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  • apothecaries’ scruple (unit of weight)

    Scruple, unit of weight in the apothecaries’ system, equal to 20 grains, or one-third dram, and equivalent to 1.296 grams. It was sometimes mistakenly assigned to the avoirdupois system. In ancient times, when coinage weights customarily furnished the lower subdivisions of weight systems, the

  • apothecaries’ weight (measurement system)

    Apothecaries’ weight, traditional system of weight in the British Isles used for the measuring and dispensing of pharmaceutical items and based on the grain, scruple (20 grains), dram (3 scruples), ounce (8 drams), and pound (12 ounces). The apothecaries’ grain is equal to the troy and avoirdupois

  • Apothecaries, Society of (British organization)

    pharmaceutical industry: Pharmaceutical science in the 16th and 17th centuries: In London the Society of Apothecaries (pharmacists) was founded in 1617. This marked the emergence of pharmacy as a distinct and separate entity. The separation of apothecaries from grocers was authorized by King James I, who also mandated that only a member of the society could keep an…

  • apothecary

    pharmacology: …pharmacology derives from the medieval apothecaries, who both prepared and prescribed drugs. In the early 19th century a split developed between apothecaries who treated patients and those whose interest was primarily in the preparation of medicinal compounds; the latter formed the basis of the developing specialty of pharmacology. A truly…

  • apothecium (fruiting structure of fungi)

    Ascocarp, fruiting structure of fungi of the phylum Ascomycota (kingdom Fungi). It arises from vegetative filaments (hyphae) after sexual reproduction has been initiated. The ascocarp (in forms called apothecium, cleistothecium [cleistocarp], or perithecium) contain saclike structures (asci) that

  • apotheosis (religion)

    Apotheosis, elevation to the status of a god. The term (from Greek apotheoun, “to make a god,” “to deify”) implies a polytheistic conception of gods while it recognizes that some individuals cross the dividing line between gods and men. The ancient Greek religion was especially disposed to belief

  • Apotheosis of Homer (work by Flaxman)

    John Flaxman: His design of the Apotheosis of Homer (1778) relief was adapted from an ancient Greek vase for use on pots, chimneypieces, and plaques. It has rarely been out of production since it was executed. Flaxman also designed profile portraits in antique style for execution as jasperware medallions. While at…

  • Apotheosis of Homer, The (work by Ingres)

    J.-A.-D. Ingres: Maturity: …history painting to date, The Apotheosis of Homer. A kind of pan-historical group portrait of cultural luminaries influenced by Homer, this picture came to function as a manifesto for the increasingly embattled Neoclassical aesthetic. It also helped establish Ingres as a standard-bearer of cultural conservatism. Critics saw that he was…

  • Apotheosis of the Pisani Family (work by Tiepolo)

    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Later life: In Tiepolo’s magnificent Apotheosis of the Pisani Family, the most attractive section is an array of children’s portraits and a frieze of male and female satyrs, which give a stamp of sensual existentialism to the decorative ensemble. Interspersed among his many decorations, Tiepolo painted many portraits. A unique…

  • Apotheosis of Venice (painting by Veronese)

    Western painting: The High Renaissance in Venice: …of the city; his “Apotheosis of Venice” (c. 1585) in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Doges’ Palace is a bold and successful use of dramatic foreshortening and rich colour to express the vigour and vibrancy of Venice. Splendid also are his extremely large paintings crowded with figures,…

  • Apotrechus illawarra (insect)

    raspy cricket: …known raspy crickets are the Illawarra raspy cricket (Apotrechus illawarra), the Canberra raspy cricket (Cooraboorama canberrae), and the thick-legged raspy cricket (Ametrus tibialis). A species belonging to the genus Glomeremus is endemic to the wet forests on the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. This particular raspy cricket is known…

  • Ap?tres, Les (work by Renan)

    Ernest Renan: Religious controversies: …he published Les Ap?tres (1866; The Apostles) and Saint Paul (1869), to follow the Vie de Jésus as parts of a series, Histoire des origines du christianisme (The History of the Origins of Christianity). Both these volumes, containing brilliant descriptions of how Christianity spread among the rootless proletariat of the…

  • apotropaic eye (art)

    Apotropaic eye, a painting of an eye or eyes used as a symbol to ward off evil, appearing most commonly on Greek black-figured drinking vessels called kylikes (“eye cups”), from the 6th century bc. The exaggeratedly large eye on these cups may have been thought to prevent dangerous spirits from

  • apotropaic name

    name: Choice of personal names: …such names, which are called apotropaic names, is to make the child undesirable to demons.

  • apotropaic power (religion)

    percussion instrument: Idiophones: …they were credited with the apotropaic powers (the special protective powers against evil) accorded this metal in the East. For example, both in various Asian islands and in Greece, it was customary to “sound the chalkos at eclipses of the Moon because it has power to purify and to drive…

  • Apoxyomenos (work by Lysippus)

    Lysippus: …reliable is that of the Apoxyomenos, a young male athlete, scraping and cleaning his oil-covered skin with a strigil. The original Apoxyomenos is known to have been transported to Rome at the time of the emperor Tiberius (reigned 14–37 ce), who placed it before Agrippa’s bath. The Vatican copy of…

  • Apoyeque, Lake (lake, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Drainage: …Apoyo, near Lake Masaya; Lake Apoyeque, picturesquely located between two peaks on Chiltepe Point, which juts into Lake Managua; and the artificial Lake Apanás on the Tuma River, which generates much of the electricity consumed in the Pacific zone.

  • app (computing)

    workstation: …of that feature is that applications software run by workstations must include more instructions and complexity than CISC-architecture applications. Workstation microprocessors typically offer 32-bit addressing (indicative of data-processing speed), compared to the exponentially slower 16-bit systems found in most PCs. Some advanced workstations employ 64-bit processors, which possess four billion…

  • APP (chemistry)

    Alzheimer disease: Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles: …from a larger molecule called amyloid precursor protein, which is a normal component of nerve cells. Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted protein fibres located within nerve cells. These fibres consist of a protein, called tau, that normally occurs in neurons. When incorrectly processed, tau molecules clump together and form tangles.

  • Appa Sherpa (Nepali mountaineer)

    Apa Sherpa, Nepali mountaineer and guide who set a record for most ascents of Mount Everest (21) that was later equaled by other Sherpas before being surpassed in 2018. Apa was raised in the small village of Thami (or Thame) in the Khumbu valley of far northern Nepal, just west of Mount Everest.

  • Appalachian dulcimer (musical instrument)

    dulcimer: The Appalachian, or mountain, dulcimer of the United States is a narrow folk zither with three to five metal strings running over a fretted fingerboard, which is set centrally along the dulcimer’s entire length. The player’s right hand strums with a small stick or quill, and…

  • Appalachian Geosyncline (geological region, North America)

    Appalachian Geosyncline, Great downbuckle in the Earth’s crust in the region of the present Appalachian Mountains. It was in the Appalachians that James Hall first worked out the geosynclinal theory of mountain building (see

  • Appalachian Highlands (region, North America)

    Appalachian Highlands, the regions of the Ridge and Valley, Blue Ridge, Piedmont (qq.v.), and Appalachian Plateau in the eastern United

  • Appalachian Highway Corridor (highway system, United States)

    West Virginia: Transportation: Roads of the Appalachian Highway Corridor, a project funded in part by the ARC, have been instrumental in completing the network of other federal and state routes. A major engineering feat was the completion (1977) of the New River Gorge Bridge near Fayetteville; the single-arch steel span, 876…

  • Appalachian Mountains (mountains, North America)

    Appalachian Mountains, great highland system of North America, the eastern counterpart of the Rocky Mountains. Extending for almost 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to central Alabama in the United States, the Appalachian Mountains form a natural

  • Appalachian National Scenic Trail (footpath, United States)

    Appalachian National Scenic Trail, mountain footpath in the eastern United States extending from northeast to southwest for about 2,190 miles (3,524.5 km) along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. The trail runs from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to Springer Mountain, Georgia, passing through 14

  • Appalachian Orogenic Belt (geological region, North America)

    Appalachian orogenic belt, an old mountain range that extends for more than 3,000 km (1,860 miles) along the eastern margin of North America from Alabama in the southern United States to Newfoundland, Canada, in the north. The geosynclinal theory of mountain building was first worked out in the

  • Appalachian Plateau (plateau, United States)

    Appalachian Plateau, plateau in the northeastern United States, extending from the Adirondacks in the north through New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama to the Gulf Coastal Plain in the south. It lies between the Central Lowlands to the west and

  • Appalachian Regional Commission (agency, United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), U.S. federal-state agency established by Congress in 1965 to promote development in Appalachia. The region, which lies across the spine of the Appalachian Mountains, runs from southern New York to northern Mississippi. As defined by the commission, it has an

  • Appalachian Regional Development Act (United States)

    United States: The Great Society: The Appalachian Regional Development Act provided aid for that economically depressed area. The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 established a Cabinet-level department to coordinate federal housing programs. Johnson’s Medicare bill fulfilled President Truman’s dream of providing health care for the aged. The Elementary and…

  • Appalachian Revolution (geology)

    Alleghenian orogeny, mountain-building event, occurring almost entirely within the Permian Period (299 million to 251 million years ago), that created the Appalachian Mountains. The Alleghenian orogeny resulted from the collision of the central and southern Appalachian continental margin of North

  • Appalachian shoestring fern (plant)

    Hymenophyllaceae: …a second unrelated species, the Appalachian shoestring fern (Vittaria appalachiana; family Pteridaceae), which occupies similar habitats in roughly the same range and is also apparently incapable of completing its sexual life cycle in the wild to form new sporophytes. The closest living relatives of these species grow in Asia and…

  • Appalachian Spring (ballet by Copland)

    Appalachian Spring, ballet by Aaron Copland, first performed in Washington, D.C., on October 30, 1944. The ballet, which won the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1945, contains some of the composer’s most familiar music, particularly his set of variations on the Shaker hymn “Simple Gifts.” Appalachian

  • Appalachian Trail (footpath, United States)

    Appalachian National Scenic Trail, mountain footpath in the eastern United States extending from northeast to southwest for about 2,190 miles (3,524.5 km) along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. The trail runs from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to Springer Mountain, Georgia, passing through 14

  • Appalachian Trail Conference (American organization)

    hiking: The Appalachian Trail Conference (U.S.), with the aid of its member organizations in 14 states, maintains campsites and a trail more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) long between Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Oglethorpe in Georgia; it publishes information on conditions of the camps and…

  • Appalachian Uplands (region, North America)

    Quebec: Relief, drainage, and soils: …of the United States, Quebec’s Appalachian Uplands region is the northern extension of the Appalachian Mountains. It is covered with forested hills, arable plateaus, and high plains, undulating and rising to the higher mountain ranges of the United States. This region also includes Anticosti Island, situated in the Gulf of…

  • Appalachian Valley (region, North America)

    Great Appalachian Valley, longitudinal chain of valley lowlands of the Appalachian mountain system of North America. Extending from Canada on the northeast to Alabama, U.S., on the southwest, it includes the St. Lawrence River valley in Canada and the Kittatinny, Cumberland, Shenandoah, and T

  • Appalachians (mountains, North America)

    Appalachian Mountains, great highland system of North America, the eastern counterpart of the Rocky Mountains. Extending for almost 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to central Alabama in the United States, the Appalachian Mountains form a natural

  • Appaloosa (breed of horse)

    Appaloosa, colour breed of horse popular in the United States. The breed is said to have descended in the Nez Percé Indian territory of North America from wild mustangs, which in turn descended from Spanish horses brought in by explorers. The name derives from the Palouse River of Idaho and

  • appanage (French history)

    Appanage, in France, primarily before the Revolution, the provision of lands within the royal domain, or in some cases of pensions, to the children of the royal family so that they might live in a style corresponding to their position in society. Appanages were established to provide for the

  • appanage period (Russian history)

    education: Early Russian education: Kiev and Muscovy: …history is known as the appanage period. This period runs roughly from the decline of Kiev in the 11th century to the rise of the Grand Principality of Moscow (Muscovy) in the 14th century. It was characterized by the appearance of numerous autonomous fiefdoms and a population shift from southern…

  • Appar (Indian poet)

    South Asian arts: Bhakti poetry: The most important Nāya?ārs were Appar and Campantar, in the 7th century, and Cuntarar, in the 8th. Appar, a self-mortifying Jain ascetic before he became a ?aiva saint, sings of his conversion to a religion of love, surprised by the Lord stealing into his heart. After him, the term tēvāram…

  • ?pp?r?s (Sami religion and folklore)

    ?pp?r?s, in Sami religion and folklore, the ghost of a dead child that haunts the place of its death because it did not receive proper burial rites. The ?pp?r?s is only one of several of the anomalous dead figures in Finno-Ugric mythology that serve as warnings for the living to observe the norms

  • apparat (bureaucracy)

    Czechoslovak history: The Prague Spring of 1968: …political life in the party apparat, and, because he was a compromise candidate, people did not expect much from him. Yet in the effort of ridding the government of the old guard, Dub?ek was aided by the pressure of public opinion, which was growing stronger, especially after members of the…

  • Apparatus Eruditionis (work by Pexenfelder)

    encyclopaedia: Readership: …clear enough by writing his Apparatus Eruditionis (1670; “Apparatus of Learning”) in the form of a series of conversations between teacher and pupil. St. Isidore addressed himself not only to the needs of his former pupils in the episcopal school but also to the needs of all the priests and…

  • Apparatus in quinque libros Decretalium (commentary by Innocent IV)

    Innocent IV: Early life and early career: …celebrated commentary on canon law, Apparatus in quinque libros Decretalium) prepared him to enter as one of the key figures into the conflict between the church and the empire. The emperor Frederick II sought to restructure the imperial authority, with a strong state in Italy as the basis; he was…

  • apparel (clothing)

    Dress, clothing and accessories for the human body. The variety of dress is immense. The style that a particular individual selects is often linked to that person’s sex, age, socioeconomic status, culture, geographic area, and historical era. This article considers the chronological development of

  • apparel and allied industry

    Clothing and footwear industry, factories and mills producing outerwear, underwear, headwear, footwear, belts, purses, luggage, gloves, scarfs, ties, and household soft goods such as drapes, linens, and slipcovers. The same raw materials and equipment are used to fashion these different end

  • Apparel Arts (American magazine)

    GQ, men’s fashion magazine that was started as a trade publication in New York City in 1931 and became available to the general public in 1957. Apparel Arts was marketed to men’s clothing wholesalers and retailers, providing them with fashion information and helping them make recommendations to

  • apparent magnitude (astronomy)

    star: Measuring starlight intensity: …expressed by means of their magnitudes, a usage inherited from classical times. A star of the first magnitude is about 2.5 times as bright as one of the second magnitude, which in turn is some 2.5 times as bright as one of the third magnitude, and so on. A star…

  • apparent solar time (chronology)

    solar time: Apparent solar time is that measured by direct observation of the Sun or by a sundial. Mean solar time, kept by most clocks and watches, is the solar time that would be measured by observation if the Sun traveled at a uniform apparent speed throughout…

  • apparent wind

    helicopter: Principles of flight and operation: The relative wind is the direction of the wind in relation to the airfoil. In an airplane, the flight path of the wing is fixed in relation to its forward flight; in a helicopter, the flight path of the rotor advances forward (to the helicopter’s nose)…

  • Apparition (Dance of Salome), The (painting by Moreau)

    Gustave Moreau: …the Sphinx (1864) and his The Apparition (Dance of Salome) (c. 1876) and Dance of Salome (c. 1876) show his work becoming increasingly concerned with exotic eroticism and violence, and his richly crowded canvases made greater use of dramatic lighting to heighten his brilliant, jewel-like colours. His last work, Jupiter…

  • Apparitions (work by Liszt)

    Franz Liszt: Years with Marie d’Agoult: …and the set of three Apparitions. The lyrical style of these works is in marked contrast to his youthful compositions, which reflected the style of his teacher Czerny. In the same year, through the poet and dramatist Alfred de Musset, he met the novelist George Sand and also Marie de…

  • Appaya Dikshita (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Shaiva-siddhanta: …the Vedanta-sutras (14th century), and Appaya Dikshita’s commentary thereon.

  • appeal (law)

    Appeal, the resort to a higher court to review the decision of a lower court, or to a court to review the order of an administrative agency. In varying forms, all legal systems provide for some type of appeal. The concept of appeal requires the existence of a judicial hierarchy. A typical hierarchy

  • Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs, An (work by Burke)

    Edmund Burke: Political life: …attitudes that the Reflections and An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs (1791) retain their freshness, relevance, and force.

  • Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans, An (work by Child)

    Lydia Maria Child: Child’s best-known work, An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (1833), related the history of slavery and denounced the inequality of education and employment for blacks; it was the first such work published in book form. As a result, Child was ostracized socially and…

  • Appeal to Reason, An (address by Mann)

    Thomas Mann: World War II and exile: …Appell an die Vernunft” (“An Appeal to Reason”), appealing for the formation of a common front of the cultured bourgeoisie and the Socialist working class against the inhuman fanaticism of the National Socialists. In essays and on lecture tours in Germany, to Paris, Vienna, Warsaw, Amsterdam, and elsewhere during…

  • Appeal to the Christian Women of the South, An (work by Angelina Grimké)

    Grimké sisters: …1836 she wrote a pamphlet, An Appeal to the Christian Women of the South, in which she urged those addressed to use their moral force against slavery. Sarah followed with An Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States. The sisters’ public identification with the abolitionist cause rendered them anathema…

  • Appeal, Court of (British court)

    Court of Appeal, in England and Wales, part of the Senior Courts of England and Wales and the highest court below the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which assumed the judicial functions of the House of Lords in 2009. The Court of Appeal is based in London in the Royal Courts of Justice. The

  • Appeal-Avalanche, The (American newspaper)

    The Commercial Appeal, morning daily newspaper published in Memphis, Tenn., and one of the leading daily papers of the Mid-South in the United States. Founded in 1840 by Henry van Pelt as a two-page sheet called The Western World and the Memphis Banner of the Constitution, it was shortly renamed

  • Appeal…to the Colored Citizen of the World… (work by Walker)

    David Walker: …African American abolitionist whose pamphlet Appeal…to the Colored Citizens of the World… (1829), urging slaves to fight for their freedom, was one of the most radical documents of the antislavery movement.

  • Appeals, United States Court of (United States court)

    United States Court of Appeals, any of 13 intermediate appellate courts within the United States federal judicial system, including 12 courts whose jurisdictions are geographically apportioned and the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, whose jurisdiction is subject-oriented and

  • appearance (philosophy)

    Appearance, in philosophy, what seems to be (i.e., things as they are for human experience). The concept usually implies an opposition between the perception of a thing and its objective reality. Numerous philosophical systems, in one way or another, have posited that the world as it appears is not

  • Appearance and Reality: A Metaphysical Essay (work by Bradley)

    F.H. Bradley: Bradley’s most ambitious work, Appearance and Reality: A Metaphysical Essay (1893), was, in his own words, a “critical discussion of first principles,” meant “to stimulate inquiry and doubt.” The book disappointed his followers, who expected a vindication of the truths of religion. While reality is indeed spiritual, he maintained,…

  • Appearance of Christ to the People, The (painting by Ivanov)

    Aleksandr Andreyevich Ivanov: …painter best known for his Appearance of Christ to the People. A single-minded and inveterate idealist, Ivanov opened for Russian art the Romantic mythology of martyrdom for art’s sake.

  • Appearance of the Messiah, The (painting by Ivanov)

    Aleksandr Andreyevich Ivanov: …painter best known for his Appearance of Christ to the People. A single-minded and inveterate idealist, Ivanov opened for Russian art the Romantic mythology of martyrdom for art’s sake.

  • Appearance of the Virgin to St. Philip Neri, The (painting by Maratta)

    Carlo Maratta: 1655), The Appearance of the Virgin to St. Philip Neri (c. 1675), and The Virgin with SS. Charles and Ignatius (c. 1685). His many popular depictions of the Virgin earned him the nickname Carluccio delle Madonne (“Little Carlo of the Madonnas”). He also executed a number of…

  • Appearances (work by Anderson)

    black theatre: Garland Anderson’s play Appearances (1925) was the first play of black authorship to be produced on Broadway, but black theatre did not create a Broadway hit until Langston Hughes’s Mulatto (1935) won wide acclaim. In that same year the Federal Theatre Project was founded, providing a training ground…

  • appearing, theory of (philosophy)

    epistemology: Perception and knowledge: …by proponents of the so-called theory of appearing, who claimed that the arguments for the existence of sense-data are invalid. From the fact that a penny looks elliptical from a certain perspective, they objected, it does not follow that there must exist a separate entity, distinct from the penny itself,…

  • appeasement (foreign policy)

    Appeasement, Foreign policy of pacifying an aggrieved country through negotiation in order to prevent war. The prime example is Britain’s policy toward Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in the 1930s. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sought to accommodate Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935

  • Appel, Gy?rgy (Hungarian politician)

    Gy?rgy Aczél, politician, communist ideologist, and the preeminent personality in the cultural policy of the János Kádár regime (1956–88) in Hungary. Born to a lower-middle-class Jewish family, Aczél joined the communist youth movement in 1935. After World War II he rose to the middle levels of the

  • Appel, Karel (Dutch painter)

    Karel Appel, Dutch painter of turbulent, colourful, and semiabstract compositions, who was a cofounder (1948) of the COBRA group of northern European Expressionists. He was also a noted sculptor and graphic artist. Appel attended the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Amsterdam (1940–43), and helped found

  • Appel, Kenneth (American mathematician)

    Kenneth Ira Appel, American mathematician (born Oct. 8, 1932, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died April 19, 2013, Dover, N.H.), provided (1976), in collaboration with his colleague Wolfgang Haken, a mathematical proof that solved the long-standing four-colour map problem. Appel and Haken spent some four years

  • Appel, Kenneth Ira (American mathematician)

    Kenneth Ira Appel, American mathematician (born Oct. 8, 1932, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died April 19, 2013, Dover, N.H.), provided (1976), in collaboration with his colleague Wolfgang Haken, a mathematical proof that solved the long-standing four-colour map problem. Appel and Haken spent some four years

  • Appelfeld, Aharon (Israeli author)

    Aharon Appelfeld, novelist and short-story writer who is best known for his Hebrew-language allegorical novels of the Holocaust. At the age of eight Appelfeld and his parents were captured by Nazi troops. His mother was killed, and Aharon and his father were sent to a labour camp. Appelfeld

  • Appelfeld, Aron (Israeli author)

    Aharon Appelfeld, novelist and short-story writer who is best known for his Hebrew-language allegorical novels of the Holocaust. At the age of eight Appelfeld and his parents were captured by Nazi troops. His mother was killed, and Aharon and his father were sent to a labour camp. Appelfeld

  • appelgebak (food)

    Appeltaart, Dutch apple pie that has been a traditional dish of the Netherlands for centuries, dating back to the Middle Ages. The filling typically consists of thickly sliced apples (usually crisp and tart varieties) raisins or currants, and various other ingredients that impart flavour, such as

  • Appell an die Vernunft, Ein (address by Mann)

    Thomas Mann: World War II and exile: …Appell an die Vernunft” (“An Appeal to Reason”), appealing for the formation of a common front of the cultured bourgeoisie and the Socialist working class against the inhuman fanaticism of the National Socialists. In essays and on lecture tours in Germany, to Paris, Vienna, Warsaw, Amsterdam, and elsewhere during…

  • appellant lords (English history)

    Richard II: Early years: The Lords Appellant, as they were now called—the duke of Gloucester and the earls of Warwick, Arundel, Nottingham, and Derby—mobilized their retinues in self-defense. Richard dispatched his friend Robert de Vere southward with an armed force, but de Vere was defeated at Radcot Bridge on December…

  • appellate court (law)

    court: Appellate courts: The tribunals described thus far are trial courts or “courts of first instance.” They see the parties to the dispute, hear the witnesses, receive the evidence, find the facts, apply the law, and determine the outcome.

  • appellate jurisdiction (law)

    competence and jurisdiction: Examples of judicial jurisdiction include appellate jurisdiction, in which a superior tribunal is invested with the legal power to correct, if it so decides, legal errors made in a lower court; concurrent jurisdiction, in which jurisdiction may be exercised by two or more courts over the same matter, within the…

  • appellative

    name: Names and appellatives: , a common noun) capable of being used in reference to a whole class of entities can also be used with an individual reference. For instance, if an inhabitant of Austin, Texas, says, “Let’s go swimming today, not in the pool but in the river,” there is…

  • Appello Caesarem (work by Montagu)

    Richard Montagu: …by James I, he issued Appello Caesarem (1625; “I Appeal to Caesar”), a defense against the divergent charges against him of popery and of Arminianism, a system of Protestant belief that departed from strict Calvinist doctrines.

  • appeltaart (food)

    Appeltaart, Dutch apple pie that has been a traditional dish of the Netherlands for centuries, dating back to the Middle Ages. The filling typically consists of thickly sliced apples (usually crisp and tart varieties) raisins or currants, and various other ingredients that impart flavour, such as

  • appendage (anatomy)

    skeleton: General features: Paired appendages are not found in ancestral vertebrates and are not present in the modern cyclostomes (e.g., lampreys, hagfishes). Appendages first appeared during the early evolution of the fishes. Usually two pairs of appendages are present, fins in fish and limbs in land vertebrates. Each appendage…

  • appendaged bacterium (biology)

    Budding bacterium, any of a group of bacteria that reproduce by budding. Each bacterium divides following unequal cell growth; the mother cell is retained, and a new daughter cell is formed. (Binary fission, in which two equal daughter cells are produced from the unilateral growth and division of

  • appendectomy (surgery)

    appendicitis: …a minor operation called an appendectomy. The operation, conducted under anesthesia, often is completed quickly. Problems arise if the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is not made straightaway. It is possible for doctors to wait for a while—often as long as 34 hours—so that a more definitive diagnosis can be made.…

  • appendicitis

    Appendicitis, inflammation of the appendix, the closed-end tube attached to the cecum, the first region of the large intestine. While some cases are mild and may resolve on their own, most require the removal of the inflamed appendix through abdominal surgery (usually via laparotomy or

  • appendicular locomotion

    locomotion: Principles: …types of locomotion, axial and appendicular. In axial locomotion, which includes the hydraulic ramjet method of ejecting water (e.g., squid), production of a body wave (eel), or the contract–anchor–extend method (leech), the body shape is modified, and the interaction of the entire body with the surrounding environment provides the propulsive…

  • appendicular skeleton (anatomy)

    human skeleton: …the skull, and (2) the appendicular, to which the pelvic (hip) and pectoral (shoulder) girdles and the bones and cartilages of the limbs belong. Discussed in this article as part of the axial skeleton is a third subdivision, the visceral, comprising the lower jaw, some elements of the upper jaw,…

  • Appendicularia (tunicate)

    Larvacean, any member of a group of transparent tunicates belonging to the class Appendicularia (subphylum Tunicata, phylum Chordata) that live in the open sea. The larvacean’s tadpolelike body is made up of a trunk and tail and resembles the larval form of a sea squirt, a related form from the

  • appendicularian (tunicate)

    Larvacean, any member of a group of transparent tunicates belonging to the class Appendicularia (subphylum Tunicata, phylum Chordata) that live in the open sea. The larvacean’s tadpolelike body is made up of a trunk and tail and resembles the larval form of a sea squirt, a related form from the

  • appendix (anatomy)

    Appendix, in anatomy, a vestigial hollow tube that is closed at one end and is attached at the other end to the cecum, a pouchlike beginning of the large intestine into which the small intestine empties its contents. It is not clear whether the appendix serves any useful purpose in humans.

  • appendix epiploicae (anatomy)

    human digestive system: Anatomy: The appendices epiploicae are collections of fatty tissue beneath the covering membrane. On the ascending and descending colon, they are usually found in two rows, whereas on the transverse colon they form one row.

  • Appendix on the Papacy (work by Melanchthon)

    Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope, one of the confessional writings of Lutheranism, prepared in 1537 by Philipp Melanchthon, the German Reformer. The Protestant political leaders who were members of the Schmalkaldic League and several Protestant theologians had assembled at S

  • Appendix Probi (Latin text)

    Vulgar Latin: …the first is the so-called Appendix Probi (3rd–4th centuries ce; “Appendix to Probus[’s Grammar]”), which lists correct and incorrect forms of 227 words, probably as an orthographic aid to scribes. That work illustrates some phonological changes that may have already occurred in the spoken language (e.g., loss of unstressed penultimate…

  • Appendix Scientiam Spatii Absolute Veram Exhibens (work by Bolyai)

    János Bolyai: In 1831 he published “Appendix Scientiam Spatii Absolute Veram Exhibens” (“Appendix Explaining the Absolutely True Science of Space”), a complete and consistent system of non-Euclidean geometry as an appendix to his father’s book on geometry, Tentamen Juventutem Studiosam in Elementa Matheseos Purae Introducendi (1832; “An Attempt to Introduce Studious…

  • Appendix to Sigebert (work by Robert de Torigni)

    Robert De Torigni: …and 1175—which greatly enhanced his Appendix to Sigebert (a continuation of the chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux, which had ended in 1112), covering England (and France) under Henry II from 1154 to 1186.

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