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  • anthracnose (plant disease)

    Anthracnose, a group of fungal diseases that affect a variety of plants in warm, humid areas. Shade trees such as sycamore, ash, oak, and maple are especially susceptible, though the disease is found in a number of plants, including grasses and annuals. Anthracnose causes the wilting, withering,

  • Anthracobia (fungus genus)

    cup fungus: …for two genera (Pyronema and Anthracobia) of the order that grow on burned wood or steamed soil.

  • anthracosaur (fossil tetrapod order)

    amphibian: Evolution and classification: The representatives of the anthracosaurs included the embolomers, baphetids, and limnoscelids. Nectrideans and aistopods are often identified as amphibians, but they might be better grouped with the anthracosaurs or listed separately.

  • Anthracosauria (fossil tetrapod order)

    amphibian: Evolution and classification: The representatives of the anthracosaurs included the embolomers, baphetids, and limnoscelids. Nectrideans and aistopods are often identified as amphibians, but they might be better grouped with the anthracosaurs or listed separately.

  • anthracosis (disease)

    Black lung, respiratory disorder, a type of pneumoconiosis caused by repeated inhalation of coal dust over a period of years. The disease gets its name from a distinctive blue-black marbling of the lung caused by accumulation of the dust. Georgius Agricola, a German mineralogist, first described

  • anthraquinone (chemical compound)

    Anthraquinone, the most important quinone derivative of anthracene and the parent substance of a large class of dyes and pigments. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of anthracene or condensation of benzene and phthalic anhydride, followed by dehydration of the condensation product. Alizarin

  • anthraquinone dye (pigment)

    Anthraquinone dye, any of a group of organic dyes having molecular structures based upon that of anthraquinone. The group is subdivided according to the methods best suited to their application to various fibres. Anthraquinone acid dyes contain sulfonic acid groups that render them soluble in

  • anthrax (disease)

    Anthrax, acute, infectious, febrile disease of animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant spores capable of persisting and retaining their virulence for many years. Although anthrax most commonly affects grazing animals such as

  • Anthrax anale (insect)

    bee fly: Anthrax anale is a parasite of tiger beetle larvae, and the European A. trifasciata is a parasite of the wall bee. Several African species of Villa and Thyridanthrax are parasitic on the covering of the pupa of tsetse flies. Villa (Hemipenthes) morio is parasitic on…

  • Anthrax trifasciata (insect)

    bee fly: …beetle larvae, and the European A. trifasciata is a parasite of the wall bee. Several African species of Villa and Thyridanthrax are parasitic on the covering of the pupa of tsetse flies. Villa (Hemipenthes) morio is parasitic on the beneficial ichneumonid, Banchus femoralis. Some bee mimics in the family Syrphidae…

  • Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (medicine)

    anthrax: Anthrax as a biological weapon: …against possible anthrax infection, including Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), the vaccine developed to protect United States military personnel. The anthrax vaccine can provide protection to most recipients, although a small percentage do not acquire complete immunity. However, if vaccinated military personnel were to encounter a massive dose of anthrax, such…

  • Anthrenus musaeorum (beetle)

    dermestid beetle: Anthrenus verbasci and A. musaeorum are two important museum pests. The larvae feed on and have destroyed collections of stuffed mammals, birds, and insects. Museums and private collectors must either have pestproof display shelves or continuously apply pesticides to protect their collections. The larvae of carrion-feeding species are…

  • Anthrenus verbasci (beetle)

    dermestid beetle: Anthrenus verbasci and A. musaeorum are two important museum pests. The larvae feed on and have destroyed collections of stuffed mammals, birds, and insects. Museums and private collectors must either have pestproof display shelves or continuously apply pesticides to protect their collections. The larvae of…

  • Anthribidae (insect)

    Fungus weevil, (family Anthribidae), any of approximately 3,000 species of weevils (insect order Coleoptera) whose adults are usually found on dead twigs or fungi and whose larvae feed on fungi, seeds, or deadwood. These insects are between 0.5 and 50 mm (0.02 and 2 inches) long, and the head is

  • Anthriscus cerefolium (herb)

    Chervil, (Anthriscus cerefolium), annual herb of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). It is native to regions of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and to western Asia. Chervil is cultivated in Europe for its lacy, decompound, aromatic leaves, which are used to flavour fish, salads, soups, eggs, meat

  • anthropic principle (cosmology)

    Anthropic principle, in cosmology, any consideration of the structure of the universe, the values of the constants of nature, or the laws of nature that has a bearing upon the existence of life. Clearly, humanity’s very existence shows that the current structure of the universe and the values taken

  • Anthropocene Epoch (geochronology)

    Anthropocene Epoch, unofficial interval of geologic time, making up the third worldwide division of the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years ago to the present), characterized as the time in which the collective activities of human beings (Homo sapiens) began to substantially alter Earth’s surface,

  • anthropocentrism (philosophy)

    Anthropocentrism, philosophical viewpoint arguing that human beings are the central or most significant entities in the world. This is a basic belief embedded in many Western religions and philosophies. Anthropocentrism regards humans as separate from and superior to nature and holds that human

  • anthropogenic global warming

    global warming: Carbon dioxide: Anthropogenic emissions currently account for the annual release of about 7 gigatons (7 billion tons) of carbon into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic emissions are equal to approximately 3 percent of the total emissions of CO2 by natural sources, and this amplified carbon load from human activities…

  • anthropogenic scrubland (biology)

    scrubland: Origin: Anthropogenic scrublands—those arising from human impact on the vegetation—may be at least as widespread as natural scrublands. They occur where humans have altered an environment formerly dominated by trees to such an extent that it is no longer able to support them; this development is…

  • Anthropogeographie (work by Ratzel)

    Friedrich Ratzel: In Anthropogeographie (vol. 1, 1882, and vol. 2, 1891) he considered population distribution, its relation to migration and environment, and also the effects of environment on individuals and societies. His other works included Die Erde und das Leben: Eine vergleichende Erdkunde (1901–02; “Earth and Life: A…

  • anthropoid (mammal suborder)

    primate: General structure: …primates, collectively known as the anthropoids, are extremely conservative in their structure; morphologically speaking, they have maintained a position in the evolutionary midstream and have avoided the potential stagnation of specialized life near the banks. Specialization is not always a liability; in times of environmental stability, the specialized animal enjoys…

  • Anthropoidea (mammal suborder)

    primate: General structure: …primates, collectively known as the anthropoids, are extremely conservative in their structure; morphologically speaking, they have maintained a position in the evolutionary midstream and have avoided the potential stagnation of specialized life near the banks. Specialization is not always a liability; in times of environmental stability, the specialized animal enjoys…

  • anthropological linguistics

    Anthropological linguistics, study of the relationship between language and culture; it usually refers to work on languages that have no written records. In the United States a close relationship between anthropology and linguistics developed as a result of research by anthropologists into the

  • anthropological studies

    Perhaps the most universal of heirlooms passed down from parent to child are stories of family--stories that address the questions, Who are we? Where did we come from? Like others, the peoples of Japan had been asking these questions for generations. Archaeological, linguistic, and other

  • Anthropologist on Mars, An (work by Sacks)

    Oliver Sacks: In An Anthropologist on Mars (1995), he documented the lives of seven patients living with conditions ranging from autism to brain damage and described the unique ways in which they created functional lives in spite of their disabilities. Sacks described his journey to Micronesia to study…

  • Anthropology (work by Kroeber)

    A.L. Kroeber: …work is considered to be Anthropology (1923; rev. ed. 1948), one of the first general teaching texts on the subject.

  • anthropology

    Anthropology, “the science of humanity,” which studies human beings in aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species. Because of the diverse subject matter it encompasses,

  • anthropology of religion (anthropology)

    anthropology: The anthropological study of religion: The anthropology of religion is the comparative study of religions in their cultural, social, historical, and material contexts.

  • Anthropology, an Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization (work by Tylor)

    Sir Edward Burnett Tylor: Legacy: His last book, Anthropology, an Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization (1881), is an excellent summary of what was, late in the 19th century, known and thought in that field. Like all Tylor’s work, it conveys a vast quantity of information in a lucid and energetic…

  • Anthropometamorphosis; or, The Artificial Changeling (work by Bulwer)

    John Bulwer: …of the Mind (1649); and Anthropometamorphosis; or, The Artificial Changeling (1650).

  • Anthropometries of the Blue Age (work by Klein)

    Western painting: Art and consumerism: French and Italian art in the 1950s: …most-famous performances, however, were the Anthropometries of the Blue Age, performed in Paris in 1960, in which Klein, wearing a tuxedo, instructed several naked female models to act as his “living paintbrushes,” imprinting their paint-smeared bodies onto enormous sheets of paper placed on the floor.

  • anthropometry (physical anthropology)

    Anthropometry, the systematic collection and correlation of measurements of the human body. Now one of the principal techniques of physical anthropology, the discipline originated in the 19th century, when early studies of human biological and cultural evolution stimulated an interest in the

  • anthropomorphic mask (religion)

    mask: General characteristics: …human features are classified as anthropomorphic and those with animal characteristics as theriomorphic. In some instances the mask form is a replication of natural features or is quite realistic, and in other instances it is an abstraction. Masks usually represent supernatural beings, ancestors, and fanciful or imagined figures, and they…

  • anthropomorphic polytheism (religion)

    classification of religions: Morphological: …stage of nature religion is anthropomorphic polytheism, in which the deities appear in human form but have superhuman powers. These religions have some ethical elements, but their mythology portrays the deities as indulging in all sorts of shocking acts. None of the polytheistic religions, thus, was able to raise itself…

  • anthropomorphism (religion)

    Anthropomorphism, the interpretation of nonhuman things or events in terms of human characteristics, as when one senses malice in a computer or hears human voices in the wind. Derived from the Greek anthropos (“human”) and morphe (“form”), the term was first used to refer to the attribution of

  • anthroponomastics (linguistics)

    name: Categories of names: … and their study is called anthroponomastics. A set of place-names is called toponymy, and their study is called toponomastics. In a looser usage, however, the term onomastics is used for personal names and their study, and the term toponymy is used for place-names and their study. The term toponymy itself…

  • anthroponymy (linguistics)

    name: Categories of names: …of personal names is called anthroponymy and their study is called anthroponomastics. A set of place-names is called toponymy, and their study is called toponomastics. In a looser usage, however, the term onomastics is used for personal names and their study, and the term toponymy is used for place-names and…

  • anthropophagy (human behaviour)

    Cannibalism, eating of human flesh by humans. The term is derived from the Spanish name (Caríbales, or Caníbales) for the Carib, a West Indies tribe well known for its practice of cannibalism. A widespread custom going back into early human history, cannibalism has been found among peoples on most

  • Anthropornis (fossil bird genus)

    penguin: Fossil record: …(about 5 feet) tall, and Anthropornis, which stood about 1.8 metres (6 feet) tall—date to the Eocene Epoch (56 million to 33.9 million years ago). Living penguins make up a separate lineage characterized by smaller, highly aquatic species that began about 8 million years ago. The comparatively small size of…

  • Anthroposophical Society (philosophical group)

    Rudolf Steiner: …In 1912 he founded the Anthroposophical Society.

  • anthroposophy (philosophy)

    Anthroposophy, philosophy based on the premise that the human intellect has the ability to contact spiritual worlds. It was formulated by Rudolf Steiner (q.v.), an Austrian philosopher, scientist, and artist, who postulated the existence of a spiritual world comprehensible to pure thought but

  • Anthrosol (FAO soil group)

    Anthrosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Anthrosols are defined as any soils that have been modified profoundly by human activities, including burial, partial removal, cutting and filling, waste disposal, manuring, and

  • anthrozoology (academic discipline)

    Anthrozoology, study of the interactions and relationships between human and nonhuman animals. Anthrozoology spans the humanities and the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. While the lives of humans and nonhuman animals have always been intertwined, the ways that humans relate to and

  • Anthurium (plant genus)

    Anthurium, genus of tropical American herbaceous plants, comprising about 825 species in the arum family (Araceae), many of which are popular foliage plants. A few species are widely grown for the florist trade for their showy, long-lasting blossoms, which consist of colourful leathery, shiny

  • Anthurium andraeanum (plant)

    Anthurium: Flamingo lily (A. andraeanum), with stems up to 60 cm (2 feet) tall, has a salmon-red, heart-shaped spathe about 5–8 cm (2–3 inches) long; its hybrids produce white, pink, salmon, red, and black-red spathes. Flamingo flower, or pigtail plant (A. scherzeranum), is a shorter plant…

  • Anthurium scherzeranum (plant)

    Anthurium: Flamingo flower, or pigtail plant (A. scherzeranum), is a shorter plant with a scarlet spathe and a loosely coiled orange-red spadix. Because anthuriums require warm temperatures and high humidity, they are usually grown under greenhouse conditions.

  • Anthus (bird genus)

    pipit: …ground birds in the genera Anthus and Tmetothylacus in the family Motacillidae (order Passeriformes, suborder Passeri [songbirds]). They are found worldwide except in polar regions.

  • Anthus pratensis (bird)

    community ecology: Coevolution of one species with several species: …for cuckoos in Britain are meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis), reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), pied wagtails (Motacilla alba yarrellii), and dunnocks (Prunella modularis).

  • Anthyllis vulneraria (plant)

    Kidney vetch, (Anthyllis vulneraria), perennial herb of the pea family (Fabaceae), found in meadows, alpine pastures, and dry places of Europe and northern Africa. It was formerly used as a remedy for kidney disorders but is now frequently cultivated in rock gardens. Kidney vetch is a low hairy

  • Anti-Atlas (mountains, North Africa)

    Anti-Atlas, mountain range in Morocco running parallel to and southward of the central range of the Atlas Mountains of North Africa. Although it has a mean elevation of 5,000 feet (1,500 metres), some peaks and passes exceed 6,000 feet (1,800 metres). This rugged, arid region, which encloses the

  • Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (international treaty)

    Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty), arms control treaty ratified in 1972 between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit deployment of missile systems that could theoretically be used to destroy incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) launched by the other superpower.

  • Anti-Booker Prize (Russian literary award)

    Russia: The 20th century: The so-called Anti-Booker Prize—its name, a protest against the British origins of the Booker Prize, was selected to emphasize that it was a Russian award for Russian writers—was first presented in 1995 by the Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Tatyana Tolstaya began to occupy a prominent role following the publication…

  • Anti-Capitalistic Mentality, The (work by Mises)

    Ludwig von Mises: In The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality (1956), an examination of American socialism, he dealt with the opposition of a variety of intellectuals to the free market; in his view, these persons bear an unwarranted resentment toward the necessity of obeying mass demand, which is the basis of prosperity…

  • Anti-Comintern Pact (German-Japanese alliance [1936])

    Anti-Comintern Pact, agreement concluded first between Germany and Japan (Nov. 25, 1936) and then between Italy, Germany, and Japan (Nov. 6, 1937), ostensibly directed against the Communist International (Comintern) but, by implication, specifically against the Soviet Union. The treaties were

  • Anti-Corn Law League (British political organization)

    Anti-Corn Law League, British organization founded in 1839, devoted to fighting England’s Corn Laws, regulations governing the import and export of grain. It was led by Richard Cobden, who saw the laws as both morally wrong and economically damaging. The league mobilized the industrial middle

  • anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (physics)

    string theory: M-theory and AdS/CFT correspondence: …anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. Maldacena found that a string theory operating with a particular environment (involving a space-time known as an anti-de Sitter space) was equivalent to a type of quantum field theory operating in an environment with one less spatial dimension. This has proved to be…

  • Anti-Defamation League (American organization)

    Anti-Defamation League, advocacy organization established in Chicago in 1913 to fight anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry and discrimination. Its activities include assessing hate crimes and anti-Semitism in various countries, assisting law-enforcement agencies in investigating and prosecuting

  • Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith (American organization)

    Anti-Defamation League, advocacy organization established in Chicago in 1913 to fight anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry and discrimination. Its activities include assessing hate crimes and anti-Semitism in various countries, assisting law-enforcement agencies in investigating and prosecuting

  • Anti-Dühring (work by Engels)

    Marxism: The contributions of Engels: …in Science, better known as Anti-Dühring), and an unfinished work, Dialektik und Natur (Dialectics of Nature), which he had begun around 1875–76. The importance of these writings to the subsequent development of Marxism can be seen from Lenin’s observation that Engels “developed, in a clear and often polemical style, the…

  • anti-electron (subatomic particle)

    Positron, positively charged subatomic particle having the same mass and magnitude of charge as the electron and constituting the antiparticle of a negative electron. The first of the antiparticles to be detected, positrons were discovered by Carl David Anderson in cloud-chamber studies of the

  • Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (Yugoslavian organization)

    Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, umbrella organization established during World War II by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to coordinate the military campaigns of Josip Broz Tito’s Partisans and the administrative activities of local “liberation committees.” AVNOJ

  • Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (political organization, Myanmar)

    Thakin Than Tun: …was general secretary of the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL).

  • Anti-Federalists (United States history)

    Anti-Federalists, in early U.S. history, a loose political coalition of popular politicians, such as Patrick Henry, who unsuccessfully opposed the strong central government envisioned in the U.S. Constitution of 1787 and whose agitations led to the addition of a Bill of Rights. The first in the

  • anti-ferromagnetism (physics)

    Antiferromagnetism, type of magnetism in solids such as manganese oxide (MnO) in which adjacent ions that behave as tiny magnets (in this case manganese ions, Mn2+) spontaneously align themselves at relatively low temperatures into opposite, or antiparallel, arrangements throughout the material so

  • anti-globalism (economics)

    cultural globalization: Entertainment: Anti-globalism activists contend that American television shows have corrosive effects on local cultures by highlighting Western notions of beauty, individualism, and sexuality. Although many of the titles exported are considered second-tier shows in the United States, there is no dispute that these programs are part…

  • anti-Hellenistic period (Iranian history)

    ancient Iran: The anti-Hellenistic period (ad 12–162): A new and important period in Parthian history, often called “anti-Hellenistic,” embraces a century and a half, from ad 12 to 162. It is characterized by an expansion of the native Parthian culture and an opposition to all things foreign. The…

  • anti-idealism (philosophy)

    universal: Plenitudes from anti-idealism: ” The term “realism” is sometimes used to mean anti-idealism. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several of the philosophers who made major advances in formal logic (most importantly Frege and Russell) were realists in…

  • anti-inflammatory agent (medicine)

    analgesic: Anti-inflammatory analgesics: Most anti-inflammatory analgesics are derived from three compounds discovered in the 19th century—salicylic acid, pyrazolone, and phenacetin (or acetophenetidin). Although chemically unrelated, the drugs in these families have the ability to relieve mild to moderate pain through actions that reduce inflammation at its…

  • anti-intellectualism (sociology)

    Christianity: Intellectualism versus anti-intellectualism: In contrast to Tertullian’s anti-intellectual attitude, a positive approach to intellectual activities has also made itself heard from the beginning of the Christian church. It was perhaps best expressed in the 11th century by St. Anselm of Canterbury in the formula fides quaerens intellectum…

  • Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (work by Hofstadter)

    Richard Hofstadter: His Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (1963), which won the 1964 Pulitzer Prize, presented his controversial thesis that the egalitarian, populist sentiments of Jacksonian democracy, themes that have echoed recurrently through U.S. political history, produced in many Americans a deep-seated prejudice against intellectuals, who are perceived as…

  • Anti-Jacobin, The (British newspaper)

    history of publishing: Literary and scientific magazines: Gifford had previously edited The Anti-Jacobin (1797–98), with which such figures as the Tory statesman George Canning were associated. In opposition to these, and more political than any of them, was the Westminster Review (1824–1914), started by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill as an organ of the philosophical radicals.…

  • Anti-Lebanon Mountains (mountains, Asia)

    Anti-Lebanon Mountains, mountain range that runs northeast-southwest along the Syrian-Lebanese border parallel to the Lebanon Mountains, from which they are separated by the al-Biqā? Valley. The range averages 6,500 feet (2,000 m) above sea level, with several peaks exceeding 8,000 feet (2,400 m).

  • Anti-Liban (mountains, Asia)

    Anti-Lebanon Mountains, mountain range that runs northeast-southwest along the Syrian-Lebanese border parallel to the Lebanon Mountains, from which they are separated by the al-Biqā? Valley. The range averages 6,500 feet (2,000 m) above sea level, with several peaks exceeding 8,000 feet (2,400 m).

  • Anti-Machiavel (treatise by Frederick the Great)

    Frederick II: Domestic policies: In his Anti-Machiavel, a somewhat conventional discussion of the principles of good government published in 1740 just before his accession, Frederick wrote that there were two sorts of princes—those who ruled in person and those who merely relied on subordinates. The former were “like the soul of…

  • Anti-Masonic Movement (United States history)

    Anti-Masonic Movement, in the history of the United States, popular movement based on public indignation at and suspicion of the secret fraternal order known as the Masons, or Freemasons. Opponents of this society seized upon the uproar to create the Anti-Masonic Party. It was the first American

  • Anti-Masonic Party (political party, United States)

    Anti-Masonic Movement: …the uproar to create the Anti-Masonic Party. It was the first American third party, the first political party to hold a national nominating convention, and the first to offer the electorate a platform of party principles.

  • anti-material dualism (religion)

    Christianity: Aversion of heresy: the establishment of orthodoxy: …the 8th and 9th centuries; and antimaterial dualism was revived among the Bulgarian Bogomils in the 10th century and among the Cathars of France and Italy in the 12th. Keen-eyed readers of theological literature can spot contemporary equivalents to most or all of the positions and tendencies mentioned already at…

  • anti-monarchic source (Old Testament)

    Samuel: Conflicting traditions about Samuel.: …those passages called the “antimonarchic” source (1 Samuel 8 and 10:17–27). In the pro-monarchic account of the rise of Saul, Samuel is an obscure village seer (with distinct evidence of occult practices). The institution of the monarchy and the election of the king occur according to the will of…

  • Anti-Nebraska Democratic Party (political party, United States [1854-present])

    Republican Party, in the United States, one of the two major political parties, the other being the Democratic Party. During the 19th century the Republican Party stood against the extension of slavery to the country’s new territories and, ultimately, for slavery’s complete abolition. During the

  • Anti-neutralità (work by Marinetti)

    Filippo Tommaso Marinetti: …Feasting King”) and the Italian Anti-neutralità (1912; “Anti-Neutrality”) and summed up his dramatic theory in a prose work, Teatro sintetico futurista (1916; “Synthetic Futurist Theatre”).

  • anti-nuclear movement (social movement)

    Antinuclear movement, social movement opposed to the production of nuclear weapons and the generation of electricity by nuclear power plants. The goals and ideologies of the antinuclear movement range from an emphasis on peace and environmentalism to intellectual social activism based on knowledge

  • Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, The (work by Deleuze and Guattari)

    Pierre-Félix Guattari: In volume 1, Anti-Oedipus (1972), they drew on Lacanian ideas to argue that traditional psychoanalytic conceptions of the structure of personality are used to suppress and control human desire and indirectly to perpetuate the capitalist system. Schizophrenia, they continued, constitutes one of the few authentic forms of rebellion…

  • anti-oncogene (pathology)

    Tumour suppressor gene, any of a class of genes that are normally involved in regulating cell growth but that may become cancer-causing when damaged. Tumour suppressor genes encode for proteins that are involved in inhibiting the proliferation of cells, which is crucial to normal cell development

  • Anti-Pamela (novel by Haywood)

    Eliza Haywood: … (1740) with her satirical novel Anti-Pamela (1741).

  • anti-poetry (literature)

    Nicanor Parra: …time, the originator of so-called antipoetry (poetry that opposes traditional poetic techniques or styles).

  • Anti-Price Discrimination Act (United States [1936])

    Robinson-Patman Act, U.S. law enacted in 1936 that protects small businesses from being driven out of the marketplace by prohibiting discrimination in pricing, promotional allowances, and advertising by large franchised companies. The Robinson-Patman Act is also intended to protect wholesalers from

  • Anti-Revolutionary Party (Dutch history)

    Hendrikus Colijn: …member for the orthodox Calvinist Anti-Revolutionary Party and became war minister (1911–13). After serving as director (1914–22) of the company that later became the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company (Shell), he succeeded Abraham Kuyper in 1922 as leader of the Anti-Revolutionary Party and editor of its newspaper, De Standaard.

  • Anti-Saloon League (American political organization)

    Anti-Saloon League, the leading organization lobbying for prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century. It was founded as a state society in Ohio in 1893, but its influence spread rapidly, and in 1895 it became a national organization. It drew most of its support from Protestant

  • Anti-Scrape (British organization)

    William Morris: Iceland and socialism: …1877 he also founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in an attempt to combat the drastic methods of restoration then being carried out on the cathedrals and parish churches of Great Britain.

  • anti-Semitism

    Anti-Semitism, hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious or racial group. The term anti-Semitism was coined in 1879 by the German agitator Wilhelm Marr to designate the anti-Jewish campaigns under way in central Europe at that time. Although the term now has wide currency, it

  • anti-sidetone circuit (electronics)

    telephone: Anti-sidetone circuit: The anti-sidetone circuit is an assemblage of transformers, resistors, and capacitors that perform a number of functions. The primary function is to reduce sidetone, which is the distracting sound of the speaker’s own voice coming through the receiver from the transmitter. The anti-sidetone…

  • Anti-Slavery Society (British organization [1823])

    William Wilberforce: …Dominions—again, more commonly called the Anti-Slavery Society. Turning over to Buxton the parliamentary leadership of the abolition movement, he retired from the House of Commons in 1825. On July 26, 1833, the Slavery Abolition Act was passed by the Commons (it became law the following month). Three days later Wilberforce…

  • Anti-Slavery Society (British organization [1787])

    Thomas Clarkson: When the Anti-Slavery Society was founded (1823), Clarkson was chosen a vice president.

  • anti-smoking bill (United States [2009])

    e-cigarette: …as tobacco products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (TCA), since the nicotine contained in some of the e-cigarette cartridges was derived from tobacco. Reports in 2018 of increased e-cigarette use among adolescents and teenagers in the United States prompted the FDA to identify strategies for combating…

  • Anti-Social Behaviour Order (British law)

    United Kingdom: Family and gender: The ill-fated ASBO (Anti-Social Behaviour Order), restricting the movement of offenders, was celebrated by some as an appropriately strong response to troublemaking neighbours and gangs but was condemned by others as an attack on civil liberties.

  • Anti-Socialist Law (Germany [1878])

    Wilhelm Liebknecht: …when the Reichstag adopted the Anti-Socialist Law that, among other things, forbade the publication of socialist literature.

  • anti-Stokes lines (physics)

    Stokes lines: Anti-Stokes lines are found in fluorescence and in Raman spectra when the atoms or molecules of the material are already in an excited state (as when at high temperature). In this case the radiated line energy is the sum of the pre-excitation energy and the…

  • anti-structure (sociology)

    rite of passage: Victor Turner and anti-structure: …communitas, which together constitute “ritual anti-structure,” call attention to the arbitrariness and artificiality of social structure and social norms.

  • Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee device (military technology)

    World War II: The Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 1940–41: …vessels had the ASDIC (Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) device to detect submerged U-boats. By the spring of 1941, under the guidance of Admiral Karl D?nitz, the U-boat commanders were changing their tactic of individual operation to one of wolf-pack attacks: groups of U-boats, disposed in long lines, would rally…

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