You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • abutilon (plant)

    Abutilon, (genus Abutilon), genus of over 100 species of herbaceous plants and partly woody shrubs of the mallow family (Malvaceae) native to tropical and warm temperate areas. It includes several species used as houseplants and in gardens for their white to deep orange, usually nodding,

  • Abutilon × hybridum (plant, Abutilon species)

    abutilon: Chinese lantern, also known as flowering maple (Abutilon ×hybridum), is planted outdoors in warm regions and grown in greenhouses elsewhere. It is a fast-growing shrub with attractive hanging flowers. Another species, sometimes known as redvein flowering maple (A. pictum), is a handsome variegated-leaf shrub reaching…

  • Abutilon avicennae (plant)

    Velvetleaf, (Abutilon theophrasti), annual hairy plant of the mallow family (Malvaceae) native to southern Asia. The plant is cultivated in northern China for its fibre and is widely naturalized in warmer regions of North America, where it is often a serious agricultural weed. It grows 0.6–2.4

  • Abutilon megapotamicum (plant)

    abutilon: The trailing abutilon (A. megapotamicum), often grown as a hanging plant, is noted for its nodding, yellowish orange, closed flowers.

  • Abutilon pictum (plant)

    abutilon: Another species, sometimes known as redvein flowering maple (A. pictum), is a handsome variegated-leaf shrub reaching a height of 4.5 metres (15 feet) and is grown as a houseplant. The trailing abutilon (A. megapotamicum), often grown as a hanging plant, is noted for its nodding, yellowish orange, closed flowers.

  • Abutilon theophrasti (plant)

    Velvetleaf, (Abutilon theophrasti), annual hairy plant of the mallow family (Malvaceae) native to southern Asia. The plant is cultivated in northern China for its fibre and is widely naturalized in warmer regions of North America, where it is often a serious agricultural weed. It grows 0.6–2.4

  • Abuyazidu (African legendary prince)

    Daura: …of western Africa relates that Bayajida (Abuyazidu), a son of the king of Baghdad, killed Sarki, the fetish snake at the town’s well, and married the reigning Daura queen. Their descendants became the seven rulers of the Hausa Bakwai (The Seven True Hausa States). Daura thus became a Hausa state…

  • Abuza, Sophie (American singer)

    Sophie Tucker, American singer whose 62-year stage career included American burlesque, vaudeville, and nightclub and English music hall appearances. Born somewhere in Russia as her mother was on her way to join her father in the United States, Sophie Kalish grew up in Boston and then in Hartford,

  • Abū? al-Khayr Khan (Uzbek ruler)

    Uzbekistan: The early Uzbeks: A descendant of Genghis Khan, Abū?l-Khayr (Abū al-Khayr) at age 17 rose to the khanship of the Uzbek confederation in Siberia in 1428. During his 40-year reign, Abū?l-Khayr Khan intervened either against or in support of several Central Asian Timurid princes and led the Uzbek tribes southeastward to the north…

  • Abū?l Khayr (Kazak ruler)

    Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan to c. 1700 ce: …skills of that horde’s khan, Abū al-Khayr (1718–49), who managed to forge a temporary all-Kazakh alliance—it was less devastating. The elimination of the Dzungar threat came in the form of Chinese (Manchu) intervention; in 1757–58 the Qianlong emperor launched two major campaigns, in the course of which the Dzungars were,…

  • Abū?l-Khayr Khan (Uzbek ruler)

    Uzbekistan: The early Uzbeks: A descendant of Genghis Khan, Abū?l-Khayr (Abū al-Khayr) at age 17 rose to the khanship of the Uzbek confederation in Siberia in 1428. During his 40-year reign, Abū?l-Khayr Khan intervened either against or in support of several Central Asian Timurid princes and led the Uzbek tribes southeastward to the north…

  • Abū?l-Majd Majdūd ibn ādam (Persian poet)

    Sanā?ī, Persian poet, author of the first great mystical poem in the Persian language, whose verse had great influence on Persian and Muslim literature. Little is known of Sanā?ī’s early life. He was a resident of Ghazna and served for a time as poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultans, composing

  • Abya?, Al-Ba?r Al- (river, Africa)

    White Nile River, section of the Nile between Malakal, South Sudan, and Khartoum, Sudan. It is formed by the confluence of the Mountain Nile (Ba?r al-Jabal) and the Sobat River above Malakal, and it flows for about 500 miles (800 km) northeast and north past Al-Rank, Kūstī (railway bridge),

  • Abya?, Al-Jāmi? al- (mosque, Ramla, Israel)

    Ramla: …fortifications, and, above all, the White Mosque (Al-Jāmi? al-Abya?). Only ruins of these remain, but the minaret of the White Mosque, the so-called White Tower, 89 feet (27 m) tall, added by the Mamlūk sultan Baybars (reigned 1260–77), still stands. During the First Crusade (1096–99), the city was captured and…

  • Abya?, Jūrj (Egyptian actor)

    Arabic literature: Literary drama: …troupes, while the famous actor Jūrj Abya?—a Christian from Syria—took his renowned troupe from Egypt to Iraq in 1926.

  • Abydos (ancient city, Egypt)

    Abydos, prominent sacred city and one of the most important archaeological sites of ancient Egypt. The site, located in the low desert west of the Nile River near Al-Balyanā, was a necropolis for the earliest Egyptian royalty and later a pilgrimage centre for the worship of Osiris. The western

  • Abydos (ancient city, Turkey)

    Abydos, ancient Anatolian town located just northeast of the modern Turkish town of ?anakkale on the east side of the Dardanelles (Hellespont). Probably originally a Thracian town, it was colonized about 670 bc by the Milesians. There Xerxes crossed the strait on his bridge of boats to invade

  • Abydos list of kings (Egyptian relief)

    Abydos: This is the so-called Abydos list of kings. The reliefs decorating the walls of this temple are of particular delicacy and beauty. Only 26 feet (8 metres) behind the temple of Seti I is a remarkable structure known as the Osireion, which is thought to be Seti’s cenotaph. This…

  • Abydos passion play (historical ritual)

    Western theatre: Ancient Egypt: The Abydos passion play depicts the slaying of Osiris and his followers by his brother Seth, the enactment of which apparently resulted in many real deaths. The figure of Osiris, symbolically represented in the play, is then torn to pieces by Seth, after which his remains…

  • Abyei (region, Sudan)

    Sudan: Multiparty elections and preparations for southern independence: …alarming situation in the disputed Abyei region. Under the terms of the 2005 CPA, the region was jointly administered by northern and southern Sudanese until its final status could be determined, which, with the indefinite postponement of the Abyei referendum, was still pending. There had been scattered amounts of low-level…

  • Abyss, The (work by Yourcenar)

    Marguerite Yourcenar: …is L’Oeuvre au noir (1968; The Abyss), an imaginary biography of a 16th-century alchemist and scholar. Among Yourcenar’s other works are the short stories collected in Nouvelles orientales (1938; Oriental Tales), the prose poem Feux (1936; Fires), and the short novel Le Coup de grace (1939; Eng. trans. Coup de…

  • abyssal circulation (hydrology)

    ocean current: Thermohaline circulation: …to as the deep, or abyssal, ocean circulation. Measuring seawater temperature and salinity distribution is the chief method of studying the deep-flow patterns. Other properties also are examined; for example, the concentrations of oxygen, carbon-14, and such synthetically produced compounds as chlorofluorocarbons are measured to obtain resident times and spreading…

  • abyssal cone (geology)

    turbidite: …where they build features called abyssal cones. In addition, abyssal plains are formed by the accumulation of turbidites beyond the limits of deep-sea fans and abyssal cones in locations where there is a very large sediment supply.

  • abyssal gap (geology)

    Submarine gap, steep-sided furrow that cuts transversely across a ridge or rise; such a passageway has a steeper slope than either of the two abyssal plains it connects. Grooves known as interplain channels exist in many submarine gaps; the sediments in these channels are continuously graded. The g

  • abyssal hill (geology)

    Abyssal hill, small, topographically well-defined submarine hill that may rise from several metres to several hundred metres above the abyssal seafloor, in water 3,000 to 6,000 metres (10,000 to 20,000 feet) deep. Typical abyssal hills have diameters of several to several hundred metres. They

  • abyssal plain (geology)

    Abyssal plain, flat seafloor area at an abyssal depth (3,000 to 6,000 m [10,000 to 20,000 feet]), generally adjacent to a continent. These submarine surfaces vary in depth only from 10 to 100 cm per kilometre of horizontal distance. Irregular in outline but generally elongate along continental

  • abyssal zone (geology)

    Abyssal zone, portion of the ocean deeper than about 2,000 m (6,600 feet) and shallower than about 6,000 m (20,000 feet). The zone is defined mainly by its extremely uniform environmental conditions, as reflected in the distinct life forms inhabiting it. The upper boundary between the abyssal zone

  • abyssalpelagic zone (oceanography)

    marine ecosystem: Geography, oceanography, and topography: …to 4,000 metres, and the abyssalpelagic, which encompasses the deepest parts of the oceans from 4,000 metres to the recesses of the deep-sea trenches.

  • Abyssinia (historical region, Africa)

    eastern Africa: Abyssinia: The Christians retreated into what may be called Abyssinia, an easily defensible, socially cohesive unit that included mostly Christian, Semitic-speaking peoples in a territory comprising most of Eritrea, Tigray, and Gonder and parts of Gojam, Shewa, and Welo. For the next two centuries Abyssinia…

  • Abyssinian (people)

    Amhara, people of the Ethiopian central highlands. The Amhara are one of the two largest ethnolinguistic groups in Ethiopia (the other group being the Oromo). They constitute more than one-fourth of the country’s population. The Amharic language is an Afro-Asiatic language belonging to the

  • Abyssinian (breed of cat)

    Abyssinian, breed of domestic cat, probably of Egyptian origin, that has been considered to approximate the sacred cat of ancient Egypt more closely than any other living cat. The Abyssinian is a lithe cat with relatively slender legs and a long, tapering tail. The short, finely textured coat is

  • Abyssinian Baptist Church (church, New York City, New York, United States)

    Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: …of the pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York City. Brought up in a middle-class home, he received his B.A. from Colgate University (Hamilton, N.Y.) in 1930 and his M.A. from Columbia University in 1932. He succeeded his father as pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in…

  • Abyssinian black-and-white colobus (primate)

    Guereza, any of several species of colobus monkeys distinguished by their black and white pelts, especially Colobus guereza from the East African mountains of Uganda and northern Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Abyssinian colobus (primate)

    Guereza, any of several species of colobus monkeys distinguished by their black and white pelts, especially Colobus guereza from the East African mountains of Uganda and northern Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Abyssinian gonolek (bird)

    shrike: …bright red below are the black-headed, or Abyssinian, gonolek (L. erythrogaster) and the Barbary shrike (L. barbarus).

  • Abyssinian ibex (mammal)

    ibex: pyrenaica) and the walia, or Abyssinian ibex (C. walie), which has been reduced to a single population of about 400 individuals in Ethiopia and whose numbers are still declining. Two subspecies of Spanish ibex are now extinct (C. pyrenaica pyrenaica, which lived in the Pyrenees, and C. pyrenaica lusitanica, which…

  • Abyssinian wolf (mammal)

    wolf: Other wolves: The critically endangered Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis) looks similar to the coyote. It lives in a few isolated areas of grassland and heath scrub at high elevations in Ethiopia. Although it lives in packs, the wolves hunt alone for rodents and other small mammals.

  • Abyssocottidae (fish family)

    scorpaeniform: Annotated classification: Family Abyssocottidae Postcleithra reduced or absent; pelvic fin with 1 spine and 2–4 soft rays; vertebrae 30–37. Freshwater, Siberia. 6 genera with 22 species. Family Hemitripteridae Marine. Northwestern Atlantic and North Pacific. 3 genera with 8 species. Assorted References

  • Abzu, Lord of (Mesopotamian deity)

    Ea, Mesopotamian god of water and a member of the triad of deities completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Enlil. From a local deity worshiped in the city of Eridu, Ea evolved into a major god, Lord of Apsu (also spelled Abzu), the fresh waters beneath the earth (although Enki means literally “lord of

  • Abzug, Bella (American politician)

    Bella Abzug, U.S. congresswoman (1971–77) and lawyer who founded several liberal political organizations for women and was a prominent opponent of the Vietnam War and a supporter of equal rights for women. The daughter of Russian-Jewish émigrés, Bella Savitsky attended Hunter College (B.A., 1942)

  • AC (electronics)

    Alternating current, flow of electric charge that periodically reverses. It starts, say, from zero, grows to a maximum, decreases to zero, reverses, reaches a maximum in the opposite direction, returns again to the original value, and repeats this cycle indefinitely. The interval of time between

  • Ac (chemical element)

    Actinium (Ac), radioactive chemical element, in Group 3 (IIIb) of the periodic table, atomic number 89. Actinium was discovered (1899) by French chemist André-Louis Debierne in pitchblende residues left after French physicists Pierre and Marie Curie had extracted radium from them, and it was also

  • AC Milan (Italian football club)

    AC Milan, Italian professional football (soccer) club based in Milan. AC Milan is nicknamed the Rossoneri (“Red and Blacks”) because of the team’s distinctive red-and-black striped jerseys. The winner of 18 Serie A (Italy’s top football division) league championships, the club is also one of the

  • AC transformer (electronics)

    Transformer, device that transfers electric energy from one alternating-current circuit to one or more other circuits, either increasing (stepping up) or reducing (stepping down) the voltage. Transformers are employed for widely varying purposes; e.g., to reduce the voltage of conventional power

  • AC voltammetry (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: AC voltametry: During AC voltammetry an alternating potential is added to the DC potential ramp used for LSV. Only the AC portion of the total current is measured and plotted as a function of the DC potential portion of the potential ramp. Because flow of an…

  • AC/DC (Australian rock group)

    AC/DC, Australian heavy metal band whose theatrical, high-energy shows placed them among the most popular stadium performers of the 1980s. The principal members were Angus Young(b. March 31, 1955, Glasgow, Scotland),Malcolm Young(b. January 6, 1953, Glasgow—d. November 18, 2017, Sydney, Australia),

  • ACA (Australian government agency)

    Australia: Transportation and telecommunications: …on telecommunications providers, and the Australian Communications Authority (ACA), established in 1999, which licenses carriers and reports to the minister for communications. With the opening of competition, by the early 21st century there were some 70 ACA-licensed providers.

  • ACA (Irish history)

    Blueshirt, popular name for a member of the Army Comrades Association (ACA), who wore blue shirts in imitation of the European fascist movements that had adopted coloured shirts as their uniforms. Initially composed of former soldiers in the Irish Free State Army, the ACA was founded in response to

  • acacia (tree)

    Acacia, (genus Acacia), genus of about 160 species of trees and shrubs in the pea family (Fabaceae). Acacias are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly Australia (where they are called wattles) and Africa, where they are well-known landmarks on the veld and savanna.

  • Acacia (tree)

    Acacia, (genus Acacia), genus of about 160 species of trees and shrubs in the pea family (Fabaceae). Acacias are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly Australia (where they are called wattles) and Africa, where they are well-known landmarks on the veld and savanna.

  • Acacia albida (tree)

    Africa: Botanical resources: The Albida acacia tree of the “farmed parkland” areas of western Africa is of special economic importance. Unlike almost all other dry woodland trees, whose leaf shedding normally occurs at the onset of the dry season, the Albida appears to have a period of partial dormancy…

  • acacia ant (insect)

    Bagheera kiplingi: …stinging ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex, which live inside the swollen thorns of the trees. Pseudomyrmex ants have a well-characterized mutualistic relationship with swollen-thorn acacias; the plants depend on the aggressive nature of Pseudomyrmex to protect against animal predators, and the ants depend on the trees’ Beltian bodies and nectar…

  • Acacia arabica (tree)

    acacia: Major species: The babul tree (Vachellia nilotica, formerly A. arabica), of tropical Africa and across Asia, yields both an inferior type of gum arabic and a tannin that is extensively used in India. Sweet acacia (V. farnesiana, formerly A. farnesiana) is native to the southwestern United States.

  • Acacia catechu (tree)

    Nepal: Plant life: These forests consist mainly of khair (Acacia catechu), a spring tree with yellow flowers and flat pods; sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), an East Indian tree yielding dark brown durable timber; and sal (Shorea robusta), an East Indian timber tree with foliage providing food for lac insects (which deposit lac, a resinous…

  • Acacia collinsii (plant)

    angiosperm: Contribution to food chain: …petioles of bull’s-horn thorn (Acacia collinsii; Fabaceae). Ants live inside the hollow modified spinous structures of bull’s-horn thorn and feed on the nectar. In return for this food source, they attack and destroy animals of all sizes as well as other plants that contact the acacia plant. In doing…

  • Acacia dealbata (plant)

    acacia: Major species: decurrens), and the silver wattle (A. dealbata). A few species produce valuable timber, among them the Australian blackwood (A. melanoxylon); the yarran (A. omalophylla), also of Australia; and A. koa of Hawaii. Many of the Australian acacia species have been widely introduced elsewhere as cultivated small trees valued…

  • Acacia decurrens (plant)

    acacia: Major species: pycnantha), the green wattle (A. decurrens), and the silver wattle (A. dealbata). A few species produce valuable timber, among them the Australian blackwood (A. melanoxylon); the yarran (A. omalophylla), also of Australia; and A. koa of Hawaii. Many of the Australian acacia species have been widely introduced…

  • Acacia farnesiana (tree)

    acacia: Major species: Sweet acacia (V. farnesiana, formerly A. farnesiana) is native to the southwestern United States.

  • Acacia homalophylla (plant)

    acacia: Major species: melanoxylon); the yarran (A. omalophylla), also of Australia; and A. koa of Hawaii. Many of the Australian acacia species have been widely introduced elsewhere as cultivated small trees valued for their spectacular floral displays.

  • Acacia koa (tree)

    conservation: Secondary extinctions: …mainly on large koa (Acacia koa) trees (see acacia). Today, however, few koa forests remain, because the trees have been overharvested for their attractive wood. Yet another Hawaiian honeycreeper, a seed-eating species called the palila (Loxioides bailleui), is endangered because it depends almost exclusively on the seeds of one…

  • Acacia melanoxylon (plant)

    acacia: Major species: …valuable timber, among them the Australian blackwood (A. melanoxylon); the yarran (A. omalophylla), also of Australia; and A. koa of Hawaii. Many of the Australian acacia species have been widely introduced elsewhere as cultivated small trees valued for their spectacular floral displays.

  • Acacia nilotica (shrub)

    grassland: Biota: …invaded by the African shrub Acacia nilotica, introduced by humans.

  • Acacia pycnantha (plant)

    acacia: Major species: …of tannin, among them the golden wattle (A. pycnantha), the green wattle (A. decurrens), and the silver wattle (A. dealbata). A few species produce valuable timber, among them the Australian blackwood (A. melanoxylon); the yarran (A. omalophylla), also of Australia; and A. koa of Hawaii. Many of the

  • Acacia senegal (tree)

    acacia: Major species: Gum acacia (Acacia senegal), native to the Sudan region in Africa, yields true gum arabic, a substance used in adhesives, pharmaceuticals, inks, confections, and other products. The bark of most acacias is rich in tannin, which is used in tanning and in dyes, inks, pharmaceuticals, and other…

  • Acacian Schism (Christianity)

    Acacian Schism, (484–519), in Christian history, split between the patriarchate of Constantinople and the Roman see, caused by an edict by Byzantine patriarch Acacius that was deemed inadmissible by Pope Felix III. With the support of the Byzantine emperor Zeno, Acacius in 482 drew up an edict, the

  • Acacius (patriarch of Constantinople)

    Saint Felix III: Felix excommunicated Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, in 484 for publishing with the emperor Zeno a document called the Henotikon, which appeared to favour Monophysitism, a doctrine that had been denounced at the Council of Chalcedon (451). The excommunication created the 35-year Acacian Schism. Felix’ Lateran Council of…

  • Acacius (bishop of Caesarea)

    Homoean: …Christian Church, a follower of Acacius, bishop of Caesarea. The Homoeans taught a form of Arianism that asserted that the Son was distinct from, but like (Greek homoios), the Father, as opposed to the Nicene Creed, which stated that the Son is “of one substance” (Greek homoousios) with the Father.

  • Academeia (ancient academy, Athens, Greece)

    Academy, in ancient Greece, the academy, or college, of philosophy in the northwestern outskirts of Athens where Plato acquired property about 387 bce and used to teach. At the site there had been an olive grove, a park, and a gymnasium sacred to the legendary Attic hero Academus (or Hecademus).

  • Academia (ancient academy, Athens, Greece)

    Academy, in ancient Greece, the academy, or college, of philosophy in the northwestern outskirts of Athens where Plato acquired property about 387 bce and used to teach. At the site there had been an olive grove, a park, and a gymnasium sacred to the legendary Attic hero Academus (or Hecademus).

  • Academia, Bahía de la (bay, Ecuador)

    Academy Bay, bay at the south end of Santa Cruz (Indefatigable) Island (one of the Galapagos Islands), in the eastern Pacific Ocean about 600 miles (965 km) west of mainland Ecuador. Named in 1905 by the California Academy of Sciences Expedition, it is the site of the Charles Darwin Research

  • Academic American Encyclopedia

    encyclopaedia: CD-ROM encyclopaedias: , issued its Academic American Encyclopedia on CD-ROM. This text-only version received still illustrations in 1990, and in 1992, with the addition of audio and video, it became the New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Multimedia enhancement had been introduced in 1989 by Compton’s MultiMedia Encyclopedia, owned by Encyclop?dia Britannica,…

  • academic degree (title of academic achievement)

    Degree, in education, any of several titles conferred by colleges and universities to indicate the completion of a course of study or the extent of academic achievement. The hierarchy of degrees dates back to the universities of 13th-century Europe, which had faculties organized into guilds.

  • Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 (work by Brahms)

    Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80, overture composed by Johannes Brahms on the occasion of his receiving an honorary doctorate of music from the University of Breslau (now the University of Wroc?aw in Wroc?aw, Poland). The work was composed in 1880 and first performed on January 4, 1881. No doubt

  • academic freedom

    Academic freedom, the freedom of teachers and students to teach, study, and pursue knowledge and research without unreasonable interference or restriction from law, institutional regulations, or public pressure. Its basic elements include the freedom of teachers to inquire into any subject that

  • Academic Philosophy (work by Cicero)

    Marcus Tullius Cicero: Philosophy: …conversion; the difficult Academica (Academic Philosophy), which defends suspension of judgement; De finibus, (is it pleasure, virtue, or something more complex?); and De officiis (Moral Obligation). Except in the last book of De officiis, Cicero lays no claim to originality in these works. Writing to Atticus, he says of…

  • Academic Skepticism (philosophy)

    epistemology: Ancient Skepticism: The first, Academic Skepticism, arose in the Academy (the school founded by Plato) in the 3rd century bce and was propounded by the Greek philosopher Arcesilaus (c. 315–c. 240 bce), about whom Cicero (106–43 bce), Sextus Empiricus (flourished 3rd century ce

  • Academica (work by Cicero)

    Marcus Tullius Cicero: Philosophy: …conversion; the difficult Academica (Academic Philosophy), which defends suspension of judgement; De finibus, (is it pleasure, virtue, or something more complex?); and De officiis (Moral Obligation). Except in the last book of De officiis, Cicero lays no claim to originality in these works. Writing to Atticus, he says of…

  • académie (French education)

    higher education: Systems of higher education in France and Germany: French educational districts, called académies, are under the direction of a rector, an appointee of the national government who also is in charge of the university in each district. The uniformity in curriculum throughout the country leaves each university with little to distinguish itself. Hence, many students prefer to…

  • Académie des Sciences (French organization)

    Academy of Sciences, institution established in Paris in 1666 under the patronage of Louis XIV to advise the French government on scientific matters. This advisory role has been largely taken over by other bodies, but the academy is still an important representative of French science on the

  • Académie Fran?aise (French literary organization)

    French Academy, French literary academy, established by the French first minister Cardinal Richelieu in 1634 and incorporated in 1635. It has existed, except for an interruption during the era of the French Revolution, to the present day. The original purpose of the French Academy was to maintain

  • Académie Parisienne (French organization)

    Marin Mersenne: …Mersenne formed the informal, private Académie Parisienne (the precursor to the French Academy of Sciences), where many of the leading mathematicians and natural philosophers of France shared their research. He used this forum to disseminate the ideas of René Descartes, who had moved to the Netherlands in 1629. He also…

  • Académie Royal des Sciences (French organization)

    Academy of Sciences, institution established in Paris in 1666 under the patronage of Louis XIV to advise the French government on scientific matters. This advisory role has been largely taken over by other bodies, but the academy is still an important representative of French science on the

  • Académie Royale (historical art academy, Paris, France)

    Jacques-Louis David: Formative years: …in the school of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. After four failures in the official competitions and years of discouragement that included an attempt at suicide (by the stoic method of avoiding food), he finally obtained, in 1774, the Prix de Rome, a government scholarship that not only…

  • Académie Royale (school, Paris, France)

    école des Beaux-Arts, school of fine arts founded (as the Académie Royale d’Architecture) in Paris in 1671 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, minister of Louis XIV; it merged with the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (founded in 1648) in 1793. The school offered instruction in drawing, painting,

  • Académie Royale de Danse (French ballet company)

    Paris Opéra Ballet, ballet company established in France in 1661 by Louis XIV as the Royal Academy of Dance (Académie Royale de Danse) and amalgamated with the Royal Academy of Music in 1672. As part of the Théatre National de l’Opéra, the company dominated European theatrical dance of the 18th and

  • academy (organization)

    Academy, a society of learned individuals organized to advance art, science, literature, music, or some other cultural or intellectual area of endeavour. From its original reference in Greek to the philosophical school of Plato, the word has come to refer much more generally to an institution of

  • Academy (ancient academy, Athens, Greece)

    Academy, in ancient Greece, the academy, or college, of philosophy in the northwestern outskirts of Athens where Plato acquired property about 387 bce and used to teach. At the site there had been an olive grove, a park, and a gymnasium sacred to the legendary Attic hero Academus (or Hecademus).

  • academy (education)

    mathematics: Institutional background: The academy was the predominant institution of science until it was displaced by the university in the 19th century. The leading mathematicians of the period, such as Leonhard Euler, Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, and Joseph-Louis Lagrange, pursued academic careers at St. Petersburg, Paris, and London.

  • Academy Award (motion-picture award)

    Academy Award, any of a number of awards presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, located in Beverly Hills, California, U.S., to recognize achievement in the film industry. The awards were first presented in 1929, and winners receive a gold-plated statuette commonly

  • Academy Award of Merit (motion-picture award)

    Academy Award, any of a number of awards presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, located in Beverly Hills, California, U.S., to recognize achievement in the film industry. The awards were first presented in 1929, and winners receive a gold-plated statuette commonly

  • Academy Bay (bay, Ecuador)

    Academy Bay, bay at the south end of Santa Cruz (Indefatigable) Island (one of the Galapagos Islands), in the eastern Pacific Ocean about 600 miles (965 km) west of mainland Ecuador. Named in 1905 by the California Academy of Sciences Expedition, it is the site of the Charles Darwin Research

  • Academy Curve (sound)

    motion-picture technology: Sound reproduction: …Electrical Characteristic of 1938, or Academy Curve, so that frequencies above 8,000 hertz (Hz) are “rolled off.” This practice dates from an era when sound tracks had a large degree of ground noise and vacuum tube amplifiers produced an audible hiss concentrated in the upper frequencies. A treble boost is…

  • Academy of Crusca (institution, Florence, Italy)

    Crusca Academy, Italian literary academy founded in Florence in 1582 for the purpose of purifying Tuscan, the literary language of the Italian Renaissance. Partially through the efforts of its members, the Tuscan dialect, particularly as it had been employed by Petrarch and Boccaccio, became the

  • Academy of Fine Arts, Gallery of the (museum, Venice, Italy)

    Galleries of the Academy of Venice, museum of art in Venice housing an unrivaled collection of paintings from the Venetian masters of the 13th through the 18th century. There are outstanding works by Giovanni Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, and Canaletto. The

  • Academy of Sciences (building, St. Petersburg, Russia)

    Giacomo Antonio Domenico Quarenghi: …of academic structures, including the Academy of Sciences (1785–90), the Catherine Institute (1804–07; now the Saltykov-Shchedrin Library), and the Smolny Institute (1806–08). At the royal residence of Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin), Quarenghi designed the baths, concert hall, church, the Alexander Palace, and other structures.

  • Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (Russian organization)

    Academy of Sciences, highest scientific society and principal coordinating body for research in natural and social sciences, technology, and production in Russia. The organization was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 8 (January 28, Old Style), 1724. Membership in the academy is by

  • Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukrainian organization)

    Ukraine: Education: …single scientific organization is the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Founded in 1918 (when Ukraine was briefly an independent state), the academy grew as an institution of research and learning during the Soviet period. Following Soviet leader Joseph Stalin’s purges of the 1930s, the academy’s humanities and social science sections…

  • Academy of Sciences Range (mountains, Tajikistan)

    Akademii Nauk Range, mountain range, western Pamirs, central Tajikistan. The mountains, extending north-south, are approximately 68 miles (110 km) in length and are composed mostly of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, together with some granite. Glaciation from permanent snowcaps extends over an

  • Academy of Venice, Galleries of the (museum, Venice, Italy)

    Galleries of the Academy of Venice, museum of art in Venice housing an unrivaled collection of paintings from the Venetian masters of the 13th through the 18th century. There are outstanding works by Giovanni Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, and Canaletto. The

  • academy ratio (cinematography)

    motion picture: Framing: …most common, known as the Academy ratio, is 1.33 to 1, or 4 to 3, a ratio corresponding to the dimensions of the frame of 35-mm film. By using 70-mm film or a special CinemaScope lens, an image with wider horizontal and shorter vertical dimensions is achieved—a proportion of about…

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
港台一级毛片免费观看