohem (1840; “The Lion Roars”), in which he attempted to demonstrate, with much erudition, that the Zohar, the major text of Kabbala, is not the work of antiquity that its proponents claimed.

  • Ari Thorgilsson the Learned (Icelandic historian)

    Ari Thorgilsson the Learned, Icelandic chieftain, priest, and historian whose íslendingabók (Libellus Islandorum; The Book of the Icelanders) is the first history of Iceland written in the vernacular. Composed before 1133 and covering the period from the settlement of Iceland up to 1120, it

  • Ari Up (German-born British singer)

    Ari Up, (Arianna Forster), German-born British singer (born Jan. 17, 1962, Munich, Ger.—died Oct. 20, 2010, Los Angeles, Calif.), founded the influential punk band the Slits when she was just 14 years old. The daughter of a music promoter, Ari Up spent much of her early life surrounded by some of

  • Ari, ha- (Jewish mystic)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria, eponymous founder of the Lurianic school of Kabbala (Jewish esoteric mysticism). Luria’s youth was spent in Egypt, where he became versed in rabbinic studies, engaged in commerce, and eventually concentrated on study of the Zohar, the central work of Kabbala. In 1570 he

  • aria (solo song)

    Aria, solo song with instrumental accompaniment, an important element of opera but also found extensively in cantatas and oratorios. The term originated in Italy in the 16th century and first gained currency after 1602, when Giulio Caccini published Le nuove musiche (The New Music), a collection of

  • Aria (ancient district, Afghanistan)

    ancient Iran: The Seleucids: …eastern provinces of Margiana and Aria suffered an invasion by nomads. But the invasion was repelled, and the nomads were pushed back beyond the Jaxartes. Demodamas, a general to the first two Seleucid kings, crossed the river and even put up altars to Apollo, ancestor of the dynasty. Alexandria in…

  • Ariadne (Greek mythology)

    Ariadne, in Greek mythology, daughter of Pasiphae and the Cretan king Minos. She fell in love with the Athenian hero Theseus and, with a thread or glittering jewels, helped him escape the Labyrinth after he slew the Minotaur, a beast half bull and half man that Minos kept in the Labyrinth. Here the

  • Ariadne and Bluebeard (opera by Dukas)

    Paul Dukas: …scoring; and, in his opera Ariane et Barbe-Bleue (1907), on the play of Maurice Maeterlinck, the atmosphere and musical texture make up for the lack of dramatic impact.

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