You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Arcandor (Germany company)

    Thomas Middelhoff: …mail-order business KarstadtQuelle (later called Arcandor), and in 2005 he was made CEO. Middelhoff left Arcandor in 2009, just before the company went bankrupt. That same year he cofounded the investment company Berger Lahnstein Middelhoff & Partners.

  • arcanist (history of pottery)

    Arcanist, (from Latin arcanum, “secret”), in the 18th century, a European who knew or claimed to know the secret of making certain kinds of pottery (especially true porcelain), which until 1707 was known only by the Chinese. The secret was discovered in Saxony by Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus

  • Arcaro, Eddie (American jockey)

    Eddie Arcaro, American jockey who was the first to ride five Kentucky Derby winners and two U.S. Triple Crown champions (winners of the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes). In 31 years of riding Thoroughbreds (1931–61), he won 549 stakes events, a total of 4,779 races, and

  • Arcaro, George Edward (American jockey)

    Eddie Arcaro, American jockey who was the first to ride five Kentucky Derby winners and two U.S. Triple Crown champions (winners of the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes). In 31 years of riding Thoroughbreds (1931–61), he won 549 stakes events, a total of 4,779 races, and

  • Arcaro, George Edward (American jockey)

    Eddie Arcaro, American jockey who was the first to ride five Kentucky Derby winners and two U.S. Triple Crown champions (winners of the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes). In 31 years of riding Thoroughbreds (1931–61), he won 549 stakes events, a total of 4,779 races, and

  • Arce, Aniceto (president of Bolivia)

    Bolivia: Increase in tin mining: …magnates themselves (Gregorio Pacheco, 1884–88; Aniceto Arce, 1888–92) or closely associated with such magnates as partners or representatives (Mariano Baptista, 1892–96; Severo Fernández Alonso, 1896–99), the Liberals and subsequent 20th-century presidents were largely outside the mining elite. No tin magnate actively participated in leadership positions within the political system. Rather,…

  • Arce, Louis-Armand de Lom d’ (French soldier)

    Louis-Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de Lahontan, French soldier and writer who explored parts of what are now Canada and the United States and who prepared valuable accounts of his travels in the New World. Lahontan went to Canada in 1683 as a marine lieutenant. He participated in an unsuccessful

  • Arce, Manuel José (Central American statesman)

    United Provinces of Central America: Manuel José Arce was elected first president in 1825.

  • Arcella (protozoan)

    testacean: …the inner layer (as in Arcella), sand or solid particles glued together (as in Difflugia), or siliceous plates that are secreted by cytoplasm, pushed out, and cemented in place (as in Euglypha). The genus Nebela forms its pear-shaped shell from the plates of other testaceans ingested as food. Arcella, a…

  • Arcellinida (protozoan)

    Testacean, any member of the protozoan order Arcellinida (formerly Testacida) of the class Rhizopodea. Testaceans are usually encased in one-chambered tests, or shells, and usually found in fresh water, although sometimes they occur in salt water and in mossy soil. The test has an underlying

  • ArcelorMittal (Luxembourgian company)

    ArcelorMittal, steelmaking company that, when formed from the merger of the Arcelor and Mittal steel companies in 2006, was the world’s largest. Its headquarters are in Luxembourg city. Arcelor’s roots were in the Luxembourgian company Aciéries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange (ARBED SA), which

  • ArcelorMittal Orbit (sculpture by Kapoor)

    Anish Kapoor: Kapoor’s later works include ArcelorMittal Orbit (completed 2011), a 377-foot (115-metre) tower surrounded by a looping lattice of red tubular steel. The structure, commissioned by the city of London for the 2012 Olympic Games, stood in London’s Olympic Park, and an observation deck at the top of the tower…

  • Arcesilaus (Greek philosopher)

    Arcesilaus, philosopher who succeeded Crates as head of the Greek Academy; he introduced a skepticism derived either from Socrates or from Pyrrhon and Timon. Refusing to accept or deny the possibility of certainty in knowing, Arcesilaus advocated a skeptical “suspension of judgment” (epochē). The

  • Arceuthobium (plant)

    Dwarf mistletoe, any plant that is a member of the genus Arceuthobium (family Viscaceae), which contains about 8 to 15 species of small-flowered plants that are parasitic on coniferous trees. The species are distributed primarily throughout the Northern Hemisphere, though a few tropical species

  • Arceuthobium minutissimum (plant)

    dwarf mistletoe: The common dwarf mistletoe, A. minutissimum, is one of the smallest plants having specialized water-conducting tissues. Its flowering stems extend less than 3 mm (about 18 inch) from its host plant. The fruits of most Arceuthobium species are about 4 mm long, and each contains a…

  • arch (architecture)

    Arch, in architecture and civil engineering, a curved member that is used to span an opening and to support loads from above. The arch formed the basis for the evolution of the vault. Arch construction depends essentially on the wedge. If a series of wedge-shaped blocks—i.e., ones in which the

  • ARCH (economics)

    Robert F. Engle: Inherent in Engle’s autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (known as ARCH) model was the concept that, while most volatility is embedded in random error, its variance depends on previously realized random errors, with large errors being followed by large errors and small by small. This contrasted with earlier models wherein…

  • arch bridge

    bridge: Roman arch bridges: The Romans began organized bridge building to help their military campaigns. Engineers and skilled workmen formed guilds that were dispatched throughout the empire, and these guilds spread and exchanged building ideas and principles. The Romans also discovered a natural cement, called pozzolana, which…

  • arch dam (engineering)

    dam: Arch dams: The advantages of building a curved dam—thus using the water pressure to keep the joints in the masonry closed—were appreciated as early as Roman times. An arch dam is a structure curving upstream, where the water thrust is transferred either directly to the…

  • arch of aorta (anatomy)

    animal development: Circulatory organs: These are the aortic arches, which served originally to supply blood to the gills in aquatic vertebrates. The arches are laid down in all vertebrates, six or more being found in cyclostomes and fishes; six are present in the embryos of tetrapods, but the first two are degenerate.…

  • Arch of Triumph (film by Milestone [1948])

    Lewis Milestone: War dramas: Arch of Triumph (1948), adapted from the Remarque novel and coscripted by Milestone, was a romance set in wartime France between a refugee (Charles Boyer) and a woman (Ingrid Bergman) he saves from a suicide attempt. The Red Pony (1949) was an adaptation by Steinbeck…

  • Arch Street Theatre (theatre, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Louisa Lane Drew: …and it was reopened as Mrs. John Drew’s Arch Street Theatre. For 31 years she remained as manager. She quickly built up one of the most brilliant repertory companies in the history of the American stage. It lasted until 1878, when the company was disbanded and the theatre given over…

  • Arch, Joseph (British labour leader)

    Joseph Arch, organizer who became the leader of England’s agricultural labourers. The son and grandson of farm labourers, Arch used his training as a Primitive Methodist preacher to good effect in the early 1870s when farm labourers in the south and central areas of England began to protest against

  • archa avatara (Hinduism)

    Hinduism: Vaishnavism: …within an iconic form (archa avatara) for worship. In many South Indian temples, the regional manifestations of Vishnu have distinct identities and are known by local names (e.g., as Venkateswara in Tirumala-Tirupati and in the Hindu diaspora). Each of these distinct forms has specific attributes and weapons, which are…

  • Archadelt, Jacques (French composer)

    Jacques Arcadelt, composer of madrigals whose early style—characterized by sonorous homophony and combined with the texts of such poets as Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Jacopo Sannazzaro, Pietro Bembo, and Michelangelo—helped establish that musical form as a serious art form. Arcadelt produced

  • Archaea (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • archaea (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • archaean (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • Archaean Eon (geochronology)

    Archean Eon, the earlier of the two formal divisions of Precambrian time (about 4.6 billion to 541 million years ago) and the period when life first formed on Earth. The Archean Eon began about 4 billion years ago with the formation of Earth’s crust and extended to the start of the Proterozoic Eon

  • archaebacteria (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • archaebacterium (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • Archaefructus (fossil plant genus)

    Archaefructus, extinct genus of aquatic flowering plants (angiosperms) from northeastern China dated to the Early Cretaceous Epoch (145 million to 100 million years ago). The genus includes three described species: Archaefructus eoflora, A. liaoningensis, and A. sinensis. The fossils come from

  • Archaefructus eoflora (fossil plant)

    Archaefructus: …genus includes three described species: Archaefructus eoflora, A. liaoningensis, and A. sinensis. The fossils come from lacustrine (lake and pond) deposits of the Yixian Formation, which also preserves some of China’s famous feathered dinosaurs, early birds, mammals, and a wide range of

  • Archaefructus liaoningensis (fossil plant)

    Archaefructus: …three described species: Archaefructus eoflora, A. liaoningensis, and A. sinensis. The fossils come from lacustrine (lake and pond) deposits of the Yixian Formation, which also preserves some of China’s famous feathered dinosaurs, early birds, mammals, and a wide range of plants. The first report of Archaefructus suggested that it

  • Archaefructus sinensis (fossil plant)

    Archaefructus: liaoningensis, and A. sinensis. The fossils come from lacustrine (lake and pond) deposits of the Yixian Formation, which also preserves some of China’s famous feathered dinosaurs, early birds, mammals, and a wide range of plants. The first report of Archaefructus suggested that it emerged during the Jurassic…

  • archaeobacteria (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • archaeobacterium (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • archaeocete (fossil mammal suborder)

    cetacean: Paleontology: …whether the first cetaceans (archaeocetes) descended from an extinct group of large carnivores called mesonychids or from a group of hoofed herbivores (artiodactyls). The earliest archaeocetes were huge dolphinlike creatures 6 to 10 metres long. Basilosaurus (Zeuglodon) was an unusual genus that was up to 34 metres long, but…

  • Archaeoceti (fossil mammal suborder)

    cetacean: Paleontology: …whether the first cetaceans (archaeocetes) descended from an extinct group of large carnivores called mesonychids or from a group of hoofed herbivores (artiodactyls). The earliest archaeocetes were huge dolphinlike creatures 6 to 10 metres long. Basilosaurus (Zeuglodon) was an unusual genus that was up to 34 metres long, but…

  • Archaeocyatha (fossil marine organism)

    Archaeocyathid, any member of an extinct group of marine organisms of uncertain relationships found as fossils in marine limestones of Late Precambrian and Early Cambrian age (Precambrian time ended about 542 million years ago and was followed by the Cambrian). The archaeocyathid fossils represent

  • archaeocyathid (fossil marine organism)

    Archaeocyathid, any member of an extinct group of marine organisms of uncertain relationships found as fossils in marine limestones of Late Precambrian and Early Cambrian age (Precambrian time ended about 542 million years ago and was followed by the Cambrian). The archaeocyathid fossils represent

  • archaeocyte (biology)

    annelid: Tissues and fluids: …granules are taken up by amoebocytes, which increase in size, becoming large brown bodies that are never eliminated from the body.

  • Archaeogastropoda (gastropod order)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: …at visceral loop; orders include Archaeogastropoda (long cerebropleural connectives) and Apogastropoda (bifurcate tentacle nerves, 2 pedal commissures); at least 20,000 species. Subclass Opisthobranchia (Euthyneura) (bubble shells, sea hares, nudibranchs, and snails) Marine, limnic, or terrestrial snails and slugs without operculum; visceral loop with

  • Archaeognatha (arthropod order)

    Bristletail, (order Archaeognatha), any of approximately 350 species of primitive wingless insects that measure from 5 to 20 mm (0.2 to 0.8 inch) in length when they are fully grown and have three slender bristlelike appendages at the tip of the abdomen. Bristletails have small compound eyes and

  • Archaeolemuridae (extinct primate family)

    primate: Classification: Family Archaeolemuridae (baboon lemurs) 2 recently extinct genera and 3 species from Madagascar, all extinct within the past 2,000 years. Holocene. Infraorder Lorisiformes 2 families. Family Lorisidae 4 or more genera, 11 or more species

  • archaeological chronology

    Archaeological timescale, chronology that describes a period of human or protohuman prehistory. Some archaeological timescales are based on relative dating techniques, such as stratigraphy, which illuminate a sequence of change. Others are based on chronometric (absolute) methods such as carbon-14

  • archaeological museum

    museum: Museums of antiquities: …of the Black Sea, four archaeological museums were opened, at Feodosiya, Kerch, Nikolayev, and Odessa (all now located in Ukraine). The Museum of Northern Antiquities was opened in Copenhagen in 1819 (it was there that its first director, Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, developed the three-part system of classifying prehistory into the…

  • Archaeological Museum at Olympia (museum, Olympia, Greece)

    Olympia: History and excavations: The Archaeological Museum at Olympia opened in its present location in 1982.

  • Archaeological Museum of Barcelona and Institute of Prehistory and Archaeology (museum, Barcelona, Spain)

    Archaeological Museum of Barcelona, institution in Barcelona, Spain, notable for its collection of prehistoric objects and for its collection of ancient Greek and Roman art and examples illustrating Iberian archaeology. Exhibits include a scale model of a part of the excavation at Ampurias

  • Archaeological Museum of Istanbul (museum, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Osman Hamdi Bey: Hamdi Bey founded the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul and became its director in 1881. His taste and energy did much to establish the reputation of the museum and its impressive collection of Greco-Roman antiquities. Included among the treasures that he secured for the museum are the famous Greek sarcophagi…

  • Archaeological Museum of Piraeus (museum, Piraeus, Greece)

    ancient Greek civilization: Social and commercial exchanges: Bilingual inscriptions in the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus, in Greek and Aramaic, testify to the presence of Phoenician traders, who also left more strictly epigraphic traces. (Conversely, Greco-Aramaic stelae in the Archaeological Museums in Istanbul may attest Greek or partially Greek settlements in the Persian empire.) An

  • archaeological reconnaissance

    anthropology: Archaeology: These include archaeological survey (reconnaissance), excavation, and detailed analysis of recovered artifacts. Survey, or the discovery and recording of archaeological sites or other human-created features, such as roads and irrigation systems, is usually the first phase of archaeological research. Archaeological survey often employs aerial photographs and satellite…

  • archaeological survey

    anthropology: Archaeology: These include archaeological survey (reconnaissance), excavation, and detailed analysis of recovered artifacts. Survey, or the discovery and recording of archaeological sites or other human-created features, such as roads and irrigation systems, is usually the first phase of archaeological research. Archaeological survey often employs aerial photographs and satellite…

  • archaeological timescale

    Archaeological timescale, chronology that describes a period of human or protohuman prehistory. Some archaeological timescales are based on relative dating techniques, such as stratigraphy, which illuminate a sequence of change. Others are based on chronometric (absolute) methods such as carbon-14

  • archaeology

    Archaeology, the scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities. These include human artifacts from the very earliest stone tools to the man-made objects that are buried or thrown away in the present day: everything made by human beings—from simple tools to complex

  • Archaeomeryx (fossil mammal genus)

    artiodactyl: Evolution and paleontology: A possible ruminant ancestor was Archaeomeryx from the upper Eocene of China, a small animal that already had a fused naviculo-cuboid bone in the ankle. Tragulids occurred in Africa and Eurasia back to the Miocene, and the more advanced gelocids are known from the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene. At…

  • archaeon (prokaryote)

    Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms,

  • Archaeopteris (fossil plant genus)

    Archaeopteris, genus of plants that was probably the first true tree to form forests during the Late Devonian Epoch (about 385 to 359 million years ago). Fossils of Archaeopteris confirm the presence of a woody trunk and branching patterns similar to those of modern conifers, but with fernlike

  • Archaeopteryx (fossil animal genus)

    Archaeopteryx, genus of feathered dinosaur that was once thought to be the oldest known fossil bird. The 11–12 described specimens date to approximately 150 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Epoch (163.5 million to 145 million years ago), and all were found in the Solnhofen Limestone

  • Archaeopteryx lithographica (fossil animal genus)

    Archaeopteryx, genus of feathered dinosaur that was once thought to be the oldest known fossil bird. The 11–12 described specimens date to approximately 150 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Epoch (163.5 million to 145 million years ago), and all were found in the Solnhofen Limestone

  • Archaeornithes (fossil bird subclass)

    vertebrate: Annotated classification: Subclass Archaeornithes ?Extinct; teeth in both jaws; long, feathered tail; less specialized for flight; body elongated and reptilelike; forelimb had 3 clawed digits; small brain and eyes; nonpneumatic bones. Subclass Neornithes (true birds) Well-developed sternum; tail is not long; no teeth; forelimbs modified to wings; teeth

  • Archaeornithura meemannae (fossil bird)

    bird: Fossil birds: …lineage of modern birds is Archaeornithura meemannae. The species was described in 2015 after having been found in rocks of the Huajiying Formation of northeastern China that date to 130.7 million years ago.

  • Archaeosigillaria (fossil plant)

    Africa: The Paleozoic Era: Fossilized plants that include Archaeosigillaria (ancient club mosses) may be traced in formations of the earlier Devonian Period in the Sahara and in South Africa (Witteberg Series).

  • Archaeosporales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Archaeosporales Arbuscular mycorrhizal; example genera include Archaeospora and Geosiphon. Class Glomeromycetes Arbuscular mycorrhizal; single or clustered spores; contains 4 orders. Order Diversisporales Arbuscular mycorrhizal; forms complexes

  • Archaeosporomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Archaeosporomycetes Arbuscular mycorrhizal; spores form singly or in loose clusters. Order Archaeosporales Arbuscular mycorrhizal; example genera include Archaeospora and Geosiphon. Class Glomeromycetes Arbuscular mycorrhizal; single or

  • Archaeostraca (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: ?Order Archaeostraca Devonian to Triassic. ?Order Hoplostraca Carboniferous. Order Leptostraca Permian to present; bivalved carapace encloses 8 pairs of leaflike limbs; movable rostrum; telson with caudal rami; marine; about 10 species.

  • Archaeplastida (biology)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: >Archaeplastida Consists mostly of photosynthetic algae; evolved from a heterotrophic ancestor that acquired a plastid via primary endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium; this ancestor may be common to all groups within Archaeplastida, or multiple endosymbiotic events may have occurred. Only known lineage with primary plastids until…

  • Archaic Chinese language

    Chinese languages: …Proto-Sinitic (Proto-Chinese; until 500 bc), Archaic (Old) Chinese (8th to 3rd century bc), Ancient (Middle) Chinese (through ad 907), and Modern Chinese (from c. the 10th century to modern times). The Proto-Sinitic period is the period of the most ancient inscriptions and poetry; most loanwords in Chinese were borrowed after…

  • Archaic culture (ancient American Indian culture)

    Archaic culture, any of the ancient cultures of North or South America that developed from Paleo-Indian traditions and led to the adoption of agriculture. Archaic cultures are defined by a group of common characteristics rather than a particular time period or location; in Mesoamerica, Archaic

  • Archaic Greek lyric (poetry)

    Horace: Life: …to the ideals of the Archaic Greek lyric, in which the poet was also the bard of the community, and the poet’s verse could be expected to have a political effect. In his erotic Epodes, Horace began assimilating themes of the Archaic lyric into the Hellenistic atmosphere, a process that…

  • Archaic period (art history)

    Archaic period, in history and archaeology, the earliest phases of a culture; the term is most frequently used by art historians to denote the period of artistic development in Greece from about 650 to 480 bc, the date of the Persian sack of Athens. During the Archaic period, Greek art became less

  • Archaic smile (Greek sculpture)

    Archaic smile, the smile that characteristically appears on the faces of Greek statues of the Archaic period (c. 650–480 bc), especially those from the second quarter of the 6th century bc. The significance of the convention is not known, although it is often assumed that for the Greeks this kind

  • archaism (linguistics)

    dialect: Dialectal change and diffusion: …with the unchanged usage (archaism) in dialect B. Sometimes a separate innovation occurs in each of the two dialects. Of course, different innovations will appear in different dialects, so, in comparison with its contemporaries, no one dialect as a whole can be considered archaic in any absolute sense. A…

  • archangel (religion)

    Archangel, any of several chiefs, rulers, or princes of angels in the hierarchy of angels of the major Western religions, especially Judaism, Christianity, and Islām, and of certain syncretic religions, such as Gnosticism. See

  • Archangel (Russia)

    Arkhangelsk, city and administrative centre of Arkhangelsk oblast (province), Russia, on the Northern Dvina River, 30 miles (50 km) from the White Sea. With its suburbs, Solombala and Ekonomiya, the city extends for 10 miles along the river. Founded in 1584 as the fortified monastery of the

  • Archangel Cathedral (cathedral, Moscow, Russia)

    Moscow: The Kremlin: Michael the Archangel, was rebuilt in 1505–08; in it are buried the princes of Moscow and the tsars of Russia (except Boris Godunov) up to the founding of St. Petersburg.

  • Archangel Michael, Legion of the (Romanian organization)

    Iron Guard, Romanian fascist organization that constituted a major social and political force between 1930 and 1941. In 1927 Corneliu Zelea Codreanu founded the Legion of the Archangel Michael, which later became known as the Legion or Legionary Movement; it was committed to the “Christian and

  • Archangel Michael, Union of the (Russian organization)

    Vladimir Mitrofanovich Purishkevich: …splinter group known as the Union of the Archangel Michael. A vigorous supporter of the Russian war effort during World War I, Purishkevich was one of the conspirators in the murder of Grigory Rasputin in December 1916.

  • Archangel tar

    wood tar: Pine-wood tar, commonly called Stockholm, or Archangel, tar, is made extensively in the forests of Russia, Sweden, and Finland. It is the residue after the turpentine has been distilled, usually with the aid of steam. It is widely used in manufacturing tarred ropes and twine…

  • archbishop (ecclesiastical title)

    Archbishop, in the Christian church, a bishop who, in addition to his ordinary episcopal authority in his own diocese, usually has jurisdiction (but no superiority of order) over the other bishops of a province. The functions of an archbishop developed out of those of the metropolitan, a bishop

  • Archbishop Laud, 1573–1645 (work by Trevor-Roper)

    Hugh Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton: His first book was Archbishop Laud, 1573–1645 (1940), a biography of the archbishop of Canterbury and adviser to King Charles I. During World War II, Trevor-Roper was an intelligence officer and helped investigate Hitler’s death. In 1947 his book The Last Days of Hitler was published, and it quickly…

  • Archbold’s bowerbird (bird)

    bowerbird: …made by Archbold’s bowerbird (Archboldia papuensis). The stagemaker, or tooth-billed catbird (Scenopoeetes dentirostris), of forests of northeastern Australia, arranges leaves silvery-side up (withered ones are carried aside) to form a “circus ring.”

  • Archboldia papuensis (bird)

    bowerbird: …made by Archbold’s bowerbird (Archboldia papuensis). The stagemaker, or tooth-billed catbird (Scenopoeetes dentirostris), of forests of northeastern Australia, arranges leaves silvery-side up (withered ones are carried aside) to form a “circus ring.”

  • archchancellor (diplomatics)

    diplomatics: The royal chanceries of medieval France and Germany: …of the chancery were the archchancellors, but the office was entirely honorary and soon came to be automatically held, as far as Germany was concerned, by whoever was archbishop of Mainz. When the German kings or emperors established administrations in Italy, Italian bishops were at first made archchancellors for Italy,…

  • archdeacon (ecclesiastical title)

    Archdeacon, in the Christian church, originally the chief deacon at the bishop’s church; during the European Middle Ages, a chief official of the diocese; an honorary title in the modern Roman Catholic church. The name was first used in the 4th century, although a similar office existed in the

  • archdiocese (Roman Catholicism)

    history of Europe: Ecclesiastical organization: The archdiocese was divided into dioceses, each ruled by a bishop, who supervised his own administration and episcopal court. In ecclesiastical tradition, bishops were considered the successors of the Apostles, and a strong sense of episcopal collegiality between pope and bishops survived well into the age…

  • archduchess (Habsburg title)

    Archduke, a title, proper in modern times for members of the house of Habsburg. The title of archduke Palatine (Pfalz-Erzherzog) was first assumed by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, on the strength of a forged privilege, in the hope of gaining for the dukes of Austria an equal status with the electors

  • archduke (Habsburg title)

    Archduke, a title, proper in modern times for members of the house of Habsburg. The title of archduke Palatine (Pfalz-Erzherzog) was first assumed by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, on the strength of a forged privilege, in the hope of gaining for the dukes of Austria an equal status with the electors

  • Archduke Leopold William in His Picture Gallery in Brussels, The (painting by Teniers)

    David Teniers, the Younger: , The Archduke Leopold William in His Picture Gallery in Brussels, c. 1651; Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna). He also made many small-scale individual copies of paintings in the archduke’s collection by foreign artists, especially Italians. Of these, 244 were engraved in 1660 under the title Theatrum Pictorium.…

  • Archduke Trio (work by Beethoven)

    Archduke Trio, trio for piano, violin, and cello by Ludwig van Beethoven, which premiered on April 11, 1814, in Vienna. The premiere of the Archduke Trio was one of Beethoven’s final concert performances as a pianist, because of his increasing deafness. Dedicated to Archduke Rudolf of

  • arche (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Monistic cosmologies: Thus, the term arche, which originally simply meant “beginning,” acquired the new meaning of “principle,” a term that henceforth played an enormous role in philosophy down to the present. This concept of a principle that remains the same through many transmutations is, furthermore, the presupposition of the idea…

  • Archean Eon (geochronology)

    Archean Eon, the earlier of the two formal divisions of Precambrian time (about 4.6 billion to 541 million years ago) and the period when life first formed on Earth. The Archean Eon began about 4 billion years ago with the formation of Earth’s crust and extended to the start of the Proterozoic Eon

  • Archean Eonothem (stratigraphy)

    Australia: Chronological summary: Archean rocks (those more than 2.5 billion years old) crop out within the two-thirds of Australia that lies west of the Tasman Line. Individual blocks of Archean rocks became embedded in Proterozoic fold belts (those from about 2.5 billion to 541 million years old) to…

  • arched belly (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: The arched belly (or soundboard) of the violin and its relatives is supported in a curiously unorthodox and individual way, quite different from the regular barring of instruments with flat soundboards. The sound post is a loose stick of pine, carefully cut to size, that is…

  • arched harp (musical instrument)

    Arched harp, musical instrument in which the neck extends from and forms a bow-shaped curve with the body. One of the principal forms of harp, it is apparently also the most ancient: depictions of arched harps survive from Sumer and Egypt from about 3000 bc. Both areas had harps played in vertical

  • archegonia (plant anatomy)

    Archegonium, the female reproductive organ in ferns and mosses. An archegonium also occurs in some gymnosperms, e.g., cycads and conifers. A flask-shaped structure, it consists of a neck, with one or more layers of cells, and a swollen base—the venter—which contains the egg. Neck-canal cells,

  • archegonium (plant anatomy)

    Archegonium, the female reproductive organ in ferns and mosses. An archegonium also occurs in some gymnosperms, e.g., cycads and conifers. A flask-shaped structure, it consists of a neck, with one or more layers of cells, and a swollen base—the venter—which contains the egg. Neck-canal cells,

  • Archelaus (king of Macedonia)

    Archelaus, king of Macedonia from 413 to 399. Although he acceded to power illegally, Archelaus was a capable and beneficent ruler. His father was King Perdiccas II (reigned c. 450–413) and his mother a slave. Archelaus seized the throne after murdering his uncle, his cousin, and his half brother,

  • Archelaus (king of Judaea)

    Herod Archelaus, son and principal heir of Herod I the Great as king of Judaea, deposed by Rome because of his unpopularity with the Jews. Named in his father’s will as ruler of the largest part of the Judaean kingdom—Judaea proper, Idumaea, and Samaria—Archelaus went to Rome (4 bc) to defend his

  • Archelaus (king of Cappadocia)

    Archelaus, last king of Cappadocia (reigned 36 bc–c. ad 17), a Roman client during the late republic and the early empire. Although granted the kingdom by Mark Antony, Archelaus retained his crown by making peace with Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) after Antony’s defeat at the Battle of

Your preference has been recorded
Get a Premium membership for 30% off!
Save 30% with our Memorial Day Sale!
港台一级毛片免费观看