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  • aorta, coarctation of the (physiology)

    Coarctation of the aorta, congenital malformation involving the constriction, or narrowing, of a short section of that portion of the aorta that arches over the heart. The aorta is the principal artery conducting blood from the heart into the systemic circulation. The partial obstruction of the

  • aortic aneurysm (pathology)

    hypothermia: Complex aortic aneurysms involving the proximal portion of the aorta (the trunk of the aorta, originating from the heart) and complex congenital defects of the heart can be safely corrected with this technique.

  • aortic arch (anatomy)

    animal development: Circulatory organs: These are the aortic arches, which served originally to supply blood to the gills in aquatic vertebrates. The arches are laid down in all vertebrates, six or more being found in cyclostomes and fishes; six are present in the embryos of tetrapods, but the first two are degenerate.…

  • aortic arch atresia (congenital disorder)

    atresia and stenosis: Aortic-arch and heart-valve atresias cause serious difficulty in early life but can sometimes be repaired by surgery.

  • aortic arch syndrome (pathology)

    Aortic arch syndrome, group of disorders that cause blockage of the vessels that branch off from the aorta in the area in which the aorta arches over the heart. The aorta is the principal vessel through which the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood into the systemic circulation. The aortic branches that

  • aortic body (anatomy)

    human respiratory system: Peripheral chemoreceptors: The aortic bodies located near the arch of the aorta also respond to acute changes in the partial pressure of oxygen, but less well than the carotid body responds to changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The aortic bodies are responsible for many of…

  • aortic insufficiency (pathology)

    Aortic insufficiency, failure of the valve at the mouth of the aorta—the principal artery that distributes blood from the heart to the tissues of the body—to prevent backflow of blood from the aorta into the left lower chamber (ventricle) of the heart, from which it has been pumped. The defect

  • aortic sinus (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Blood supply to the heart: …from the right and left aortic sinuses (the sinuses of Valsalva), which are bulges at the origin of the ascending aorta immediately beyond, or distal to, the aortic valve. The ostium, or opening, of the right coronary artery is in the right aortic sinus and that of the left coronary…

  • aortic stenosis (pathology)

    Aortic stenosis, narrowing of the passage between the left lower chamber (ventricle) of the heart and the aorta, the principal artery of the systemic circulation. The defect is most often in the valve at the mouth of the aorta but may be just above or below the valve (supravalvular and subvalvular

  • aortic valve (anatomy)

    cardiovascular disease: Abnormalities of the valves: …the cardiac valves affects the aortic valve. The normal aortic valve usually has three cusps, or leaflets, but the valve is bicuspid in 1 to 2 percent of the population. A bicuspid aortic valve is not necessarily life-threatening, but in some persons it becomes thickened and obstructed (stenotic). With age…

  • aortic valve stenosis (pathology)

    cardiovascular disease: Abnormalities of the valves: A bicuspid aortic valve is not necessarily life-threatening, but in some persons it becomes thickened and obstructed (stenotic). With age the valve may also become incompetent or act as a nidus (focus of infection) for bacterial endocarditis. Congenital aortic valve stenosis, if severe, results in hypertrophy of…

  • AOS (New Zealand police)

    police: Firearms and explosives: …Zealand only the members of Armed Offenders Squads (AOS), which were established in 1964 after the fatal shooting of four police officers, are allowed to carry and use firearms. Each AOS is staffed with part-time police volunteers drawn from all branches of the police, and the squads operate only on…

  • AOSSM (American organization)

    American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), U.S. medical organization established in 1972 and headquartered in Rosemont, Illinois. It had its origins in the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and its Committee on Sports Medicine, whose members saw a need for a forum in which

  • Aosta (Italy)

    Aosta, city, capital of Valle d’Aosta region, northwestern Italy, at the confluence of the Buthier and Dora Baltea rivers and commanding the Great and Little St. Bernard pass roads, north-northwest of Turin. It was a stronghold of the Salassi, a Celtic tribe that was subdued by the Romans in 25 bc,

  • Aosta, Valle d’ (region, Italy)

    Valle d’Aosta, region, northwestern Italy, containing the upper basin of the Dora Baltea River, from its source near Mount Blanc to just above Ivrea. The region is enclosed on the north, west, and south by the Alps. Originally the territory of the Salassi, a Celtic tribe, the valley was annexed by

  • Aotearoa (national anthem of New Zealand)

    God Defend New Zealand, one of the two national anthems of New Zealand (the other being God Save the Queen, national anthem of the United Kingdom). The words to the anthem were written in the early 1870s by Thomas Bracken, who offered a prize of £10 for the best musical setting of it. The winning

  • Aotearoa

    New Zealand, island country in the South Pacific Ocean, the southwesternmost part of Polynesia. New Zealand is a remote land—one of the last sizable territories suitable for habitation to be populated and settled—and lies more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Australia, its nearest

  • Aotidae (primate family)

    primate: Classification: Family Aotidae (durukulis, or night monkeys) 1 genus, 9 species. South and Central America. Family Pitheciidae (sakis, uakaris, and titis) 4 genera, 29 or more South American species. 3 fossil species

  • Aoua River (river, South America)

    Maroni River: …gold mining, is called the Lawa, or Aoua. Shallow-draft vessels can penetrate 60 miles (100 km) upstream from the river’s mouth; beyond that point there are many waterfalls and rapids. The river’s chief tributary is the Tapanahoni, in Suriname, from the southwest.

  • aoudad (mammal)

    Aoudad, (Ammotragus lervia), North African goatlike mammal of the family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla). This species has been inappropriately called a sheep, although recent genetic information reveals that it is much more closely related to wild goats. The aoudad stands about 102 cm (40 inches) at

  • Aouelloul Crater (crater, Mauritania)

    Aouelloul Crater, large crater located 28 mi (45 km) southwest of Chinguetti, Mauritania, and thought to be of meteoritic origin. Discovered by air in 1951, it is 833 ft (250 m) in diameter and 33 ft in depth. A large amount of fused silica glass has been found in the area, but only one small

  • Aouk (river, Africa)

    Chari River: …its right bank by the Aouk, Kéita, and Salamat rivers, parallel streams that mingle in an immense floodplain. The Salamat, which rises in Darfur in Sudan, in its middle course is fed by the waters of Lake Iro. The river then divides into numerous branches that spread into a delta…

  • Aoun, Michel (president of Lebanon)

    Michel Aoun, commander of the Lebanese Army (1984–88) who was appointed prime minister in 1988 (though the legitimacy of this appointment was contested) and later served as president (2016– ). Although a Maronite Christian, he opposed sectarianism during the multiconfessional country’s civil war

  • Aouzou Strip (territory, Chad)

    Aozou Strip, northernmost part of Chad, a narrow strip of territory that extends along the country’s entire border with Libya. The Aozou Strip has an area of about 44,000 square miles (114,000 square km) and consists almost entirely of the Sahara desert. The Tibesti Mountains interrupt the desert

  • Aoxomoxoa (album by Grateful Dead)

    Grateful Dead: … (1967) to the jaggedly exploratory Aoxomoxoa (1969) to the lilting folk of American Beauty (1970), the Dead’s strengths—and weaknesses—came most to the fore onstage. Their most artistically successful albums, Live/Dead (1969) and Grateful Dead Live (1971), were live recordings. A popular bumper sticker read, “There is nothing like a Grateful…

  • Aozou Strip (territory, Chad)

    Aozou Strip, northernmost part of Chad, a narrow strip of territory that extends along the country’s entire border with Libya. The Aozou Strip has an area of about 44,000 square miles (114,000 square km) and consists almost entirely of the Sahara desert. The Tibesti Mountains interrupt the desert

  • AP (news agency)

    Associated Press (AP), cooperative 24-hour news agency (wire service), the oldest and largest of those in the United States and long the largest and one of the preeminent news agencies in the world. Headquarters are in New York, N.Y. Its beginnings can be traced to 1846, when four New York City

  • AP (political party, Spain)

    Popular Party, Spanish conservative political party. The Popular Party (PP) traces its origins to the Popular Alliance, a union of seven conservative political parties formed in the 1970s by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a prominent cabinet member under Spain’s longtime dictator Francisco Franco. In March

  • Ap (surname prefix)

    Mac: …Hiberno-Norman Fitz and the Welsh Ap (formerly Map). Just as the latter has become initial P, as in the modern names Price or Pritchard, Mac has in some names become initial C and even K—e.g., Cody, Costigan, Keegan.

  • APA (American organization)

    American Psychological Association (APA), professional organization of psychologists in the United States founded in 1892. It is the largest organization of psychologists in the United States as well as in the world. The American Psychological Association (APA) promotes the knowledge of psychology

  • APA (American organization)

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) replaced these terms with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Then in 1987 the APA linked ADD with hyperactivity, a condition that sometimes accompanies attention disorders but may exist independently. The new syndrome was named attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.

  • APA (political organization, Australia)

    Australian Patriotic Association (APA), (1835–42), group of influential Australians of New South Wales that sought a grant of representative government to the colony from the British House of Commons. Their efforts aided significantly in the passage of the Constitution Act of 1842 and the

  • APA (United States [1946])

    Administrative Procedure Act (APA), U.S. law, enacted in 1946, that stipulates the ways in which federal agencies may make and enforce regulations. The APA was the product of concern about the rapid increase in the number of powerful federal agencies in the first half of the 20th century,

  • APA (American political organization)

    American Protective Association (APA), in U.S. history, an anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant group that briefly acquired a membership greater than 2,000,000 during the 1890s. A successor in spirit and outlook to the pre-Civil War Know-Nothing Party, the American Protective Association was founded by

  • Apa River (river, South America)

    Apa River, river rising in the Amambaí Mountains in southwestern Brazil, forming the Brazil-Paraguay border. It flows for about 160 miles (260 km) in a northwesterly direction to join the Paraguay River at the city of

  • Apa Sherpa (Nepali mountaineer)

    Apa Sherpa, Nepali mountaineer and guide who set a record for most ascents of Mount Everest (21) that was later equaled by other Sherpas before being surpassed in 2018. Apa was raised in the small village of Thami (or Thame) in the Khumbu valley of far northern Nepal, just west of Mount Everest.

  • Ap? singill?r (work by Mukhtar)

    Uzbekistan: Cultural life: 1921), whose Socialist Realist novel Ap? singill?r (Sisters; original and translation published during the 1950s), has been translated into English and other languages. Mukhtar, along with others of his generation, effectively encouraged the creative efforts of younger Uzbek poets and authors, a group far less burdened than their elders by…

  • Apa Tani (people)

    Apa Tani, tribal people of Arunāchal Pradesh (former North East Frontier Agency), a mountainous state in the extreme northeast of India. They speak a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan family and numbered about 13,100 in the 1970s. Unlike other tribes in the area, the Apa Tani practice a

  • Apa, Rio (river, South America)

    Apa River, river rising in the Amambaí Mountains in southwestern Brazil, forming the Brazil-Paraguay border. It flows for about 160 miles (260 km) in a northwesterly direction to join the Paraguay River at the city of

  • Apabhra??a language

    Apabhramsha language, literary language of the final phase of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages. When the Prakrit languages were formalized by literary use, their variations came to be known as Apabhramsha. Despite this close relationship, scholars generally treat Apabhramsha and the nonliterary

  • Apabhramsha language

    Apabhramsha language, literary language of the final phase of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages. When the Prakrit languages were formalized by literary use, their variations came to be known as Apabhramsha. Despite this close relationship, scholars generally treat Apabhramsha and the nonliterary

  • Apache (United States helicopter)

    military aircraft: Assault and attack helicopters: …HueyCobra was the McDonnell Douglas AH-64 Apache, a heavily armoured antiarmour helicopter with less speed and range than the Hind but with sophisticated navigation, ECM, and fire-control systems. The Apache became operational in 1986 and proved highly effective in the Persian Gulf War (1990–91).

  • Apache (film by Aldrich [1954])

    Robert Aldrich: Early work: …studio was the box-office hit Apache (1954), with Burt Lancaster as a Geronimo-like protagonist. Aldrich’s success continued with the western Vera Cruz (1954), which starred Lancaster and Gary Cooper as soldiers of fortune in 1860s Mexico. None of these movies, however, could have prepared critics and moviegoers for Kiss

  • Apache (people)

    Apache, North American Indians who, under such leaders as Cochise, Mangas Coloradas, Geronimo, and Victorio, figured largely in the history of the Southwest during the latter half of the 19th century. Their name is probably derived from a Spanish transliteration of ápachu, the term for “enemy” in

  • Apache (Web server)

    Apache, an open-source Web server created by American software developer Robert McCool. Apache was released in 1995 and quickly gained a majority hold on the Web server market. Apache provides servers for Internet giants such as Google and Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia. In the early 21st

  • Apache Indian (British musician)

    bhangra: …when British musicians such as Apache Indian, with his album No Reservations (1993), and the group Fun-Da-Mental, with Seize the Time (1995), began to use their music as a vehicle for poignant social commentary. Not only did these and other artists address such issues as racial conflict and the HIV/AIDS…

  • Apache violin (musical instrument)

    Native American music: Southwest: …what is known as the Apache violin, a traditional one- or two-stringed solo instrument. Important contexts for Navajo and Apache musics include life-cycle ceremonials, such as the Girl’s Puberty ceremony, and elaborate curing ceremonies that include many components and last for several days.

  • Apachean languages

    Navajo: The Navajo speak an Apachean language which is classified in the Athabaskan language family. At some point in prehistory the Navajo and Apache migrated to the Southwest from Canada, where most other Athabaskan-speaking peoples still live; although the exact timing of the relocation is unknown, it is thought to…

  • Apacheta Creek (creek, Peru)

    Amazon River: The length of the Amazon: …was actually another stream, nearby Apacheta Creek. (The Carruhasanta and Apacheta streams form the Lloqueta River, an extension of the Apurímac.)

  • Apáczai Csere, János (Hungarian writer)

    Hungarian literature: The 17th century: …of the 17th century was János Apáczai Csere. His chief work was a Hungarian encyclopaedia in which he endeavoured to sum up the knowledge of his time. The work, published at Utrecht in 1653, marked a development in technical vocabulary.

  • Apadāna (Buddhist text)

    Apadāna, (Pāli: “Stories”,) collection of legends about Buddhist saints, one of the latest books in the latest section (the Khuddaka Nikāya) of the Sutta Pi?aka (“Basket of Discourse”) of the Pāli canon. This work, which is entirely in verse, presents stories about 547 monks and 40 nuns. For each

  • apadana (architecture)

    Iranian art and architecture: Architecture: …called by the Persians an apadana. Other features are the Tomb of Cyrus, a gabled stone building on a stepped plinth, and a Zoroastrian fire temple (Zendan), a towerlike structure with a plan recalling that of the standard Urartian temple. Replicas of the Zendan were built later at Naqsh-e Rostam…

  • Apafi, Mihaly (prince of Transylvania)

    Transylvania: …and made the obedient Mihály Apafi its prince (1662). Shortly afterward the Turks were defeated before Vienna (1683). The Transylvanians, their land overrun by the troops of the Habsburg emperor, then recognized the suzerainty of the emperor Leopold I (1687); Transylvania was officially attached to Habsburg-controlled Hungary and subjected to…

  • Apaiang Atoll (atoll, Kiribati)

    Abaiang Atoll, coral atoll of the Gilbert Islands, part of Kiribati, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. Comprising six islets in the northern Gilberts, the atoll has a lagoon (16 miles by 5 miles [26 km by 8 km]) that provides sheltered anchorage. The islets of Abaiang are Teirio, Nuotaea,

  • Apala (African dance)

    African dance: Rhythm: The Yoruba Apala dance allows individuals to move on a free-flow floor pattern. Each dancer competes with his fellows in the interpretation of the rhythm and in his swift response to change. The leading drummer leaves the ensemble to join an outstanding dancer in a rhythmic exchange…

  • Apalachee (people)

    Apalachee, tribe of North American Indians who spoke a Muskogean language and inhabited the area in northwestern Florida between the Aucilla and Apalachicola rivers above Apalachee Bay. In the 16th century the Spanish explorers Pánfilo de Narváez (in 1528) and Hernando de Soto (in 1539) led

  • Apalachee Bay (bay, Florida, United States)

    Apalachee Bay, arm of the Gulf of Mexico indenting the coast of northern Florida, U.S., 25 miles (40 km) south of Tallahassee. It receives the Ochlockonee, St. Marks, Econfina, and Aucilla rivers, and its marshy coast forms St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. In 1528 five boats were built in the

  • Apalachicola (Florida, United States)

    Apalachicola, city, seat (1832) of Franklin county, northwestern Florida, U.S. It lies on Apalachicola Bay (bridged) at the mouth of the Apalachicola River, on the Intracoastal Waterway, about 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Tallahassee. Founded about 1820 as West Point (renamed Apalachicola in

  • Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve (reserve, Apalachicola, Florida, United States)

    Apalachicola: The Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve, established in 1979, covers more than 385 square miles (1,000 square km) and encompasses both land and water areas of the bay and river. Inc. town, 1829; city, 1838. Pop. (2000) 2,334; (2010) 2,231.

  • Apalachicola River (river, Florida, United States)

    Apalachicola: …at the mouth of the Apalachicola River, on the Intracoastal Waterway, about 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Tallahassee.

  • Apalategui, José Xavier Zubiri (Spanish philosopher)

    Xavier Zubiri, Spanish Christian Existential philosopher who was known for his analysis of reality in terms of the interrelations of philosophy, science, and religion. Zubiri studied theology in Rome, philosophy in Madrid (under José Ortega y Gasset) and in Freiburg, Ger., and physics and biology

  • Apām Napāt (Zoroastrianism)

    Zoroastrianism: God: …(non-Gāthic) an ahura; so is Apām Napāt, a fire or brightness in the waters, corresponding to the Vedic Apam Napat. As for Verethraghna (the entity or spirit of victory), it seems that since he took over the function of Indra, who was a daeva, he could not be called an…

  • Apama (Persian princess)

    Seleucus I Nicator: Early life and ascent to power: On this occasion Seleucus married Apama, the daughter of Spitamenes, the ruler of Bactria. Of all the Macedonian nobles, he was the only one who did not repudiate his wife after Alexander’s death.

  • Apamama Atoll (atoll, Kiribati)

    Abemama Atoll, coral atoll of the northern Gilbert Islands, part of Kiribati, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. Capt. Charles Bishop, who reached the atoll in 1799, named it Roger Simpson Island for one of his associates. Seat of the area’s ruling family in the 19th century, the atoll was the site

  • Apamea Ad Meandrum (ancient city, Turkey)

    Apamea Cibotus, city in Hellenistic Phrygia, partly covered by the modern town of Dinar, Tur. Founded by Antiochus I Soter in the 3rd century bc, it superseded the ancient Celaenae and placed it in a commanding position on the great east–west trade route of the Seleucid Empire. In the 2nd century b

  • Apamea Cibotus (ancient city, Turkey)

    Apamea Cibotus, city in Hellenistic Phrygia, partly covered by the modern town of Dinar, Tur. Founded by Antiochus I Soter in the 3rd century bc, it superseded the ancient Celaenae and placed it in a commanding position on the great east–west trade route of the Seleucid Empire. In the 2nd century b

  • Apamea, Treaty of (188 bc)

    Anatolia: Anatolia in the Hellenistic Age (334–c. 30 bce): …to accept the peace of Apamea (188), which made Rome the predominant power in the Hellenistic East. Rome reorganized the Anatolian states: Lycia and Caria were allotted to Rhodes, though when this period of Rhodian domination ended in 167, Lycia became a Roman protectorate; Antiochus III was forced to surrender…

  • Apameia Cibotus (ancient city, Turkey)

    Apamea Cibotus, city in Hellenistic Phrygia, partly covered by the modern town of Dinar, Tur. Founded by Antiochus I Soter in the 3rd century bc, it superseded the ancient Celaenae and placed it in a commanding position on the great east–west trade route of the Seleucid Empire. In the 2nd century b

  • Apanás Reservoir (reservoir, Nicaragua)

    Lake Apanás, reservoir in northern Nicaragua. Formed by damming the Tuma River just north of Jinotega city, Lake Apanás has an area of 20 square miles (51 square km). It supplies the Asturias hydroelectric station, the largest in the country and the focus of a power grid serving much of the more

  • Apanás, Lago de (reservoir, Nicaragua)

    Lake Apanás, reservoir in northern Nicaragua. Formed by damming the Tuma River just north of Jinotega city, Lake Apanás has an area of 20 square miles (51 square km). It supplies the Asturias hydroelectric station, the largest in the country and the focus of a power grid serving much of the more

  • Apanás, Laguna de (reservoir, Nicaragua)

    Lake Apanás, reservoir in northern Nicaragua. Formed by damming the Tuma River just north of Jinotega city, Lake Apanás has an area of 20 square miles (51 square km). It supplies the Asturias hydroelectric station, the largest in the country and the focus of a power grid serving much of the more

  • Apanás, Lake (reservoir, Nicaragua)

    Lake Apanás, reservoir in northern Nicaragua. Formed by damming the Tuma River just north of Jinotega city, Lake Apanás has an area of 20 square miles (51 square km). It supplies the Asturias hydroelectric station, the largest in the country and the focus of a power grid serving much of the more

  • Apanteles congregatus (insect)

    braconid: Apanteles congregatus parasitizes the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculata). Some braconids attack wood-boring pests such as beetles of the families Buprestidae and Cerambycidae. The braconid Chremilus rubiginosus attacks the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius). In the Mediterranean region Opius concolor is…

  • Apanteles glomeratus (insect)

    braconid: Apanteles glomeratus, for example, parasitizes the larvae of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) and the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni). Apanteles congregatus parasitizes the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculata). Some braconids attack wood-boring pests such as beetles of the families Buprestidae…

  • Apapa Quay (quay, Lagos, Nigeria)

    Lagos: …port of Lagos consists of Apapa Quay, on the mainland, which serves as the principal outlet for Nigeria’s exports. The creeks and lagoons are plied by small coastal craft. The city is the western terminus of the country’s road and railway networks, and the airport at Ikeja provides local and…

  • apapane (bird)

    Apapane, (Himatione sanguinea), Hawaiian songbird, common on larger islands, a nectar-feeding member of the Hawaiian honeycreeper family, Drepanididae (order Passeriformes). About 13 centimetres (5 inches) long, it is red, except for its dark wings and tail and its white vent. Its bill is fairly

  • Apapocuva (people)

    Apapocuva, a Guarani-speaking South American Indian people living in small, scattered villages throughout the Mato Grosso, Paraná, and S?o Paulo states of southeastern Brazil. In the second half of the 20th century, the Apapocuva probably numbered fewer than 500 individuals. Traditionally, the A

  • ?p?r? (Sami religion and folklore)

    ?pp?r?s, in Sami religion and folklore, the ghost of a dead child that haunts the place of its death because it did not receive proper burial rites. The ?pp?r?s is only one of several of the anomalous dead figures in Finno-Ugric mythology that serve as warnings for the living to observe the norms

  • Aparajito (film by Ray [1956])

    Satyajit Ray: …two films of the trilogy: Aparajito (1956; The Unvanquished) and Apur Sansar (1959; The World of Apu). Pather Panchali and its sequels tell the story of Apu, the poor son of a Brahman priest, as he grows from childhood to manhood in a setting that shifts from a small village…

  • Aparanta (coastal plain, India)

    Konkan, coastal plain of western India, lying between the Arabian Sea (west) and the Western Ghats (east). The plain stretches approximately 330 miles (530 km) from the Daman Ganga River north of Mumbai (Bombay) to the Terekhol River between Maharashtra and Goa states and Daman and Diu union

  • Apari??o (work by Ferreira)

    Vergílio Ferreira: …among others—the best known is Apari??o, which explores the relationship of a teacher with his students in an almost essayistic manner; lengthy philosophical monologues and dialogues characterize this quasi-existentialist work, which widely influenced contemporary Portuguese fiction.

  • Aparicio, Luis (Venezuelan-American baseball player)

    Luis Aparicio, Venezuelan baseball player who was known for his outstanding fielding, speed on the base paths, and durability. Aparicio appeared in 2,581 games at shortstop, a record in American professional baseball that stood for more than three decades. The son of a baseball player in Latin

  • aparigraha (Hinduism)

    Mahatma Gandhi: The religious quest: One was aparigraha (“nonpossession”), which implies that people have to jettison the material goods that cramp the life of the spirit and to shake off the bonds of money and property. The other was samabhava (“equability”), which enjoins people to remain unruffled by pain or pleasure, victory…

  • Aparimitāyus-sūtra-?āstra (work by Vasubandhu)

    Aparimitayus-sutra-shastra, (Sanskrit: “Treatise on the Aparimitayus-sutra”) in Buddhism, a short treatise (shastra) on the Aparimitayus-sutra, one of the major Pure Land sutras, by the Indian monk Vasubandhu (flourished 5th century ce). It expresses the author’s personal devotion to Amitabha, the

  • Aparimitayus-sutra-shastra (work by Vasubandhu)

    Aparimitayus-sutra-shastra, (Sanskrit: “Treatise on the Aparimitayus-sutra”) in Buddhism, a short treatise (shastra) on the Aparimitayus-sutra, one of the major Pure Land sutras, by the Indian monk Vasubandhu (flourished 5th century ce). It expresses the author’s personal devotion to Amitabha, the

  • Aparni (people)

    Parni, one of three nomadic or seminomadic tribes in the confederacy of the Dahae living east of the Caspian Sea; its members founded the Parthian empire. After the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc) the Parni apparently moved southward into the region of Parthia and perhaps eastward into

  • Aparri (Philippines)

    Aparri, town, northeastern Luzon, Philippines. It lies along the Babuyan Channel of the Philippine Sea, near the mouth of the Cagayan River. Aparri is the interisland port for much of northeastern Luzon. Anti-Spanish insurgents landed there in 1898 under Colonel Daniel Tirona, and civil government

  • apartheid (social policy)

    Apartheid, (Afrikaans: “apartness”) policy that governed relations between South Africa’s white minority and nonwhite majority and sanctioned racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against nonwhites. The implementation of apartheid, often called “separate development” since

  • apartment block (architecture)

    Apartment house, building containing more than one dwelling unit, most of which are designed for domestic use, but sometimes including shops and other nonresidential features. Apartment buildings have existed for centuries. In the great cities of the Roman Empire, because of urban congestion, the

  • apartment building (architecture)

    Apartment house, building containing more than one dwelling unit, most of which are designed for domestic use, but sometimes including shops and other nonresidential features. Apartment buildings have existed for centuries. In the great cities of the Roman Empire, because of urban congestion, the

  • Apartment for Peggy (film by Seaton [1948])

    George Seaton: Miracle on 34th Street and The Country Girl: Apartment for Peggy (1948) was a light romance, with Jeanne Crain and William Holden as campus newlyweds; Gwenn was notable as a suicidal professor whose depression lifts after he rents out his attic to the couple. Next was Chicken Every Sunday (1949), a lighthearted period…

  • apartment house (architecture)

    Apartment house, building containing more than one dwelling unit, most of which are designed for domestic use, but sometimes including shops and other nonresidential features. Apartment buildings have existed for centuries. In the great cities of the Roman Empire, because of urban congestion, the

  • Apartment Zero (film by Donovan [1988])

    Colin Firth: …films from this period included Apartment Zero (1988), Valmont (1989), and Circle of Friends (1995).

  • Apartment, The (film by Wilder [1960])

    Billy Wilder: Films of the 1960s: …daring in its way was The Apartment (1960), in which Lemmon played a milquetoast business executive who, hoping for a promotion, lets his tyrannical boss (MacMurray, cast against type, again with splendid results) use his apartment to conduct an extramarital affair with neurotic elevator operator (Shirley MacLaine) and then comes…

  • Apartment, The (novel by Steel)

    Danielle Steel: Her later novels included The Apartment (2016), Beauchamp Hall (2018), and Lost and Found (2019).

  • Apaseo River (river, Mexico)

    Laja River: It joins the Apaseo River, a tributary of the Lerma River, 3 miles (5 km) southeast of Celaya. A portion of the Mexico City–Piedras Negras railroad parallels the river’s lower course. The Laja is about 85 miles (135 km) long.

  • apatheia (philosophy)

    Apathy, in Stoic philosophy, condition of being totally free from the pathē, which roughly are the emotions and passions, notably pain, fear, desire, and pleasure. Although remote origins of the doctrine can probably be found in the Cynics (second half of the 4th century bc), it was Zeno of Citium

  • apathy (philosophy)

    Apathy, in Stoic philosophy, condition of being totally free from the pathē, which roughly are the emotions and passions, notably pain, fear, desire, and pleasure. Although remote origins of the doctrine can probably be found in the Cynics (second half of the 4th century bc), it was Zeno of Citium

  • apatite (mineral)

    Apatite, any member of a series of phosphate minerals, the world’s major source of phosphorus, found as variously coloured glassy crystals, masses, or nodules. If not for its softness (Mohs hardness 5, compared with the 7 to 9 of most gems), apatite would be a popular gemstone; much of the material

  • Apatornis (fossil bird genus)

    bird: Fossil birds: that included Ichthyornis and Apatornis. Although not related to gulls, these birds resembled them superficially and may well have been their ecological counterparts. It was long believed that Ichthyornis had teeth, like Hesperornis, but it is now thought that the toothed jaws formerly thought to belong to Ichthyornis were…

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