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  • Archelaus Sisines (king of Cappadocia)

    Archelaus, last king of Cappadocia (reigned 36 bc–c. ad 17), a Roman client during the late republic and the early empire. Although granted the kingdom by Mark Antony, Archelaus retained his crown by making peace with Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) after Antony’s defeat at the Battle of

  • Archelon (fossil sea turtle)

    Archelon, extinct giant sea turtle known from fossilized remains found in North American rocks of the Late Cretaceous epoch (100 million to 66 million years ago). Archelon, protected by a shell similar to that found in modern sea turtles, reached a length of about 3.5 m (12 feet). The front feet

  • archenteron (anatomy)

    human digestive system: Embryonic development: …entoderm), surrounds a cavity, the archenteron, which has an opening to the exterior at the point at which invagination occurred; this opening is called the blastopore. The archenteron eventually becomes the cavity of the digestive tract, and the blastopore becomes the anus; the mouth arises as a new opening.

  • archeology

    Archaeology, the scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities. These include human artifacts from the very earliest stone tools to the man-made objects that are buried or thrown away in the present day: everything made by human beings—from simple tools to complex

  • Archeozoic Eon (geochronology)

    Archean Eon, the earlier of the two formal divisions of Precambrian time (about 4.6 billion to 541 million years ago) and the period when life first formed on Earth. The Archean Eon began about 4 billion years ago with the formation of Earth’s crust and extended to the start of the Proterozoic Eon

  • Archer (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-air: The AA-11 Archer was a short-range missile used in combination with the Amos and Alamo.

  • Archer (constellation and astrological sign)

    Sagittarius, (Latin: “Archer”) in astronomy, zodiacal constellation in the southern sky lying between Capricornus and Scorpius, at about 19 hours right ascension and 25° south declination. The centre of the Milky Way Galaxy lies in the radio source Sagittarius A*. Near the western border of

  • Archer Daniels Midland Co. (American company)

    Patricia A. Woertz: …of the agricultural processing corporation Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) from 2006 to 2014.

  • archer fish (animal)

    Archer fish, any of seven species of Indo-Pacific fishes of the family Toxotidae (order Perciformes) noted for their ability to knock their insect prey off overhanging vegetation by “shooting” it with drops of water expelled from the fish’s mouth. The insect falls into the water, where it can be

  • Archer, Dennis (American politician)

    Detroit: History: …of efforts by Young’s successor, Dennis Archer, to rebrand the city as a desirable destination for suburbanites, millions of dollars were spent on infrastructure, casino gambling was legalized along the Detroit River, and new stadiums were erected for the Lions (who had played in suburban Pontiac since 1975) and for…

  • Archer, Ernest (British art director)
  • Archer, Frederick (British jockey)

    Frederick Archer, British jockey who reigned as national champion for 13 consecutive years (1874–86). In 1867, Archer began his apprenticeship with trainer Matthew Dawson at Newmarket in Cambridgeshire. In his brief 17-season career, he won more than one third of all his races, totaling 2,748

  • Archer, Frederick Scott (British sculptor and inventor)

    Frederick Scott Archer, English inventor of the first practical photographic process by which more than one copy of a picture could be made. Archer, a butcher’s son, began his professional career as an apprentice silversmith in London, then turned to portrait sculpture. To assist him in this work,

  • Archer, Gabriel (English explorer)

    Martha's Vineyard: …1602 by Bartholomew Gosnold and Gabriel Archer; the two explorers named it for its many vines and for Martha, Gosnold’s daughter. Purchased by Thomas Mayhew in 1641 and settled the following year, it was considered part of New York but was ceded in 1692 to Massachusetts. In 1695 it was…

  • Archer, Isabel (fictional character)

    Isabel Archer, title character of the novel The Portrait of a Lady (1881) by Henry James. A penniless young American, Isabel ventures to England in pursuit of cultural broadening and attracts the attention of numerous suitors. Her decision to marry the reclusive aesthete Gilbert Osmond eventually

  • Archer, Lew (fictional character)

    Lew Archer, fictional private investigator (P.I.) featured in the hard-boiled detective novels of Ross Macdonald. Archer made his first appearance in The Moving Target (1949). In this and subsequent books, including The Galton Case (1959), The Goodbye Look (1969), and The Underground Man (1971),

  • Archer, Michael (Australian paleontologist)

    Riversleigh fossils: Since the Australian paleontologist Michael Archer began intensive explorations of the area in 1983, Riversleigh has yielded the remains of more than 200 previously unknown species of vertebrates. Most of the specimens lived in the Miocene Epoch (23 million to 5.3 million years ago) or in the succeeding Pliocene…

  • Archer, Thomas (British architect)

    Thomas Archer, British architect and practitioner of what was, for England, an extraordinarily extravagant Baroque style, marked by lavish curves, large scale, and bold detail. Archer, the son of a Warwickshire squire, was educated at Trinity College, Oxford, and then spent four years abroad. After

  • Archer, Violet Balestreri (Canadian composer and musician)

    Violet Balestreri Archer, Canadian composer (born April 24, 1913, Montreal, Que.—died Feb. 21, 2000, Ottawa, Ont.), was an accomplished musician whose large body of work encompassed a variety of genres. She was also a highly regarded musical educator. After studying composition at McGill U

  • Archer, William (British critic)

    William Archer, Scottish drama critic whose translations and essays championed Henrik Ibsen to the British public. While studying law at Edinburgh, Archer began his journalistic career on the Edinburgh Evening News. After a world tour (1876–77), in 1878 he moved to London and in 1879 became drama

  • archerfish (animal)

    Archer fish, any of seven species of Indo-Pacific fishes of the family Toxotidae (order Perciformes) noted for their ability to knock their insect prey off overhanging vegetation by “shooting” it with drops of water expelled from the fish’s mouth. The insect falls into the water, where it can be

  • Archermus (Greek sculptor)

    Archermus, ancient Greek sculptor from the island of Chios who was known for his treatment of draped female figures. Associated with his father, Micciades, and his sons Bupalus and Athenis, Archermus executed his works in native marble and is said to have been the first sculptor to represent

  • Archers, The (British company)

    The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp: …formed the partnership known as the Archers.

  • archery

    Archery, sport involving shooting arrows with a bow, either at an inanimate target or in hunting. From prehistoric times, the bow was a principal weapon of war and of the hunt throughout the world, except in Australia. Recreational archery also was practiced, along with military, among the ancient

  • Arches National Park (national park, Utah, United States)

    Arches National Park, desert area of sandstone formations in eastern Utah, U.S., on the Colorado River just north of Moab and northeast of Canyonlands National Park. It was established as a national monument in 1929 and as a national park in 1971, and it has an area of 120 square miles (310 square

  • Archestratus (Greek author)

    cooking: Ancient Greece: …mock epic poem written by Archestratus of Gela (Sicily) about 350 bce. It is preserved in excerpts quoted in Athenaeus’s Deipnosophistai (c. 200 ce; “The Gastronomers”; Eng. trans. The Deipnosophists). Archestratus toured the cosmopolitan centres of the ancient Greek world from the Black Sea to southern Italy, recording their cuisines.…

  • archet (stringed instrument accessory)

    Bow, in music, curved stick with tightly held fibres that produces sound by friction when drawn across the strings of a chordophone, such as a rebab, violin, or erhu. The most common material is rosined horsehair; some African bows used strips cut from rubber inner tubes, and the Korean ajaeng, a

  • archetype

    Archetype, (from Greek archetypos, “original pattern”), in literary criticism, a primordial image, character, or pattern of circumstances that recurs throughout literature and thought consistently enough to be considered a universal concept or situation. The term was adopted and popularized by

  • Archeworks (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Stanley Tigerman: In 1994 he cofounded Archeworks, an influential alternative postgraduate design school in Chicago that specializes in using architecture and design to address social needs. His passion for using architecture in a social cause is demonstrated in his design of Chicago’s Pacific Garden Mission (completed 2007).

  • Archhumanist, The (German scholar)

    Conradus Celtis, German scholar known as Der Erzhumanist (“The Archhumanist”). He was also a Latin lyric poet who stimulated interest in Germany in both classical learning and German antiquities. Celtis studied at the universities of Cologne and Heidelberg and was crowned poet laureate by the Holy

  • Archi language

    Caucasian languages: The Lezgian languages: … (about 15,000); Tsakhur (about 11,000); Archi (fewer than 1,000); Kryz (about 6,000); Budukh (about 2,000); Khinalug (about 1,500); and Udi (about 3,700). The majority of Lezgi languages are spoken in southern Dagestan, but some of them (Kryz, Budukh, Khinalug, Udi) are spoken chiefly in Azerbaijan; and one village of Udi…

  • Archiannelida (polychaete order)

    annelid: Annotated classification: Order Archiannelida Minute, primitive, with ciliated epidermis; prostomium small, with or without appendages; parapodia absent; septa reduced or absent; size, minute. Contains 4 groups of poorly known species considered separate orders by some (Nerillida, Dinophilida, Polygordiida, Protodrilida); genera include

  • Archias (Greek aristocrat)

    Syracuse: …Corinthians led by the aristocrat Archias, and the city soon dominated the coastal plain and hill country beyond. The original Greek settlers of the city formed an elite (gamoroi), while the Sicel natives (Siculi) worked the land as an oppressed class. In the early 5th century bc, the Syracusans were…

  • Archias, Aulus Licinius (Greek poet)

    Aulus Licinius Archias, ancient Greek poet who came to Rome, where he was charged in 62 bc with having illegally assumed the rights of a Roman citizen. He was defended by Cicero in the speech known as Pro Archia, but the issue of the trial is unknown. A number of epigrams in the Greek Anthology

  • Archibald Strohalm (novel by Mulisch)

    Harry Mulisch: His first novel, Archibald Strohalm (1952), won a literary prize. His novel Het stenen bruidsbed (1959; The Stone Bridal Bed), in which an American pilot involved in the bombing of Dresden returns to the city years later, won him an international audience. Twee vrouwen (1975; Two Women; filmed…

  • Archibald, Nate (American basketball player)

    Sacramento Kings: …on-court heroics of all-star guard Nate (“Tiny”) Archibald at the beginning of its 13-season tenure in Kansas City, the team was mostly mediocre during this period, qualifying for the play-offs five times and advancing past its first play-off series just once, a surprising run to the 1981 conference finals after…

  • Archibald, Tiny (American basketball player)

    Sacramento Kings: …on-court heroics of all-star guard Nate (“Tiny”) Archibald at the beginning of its 13-season tenure in Kansas City, the team was mostly mediocre during this period, qualifying for the play-offs five times and advancing past its first play-off series just once, a surprising run to the 1981 conference finals after…

  • archicerebellum (anatomy)

    nervous system: Encephalization: …oldest part of the cerebellum—the archicerebellum—is concerned with equilibrium and connected with the inner ear and the lateral-line system. The anterior lobe of the cerebellum represents the paleocerebellum, an area that regulates equilibrium and muscle tone. It constitutes the main mass of the cerebellum in fish, reptiles, and birds. In…

  • Archidamian War (Greek history)

    ancient Greek civilization: Sparta’s role: …the first half of the Archidamian War (431–421), named after the Spartan king Archidamus II, unfairly in view of the wariness he is said to have expressed at the outset. Athens moved its flocks from Attica across to Euboea, whose economic importance was thus raised further still. As if in…

  • Archidamus I (king of Sparta)

    Archidamus I, 12th king of Sparta of the Eurypontid line. The son of Anaxidamus, he ruled shortly after the close of the second Messenian War (c. 660 bc) and toward the outset of the long war between Sparta and Tegea (the Tegean War). His reign was described by the geographer Pausanias as quiet and

  • Archidamus II (king of Sparta)

    Archidamus II, king of Sparta from about 469. A member of the Eurypontid house (one of the two royal families of Sparta), he succeeded to the throne of his grandfather, Leotychides. When the Messenian helots (serfs) revolted against their Spartan masters following a severe earthquake about 464,

  • Archidamus III (king of Sparta)

    Archidamus III , king of Sparta, 360–338, succeeding his father, Agesilaus II. Archidamus headed the force sent to aid the Spartan army after its defeat by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 and was commander later during the confused fighting in the Peloponnese. He scored a victory over

  • Archidamus IV (king of Sparta)

    Archidamus IV, king of Sparta, son of Eudamidas I, grandson of Archidamus III. The dates of his accession and death are unknown. In 294 bc he was defeated by Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedonia in a battle at Mantinea, and Sparta was saved only because Demetrius I was called away by the

  • Archidamus V (king of Sparta)

    Archidamus V, 27th Spartan king of the Eurypontids, son of Eudamidas II, grandson of Archidamus IV. He fled to Messenia after the murder of his brother Agis IV in 241 bc. In 227 he was recalled by Cleomenes III, who was then reigning without a colleague, but shortly after his return Archidamus was

  • Archidiidae (plant subclass)

    bryophyte: Annotated classification: Subclass Archidiidae Sporophyte with no seta; sporangia containing a restricted number of large spores (sometimes 4), lacking columella, opening by decomposition of the jacket; gametophore small, leaves with midrib; attached to substratum by rhizoids; of scattered distribution in temperate to subtropical climates; 1 order, a single…

  • Archidium (plant genus)

    bryophyte: Annotated classification: …1 order, a single genus, Archidium, with approximately 26 species. Division Marchantiophyta (liverworts) Protonema generally reduced to a few cells, with gametophore differentiated early after spore germination; rhizoids unicellular; gametophore leafy or thallose and generally flattened; sex organs lacking paraphyses; leaves

  • Archie Bunker (fictional character)

    All in the Family: …much of the humour was Archie Bunker (played by Carroll O’Connor), a vocal and prejudiced blue-collar worker. Archie, an ever-grouchy social conservative, holds a nostalgic view of America and sees his way of life threatened by the rise of ethnic minorities, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Jews (all of…

  • archil (dye)

    Orchil, a violet dye obtained from some lichens by fermentation. It is also the term for any lichen that yields orchil (Roccella, Lecanora, Ochrolechin, and Evernia) and refers to any colour obtained from this d

  • Archilochus (Greek author)

    Archilochus, poet and soldier, the earliest Greek writer of iambic, elegiac, and personal lyric poetry whose works have survived to any considerable extent. The surviving fragments of his work show him to have been a metrical innovator of the highest ability. Archilochus’s father was Telesicles, a

  • Archilochus colubris (bird)

    hummingbird: Only the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) breeds in eastern North America, where it is found from Nova Scotia to Florida. The northernmost hummingbird is the rufous (Selasphorus rufus), which breeds from southeastern Alaska to northern California. The broad-tailed hummingbird (S. platycercus) breeds in the western United States…

  • Archimedean polyhedron (mathematics)

    Archimedes: His works: …of refraction; on the 13 semiregular (Archimedean) polyhedra (those bodies bounded by regular polygons, not necessarily all of the same type, that can be inscribed in a sphere); and the “Cattle Problem” (preserved in a Greek epigram), which poses a problem in indeterminate analysis, with eight unknowns. In addition to…

  • Archimedean screw (technology)

    Archimedes screw, machine for raising water, allegedly invented by the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes for removing water from the hold of a large ship. One form consists of a circular pipe enclosing a helix and inclined at an angle of about 45 degrees to the horizontal with its lower end dipped

  • Archimedes (Greek mathematician)

    Archimedes, the most-famous mathematician and inventor in ancient Greece. Archimedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder. He is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’

  • Archimedes screw (technology)

    Archimedes screw, machine for raising water, allegedly invented by the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes for removing water from the hold of a large ship. One form consists of a circular pipe enclosing a helix and inclined at an angle of about 45 degrees to the horizontal with its lower end dipped

  • Archimedes’ axiom (geometry)
  • Archimedes’ Lost Method

    Archimedes’ proofs of formulas for areas and volumes set the standard for the rigorous treatment of limits until modern times. But the way he discovered these results remained a mystery until 1906, when a copy of his lost treatise The Method was discovered in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey).

  • Archimedes’ principle (physics)

    Archimedes’ principle, physical law of buoyancy, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes, stating that any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward, or buoyant, force the magnitude of which is equal to the

  • Archimedes, Spiral of

    mathematics: Analytic geometry: The Archimedean spiral, for example, was generated by a point moving on a line as the line rotated uniformly about the origin. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter did not permit exact determination:

  • Archinard, Louis (West African leader)

    Ahmadu Seku: Louis Archinard took the offensive against him in 1888 and by 1891 had seized most of his strongholds.

  • archinephric duct (kidney anatomy)

    Wolffian duct, one of a pair of tubes that carry urine from primitive or embryonic kidneys to the exterior or to a primitive bladder. In amphibians the reproductive system encroaches on the Wolffian duct; in some species the duct carries both urine and sperm, but most amphibians develop a s

  • archinephros (anatomy)

    Archinephros, ancestral vertebrate kidney, retained by larvae of hagfish and of some caecilians and occurring in the embryos of higher animals. Two tubes, the archinephric, or Wolffian, ducts, extend between the body cavity and the back and lead to the exterior. A series of tubules, one pair for

  • Archinotic realm (faunal region)

    Antarctica: The term Antarctic region refers to all area—oceanic, island, and continental—lying in the cold Antarctic climatic zone south of the Antarctic Convergence, an important boundary around 55° S, with little seasonal variability, where warm subtropical waters meet and mix with cold polar waters (see also polar ecosystem).

  • archipallium (anatomy)

    nervous system: Dominance of the cerebrum: …the paleopallium (olfactory lobe), the archipallium, and the basal nuclei. All three areas receive olfactory stimuli and discharge impulses to the brainstem. The archipallium is a correlation centre and a forerunner of the mammalian hippocampus. The basal nuclei are equivalent to the corpus striatum and function as association areas with…

  • archipelagic apron (geology)

    Archipelagic apron, layers of volcanic rock that form a fanlike slope around groups of ancient or recent islands, most commonly in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The aprons typically have a slope of 1° to 2°, with the slope decreasing near the shore; the upper parts may be indented by

  • archipelagic Southeast Asia (islands, Southeast Asia)

    East Indies, the islands that extend in a wide belt along both sides of the Equator for more than 3,800 miles (6,100 km) between the Asian mainland to the north and west and Australia to the south. Historically, the term East Indies is loosely applied to any of three contexts. The most restrictive

  • Archipelago, Latin duchy of the (historical state, Greece)

    Greece: The islands: …remained the centre of the Latin duchy of the Archipelago, established in 1207 among the Cyclades by Marco Sanudo, a relative of the Venetian doge, or magistrate, with a body of plundering merchants and nobles. Initially under the overlordship of the Latin emperor at Constantinople, the duchy later transferred its…

  • Archipenko, Alexander (Ukrainian-American artist)

    Alexander Archipenko, Ukrainian-American artist best known for his original, Cubist-inspired sculptural style. After studying in Kiev, in 1908 Archipenko briefly attended the école des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but he quickly abandoned formal studies to become part of more radical circles, especially

  • archiphoneme (grammar)

    linguistics: Modifications in Chomsky’s grammar: …Prague school linguists labelled “archiphonemes,” being unspecified for any feature that is contextually redundant or predictable. For instance, the first segment of the phonological representation of “man” will not include the feature [+ voice]; because nasal consonants are always phonetically voiced in this position in English, the feature [+…

  • Archispirostreptus gigas (arthropod)

    millipede: The giant African millipede (Archispirostreptus gigas), which is native to subtropical Africa, is the largest extant species, achieving lengths up to 280 mm (11 inches). The extinct invertebrate Arthropleura, a relative of centipedes and millipedes, lived during the Carboniferous Period (359.2 million to 299 million years…

  • archistriatum (anatomy)

    Amygdala, region of the brain primarily associated with emotional processes. The name amygdala is derived from the Greek word amygdale, meaning “almond,” owing to the structure’s almondlike shape. The amygdala is located in the medial temporal lobe, just anterior to (in front of) the hippocampus.

  • Architect and the Emperor of Assyria, The (work by Arrabal)

    Fernando Arrabal: …L’Architecte et l’empereur d’Assyrie (1967; The Architect and the Emperor of Assyria), in which the two characters assume each other’s personae, and Et ils passèrent des menottes aux fleurs (1969; And They Put Handcuffs on the Flowers), more overtly political than his previous plays; its theme of freedom from oppression…

  • Architecte et l’empereur d’Assyrie, L’? (work by Arrabal)

    Fernando Arrabal: …L’Architecte et l’empereur d’Assyrie (1967; The Architect and the Emperor of Assyria), in which the two characters assume each other’s personae, and Et ils passèrent des menottes aux fleurs (1969; And They Put Handcuffs on the Flowers), more overtly political than his previous plays; its theme of freedom from oppression…

  • Architects Collaborative, The (American architectural group)

    The Architects Collaborative, association of architects specializing in school buildings that was founded in 1946 in Cambridge, Mass., U.S., by Walter Gropius. The original partners included Norman Fletcher, John Harkness, Sarah Harkness, Robert McMillan, Louis McMillen, and Benjamin Thompson.

  • Architects of the Parthenon, The (work by Carpenter)

    Callicrates: The Architects of the Parthenon, by Rhys Carpenter, suggests that Callicrates was also responsible for the Hephaesteum, the temple of Poseidon at Sunion, the temple of Ares at Acharnae, and the temple at Rhamnous.

  • Architectura (work by Dietterlin)

    Western architecture: Germany: …orders by Wendel Dietterlin, entitled Architectura (1598), is filled with such Mannerist ornament. An architectural example is the Otto-Heinrichsbau added to the Gothic castle at Heidelberg (burned by the French in 1689). The three tall stories presented the usual verticality of northern architecture, but there was an understanding of the…

  • Architectura Civilis (work by Furtenbach)

    stagecraft: Early history: …lighting may be found in Architectura Civilis (1628; “Civil Architecture”), by Joseph Furttenbach (also spelled Furtenbach). He describes the use of oil lamps and candles set in a row along the front edge of the stage but out of sight of the audience, and he also mentions vertical rows of…

  • architectural drawing

    drawing: Artistic architectural drawings: There is one field in which drawing fulfills a distinct function: artistic architectural drawings are a final product as drawings, differing from the impersonal, exact plans and designs by the same “handwriting” character that typifies art drawings. In many cases, no execution…

  • architectural engineering

    bridge: …is the province of the engineer and that beauty is fully achieved only by the addition of architecture. The second idea, arguing from the standpoint of pure engineering, insists that bridges making the most efficient possible use of materials are by definition beautiful. The third case holds that architecture is…

  • architectural glass

    Glass, an inorganic solid material that is usually transparent or translucent as well as hard, brittle, and impervious to the natural elements. Glass has been made into practical and decorative objects since ancient times, and it is still very important in applications as disparate as building

  • architectural ironwork

    Architecture, the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends. Although these two

  • architectural ornamentation (architecture)

    Ornamentation, in architecture, applied embellishment in various styles that is a distinguishing characteristic of buildings, furniture, and household items. Ornamentation often occurs on entablatures, columns, and the tops of buildings and around entryways and windows, especially in the form of

  • Architectural painting (Roman art)

    Western painting: Pagan Roman paintings: …Second-style paintings are known as Architectural and show a threefold horizontal division of the wall into dado, central area, and cornice, combined with a triple vertical scheme of design that consists of a large central panel (in the main, intermediate horizontal area), framed by flanking columns and a pediment, and…

  • architectural rendering (art design)

    Architectural rendering, branch of the pictorial arts and of architectural design whose special aim is to show, before buildings have been built, how they will look when completed. Modern renderings fall into two main categories: the quick perspective “design-study,” by which an architect records

  • architecture

    Architecture, the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends. Although these two

  • Architecture considérée sous le rapport de l’art, des moeurs et de la législation (work by Ledoux)

    Western architecture: France: …by Ledoux published in his Architecture considérée sous le rapport de l’art, des moeurs et de la législation (“Architecture Considered with Respect to Art, Customs, and Legislation”) in 1804, which contains his ideal city of Chaux, a plan for a whole city with buildings in which symbolism and abstraction are…

  • Architecture hydraulique (work by Belidor)

    Bernard Forest de Belidor: …his fame rests primarily on Architecture hydraulique, in four volumes (1737–53), covering engineering mechanics, mills and waterwheels, pumps, harbours, and sea works.

  • Architecture of Country Houses, The (work by Downing)

    cottage furniture: In The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), A.J. Downing recommended it for use in rural surroundings and favoured in particular the work of Edward Hennessy of Boston. He pointed out that a complete bedroom suite in this style could be purchased for the price of a…

  • Architecture of the City, The? (work by Rossi)

    Aldo Rossi: …publication L’architettura della città (The Architecture of the City), which quickly established him as a leading international theoretician. In the text he argued that, over the course of history, architecture has developed certain continuous forms and ideas, to the point that these are standard types in the collective memory…

  • Architecture of Time, The (photography exhibition by Sugimoto)

    Hiroshi Sugimoto: “The Architecture of Time” was presented at the Fruitmarket Gallery, Scotland’s highly regarded contemporary art space, and the Stills Gallery, the country’s leading centre for photography and digital media. The exhibition incorporated more than 30 large-scale images from Sugimoto’s Seascapes and Architecture series and a…

  • Architecture, Académie Royale d’ (school, Paris, France)

    école des Beaux-Arts, school of fine arts founded (as the Académie Royale d’Architecture) in Paris in 1671 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, minister of Louis XIV; it merged with the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (founded in 1648) in 1793. The school offered instruction in drawing, painting,

  • architecture, African

    African architecture, the architecture of Africa, particularly of sub-Saharan Africa. In North Africa, where Islam and Christianity had a significant influence, architecture predominates among the visual arts. Included here are the magnificent mosques built of mud in Djenné and Mopti in Mali, the

  • architecture, Anatolian

    Islamic arts: Ottoman art: …(beyliks) that sprang up in Anatolia about 1300, after the collapse of Seljuq rule. In many ways, all the beyliks shared the same culture, but it was the extraordinary political and social attributes of the Ottomans that led them eventually to swallow up the other kingdoms, to conquer the Balkans,…

  • architecture, Arabian
  • architecture, computer

    Computer architecture, Internal structure of a digital computer, encompassing the design and layout of its instruction set and storage registers. The architecture of a computer is chosen with regard to the types of programs that will be run on it (business, scientific, general-purpose, etc.). Its

  • architecture, Iranian

    ancient Iran: Art: …in an eclectic art and architecture that in itself mirrored the empire and the Persians’ understanding of how that empire ought to function. Yet the whole was entirely Persian. Just as the Achaemenids were tolerant in matters of local government and custom as long as Persians controlled the general policy…

  • architecture, Mesopotamian

    Mesopotamian art and architecture: …and architecture, the art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations.

  • architecture, Oceanic
  • architecture, order of (architecture)

    Order, any of several styles of classical or Neoclassical architecture that are defined by the particular type of column and entablature they use as a basic unit. A column consists of a shaft together with its base and its capital. The column supports a section of an entablature, which constitutes

  • Architecture, School of (building, Berlin, Germany)

    Western architecture: Germany: …important of these was the School of Architecture (1831), with walls of red brick ornamented with glazed violet tiles, windows of unpainted terra-cotta, and internal construction of iron beams and brick cap vaults. For Schinkel, who was not a pure Functionalist, the poetry of architecture was as important as it…

  • architecture, Syro-Palestinian
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