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  • Abū Bakr Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd al-Malik ibn Mu?ammad ibn Mu?ammad ibn ?ufayl al-Qaysī (Moorish philosopher and physician)

    Ibn ?ufayl, Moorish philosopher and physician who is known for his ?ayy ibn Yaq?ān (c. 1175; Eng. trans. by L.E. Goodman, ?ayy ibn Yaq?an by Ibn ?ufayl, 1972), a philosophical romance in which he describes the self-education and gradual philosophical development of a man who passes the first 50

  • Abū Bishr ?Amr ibn ?Uthmān (Arab grammarian)

    Sībawayh, celebrated grammarian of the Arabic language. After studying in Basra, Iraq, with a prominent grammarian, Sībawayh received recognition as a grammarian himself. Sībawayh is said to have left Iraq and retired to Shīrāz after losing a debate with a rival on Bedouin Arabic usage. His m

  • Abu Ch?afar ben Hud (ruler of Murcia)

    Murcia: …led to a rising under Abu Ja?far ibn Hud in 1144 and the reestablishment of Murcian independence. The kingdom was then united with Valencia.

  • Abu Daoud (Palestinian militant)

    Abu Daoud, (Mohammed Daoud Oudeh), Palestinian militant (born May 16, 1937, East Jerusalem, British Palestine—died July 3, 2010, Damascus, Syria), organized the Black September attack at the Munich 1972 Olympic Games, in which 11 Israeli athletes were taken hostage and murdered. He was born

  • Abū Dā?ūd (Muslim scholar)

    ?ilm al-?adīth: 875), Abū Dā?ūd (d. 888), at-Tīrmidhī (d. 892), Ibn Mājāh (d. 886), and an-Nasā?ī (d. 915)—came to be recognized as canonical in orthodox Islam, though the books of al-Bukhārī and Muslim enjoy a prestige that virtually eclipses the other four.

  • Abu Dhabi (emirate, United Arab Emirates)

    Abu Dhabi, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States, or Trucial Oman). Though its international boundaries are disputed, it is unquestionably the largest of the country’s seven constituent emirates, with more than three-fourths of the area of the entire federation.

  • Abu Dhabi (national capital, United Arab Emirates)

    Abu Dhabi, city and capital of Abū ?aby emirate, one of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States, or Trucial Oman), and the national capital of that federation. The city occupies most of a small triangular island of the same name, just off the Persian Gulf coast and connected to the

  • Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (Emirian company)

    United Arab Emirates: Resources and power: …by another ADNOC company, the Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations, which is likewise partially owned by American, French, Japanese, and British interests. Other concessions also are held by Japanese companies.

  • Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (Emirian company)

    United Arab Emirates: Resources and power: …held by an ADNOC subsidiary, Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO), which is partially owned by British, French, and Japanese interests. One of the main offshore fields is located in Umm al-Shā?if. Al-Bunduq offshore field is shared with neighbouring Qatar but is operated by ADMA-OPCO. A Japanese consortium operates an…

  • Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (Emirian company)

    United Arab Emirates: Resources and power: …in the federation through the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). Abu Dhabi is responsible for about 95 percent of the country’s oil production, and production of petroleum and natural gas contributes about one-third of the nation’s GDP, even though the oil and gas sector employs only a tiny fraction…

  • Abū Dhahab (Mamlūk official)

    Egypt: Mamlūk power under the Ottomans: …of two emirs—?Alī Bey and Abū Dhahab—both of whom secured from the Sublime Porte (Ottoman government) de facto recognition of their autonomy in Egypt (1769–75) and even undertook military campaigns in Syria and the Hejaz. The Ottomans attempted to end the Mamlūk domination by sending an army to Egypt in…

  • Abu Ghraib prison (prison facility, Iraq)

    George W. Bush: Treatment of detainees: …by American soldiers at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (see below Iraq War). In response to the Abu Ghraib revelations, Congress eventually passed the Detainee Treatment Act, which banned the “cruel, inhuman, or degrading” treatment of prisoners in U.S. military custody. Although the measure became law with Bush’s signature…

  • Abū Ghufayl (Barghawā?ah leader)

    Barghawā?ah: In the reign of Abū Ghufayl (885–913) the confederation became firmly established in Barghawā?ah territory and aided in the creation of a highly defensive state that also proved to be commercially prosperous.

  • Abu Ghurab (ancient site, Egypt)

    Abū Jirāb, ancient Egyptian site, about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Abū ?īr, between ?aqqārah and Al-Jīzah; it is known as the location of two 5th-dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce) sun temples. The first part of the 5th dynasty is recognized as a period of unusually strong emphasis on the worship of the

  • Abu Gurab (ancient site, Egypt)

    Abū Jirāb, ancient Egyptian site, about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Abū ?īr, between ?aqqārah and Al-Jīzah; it is known as the location of two 5th-dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce) sun temples. The first part of the 5th dynasty is recognized as a period of unusually strong emphasis on the worship of the

  • Abu Gurob (ancient site, Egypt)

    Abū Jirāb, ancient Egyptian site, about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Abū ?īr, between ?aqqārah and Al-Jīzah; it is known as the location of two 5th-dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce) sun temples. The first part of the 5th dynasty is recognized as a period of unusually strong emphasis on the worship of the

  • Abū ?abbah (Iraq)

    Sippar, ancient city of Babylonia, located southwest of present Baghdad, central Iraq. Sippar was subject to the 1st dynasty of Babylon, but little is known about the city before 1174 bc, when it was sacked by the Elamite king Kutir-Nahhunte. It recovered and was later captured by the Assyrian king

  • Abū ?af? (?af?id ruler)

    ?af?id dynasty: …unity being temporarily restored by Abū ?af? (1284–95), then by Abū Ya?yā Abū Bakr (1318–46). Plagued by periodic Marīnid invasions, the ?af?id kingdom regained some of the lustre of al-Mustan?ir’s era under Abū al-?Abbās (1370–94), who managed to pacify the country, though ?af?id pirate activity continued to threaten international relations.…

  • Abū ?af? ?Umar (Berber chief)

    North Africa: The Maghrib under the Almoravids and the Almohads: …this act ?Abd al-Mu?min bypassed Abū ?af? ?Umar, the Ma?mūdah chief who gave protection to Ibn Tūmart in the High Atlas during his period of exile and whom the other Ma?mūdah chiefs expected to succeed ?Abd al-Mu?min. Ma?mūdah opposition was dealt with by putting a number of their chiefs to…

  • Abū ?āmid Mu?ammad ibn Mu?ammad a?-?ūsī al-Ghazālī (Muslim jurist, theologian, and mystic)

    Al-Ghazālī, Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, I?yā? ?ulūm ad-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”), made ?ūfism (Islāmic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islām. Al-Ghazālī was born at ?ūs (near Meshed in eastern Iran) and was educated there, then in Jorjān, and finally

  • Abū ?anīfah (Muslim jurist and theologian)

    Abū ?anīfah, Muslim jurist and theologian whose systematization of Islamic legal doctrine was acknowledged as one of the four canonical schools of Islamic law (madhhabs). The ?anafī school of Abū ?anīfah acquired such prestige that its doctrines were applied by a majority of Muslim dynasties. Even

  • Abū ?anīfah A?mad ibn Dā?ūd al-Dīnawarī (astronomer, botanist, and historian)

    Al-Dīnawarī, astronomer, botanist, and historian, of Persian or Kurdish origin, whose interest in Hellenism and the Arabic humanities has been compared to that of the Iraqi scholar al-Jā?i?. Al-Dīnawarī studied philology in the Iraqi cities of Basra and Kūfah. The systematic approach to learning

  • Abū ?anīfah an-Nu?mān ibn Thābit (Muslim jurist and theologian)

    Abū ?anīfah, Muslim jurist and theologian whose systematization of Islamic legal doctrine was acknowledged as one of the four canonical schools of Islamic law (madhhabs). The ?anafī school of Abū ?anīfah acquired such prestige that its doctrines were applied by a majority of Muslim dynasties. Even

  • Abū Hāshim (Shī?ah imam)

    Hāshimīyah: …one of his sons, and Abū Hāshim, a grandson. The Hāshimīyah thus did not recognize, for religious reasons, the legitimacy of Umayyad rule, and when Abū Hāshim died in 716, without heirs, a majority of the sect acknowledged Mu?ammad ibn ?Alī (died between 731 and 743) of the ?Abbāsid family…

  • Abū ?udhayfah (Muslim theologian)

    Wā?il ibn ?A?ā?, Muslim theologian considered the founder of the Mu?tazilah sect. As a young man Wā?il went to Basra, Iraq, where he studied under the celebrated ascetic ?asan al-Ba?rī and met other influential religious figures who lived there. In Wā?il’s time there began the discussions that led

  • Abū Hureyra (archaeological site, Syria)

    origins of agriculture: Southwest Asia: The Abū Hureyra site in Syria is the largest known site from the era when plants and animals were initially being domesticated. Two periods of occupation bracketing the transition to agriculture have been unearthed there. The people of the earlier, Epipaleolithic occupation lived in much the…

  • Abū Ibrāhim A?mad (Aghlabid ruler)

    Aghlabid dynasty: …hands for two centuries); and Abū Ibrāhim A?mad (856–863), who commissioned many public works. During the 9th century the brilliant Kairouan civilization evolved under their rule. The Aghlabid emirs maintained a splendid court, though at the cost of oppressive taxes; their public works for the conservation and distribution of water,…

  • Abū Is?āq (Muslim mystic)

    Chishtīyah: …the founder of the order, Abū Is?āq of Syria, settled.

  • Abū Is?āq al-Sā?ilī (Muslim architect)

    Timbuktu: The Granada architect Abū Is?āq al-Sā?ili was then commissioned to design the Sankore mosque, around which Sankore University was established. The mosque still stands today, probably because of al-Sā?ili’s directive to incorporate a wooden framework into the mud walls of the building, thus facilitating annual repairs after the…

  • Abū Is?āq Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār ibn Hanī? an-Na??ām (Muslim theologian)

    Ibrāhīm al-Na??ām, brilliant Muslim theologian, a man of letters, and a poet, historian, and jurist. Na??ām spent his youth in Basra, moving to Baghdad as a young man. There he studied speculative theology (kalām) under the great Mu?tazilite theologian Abū al-Hudhayl al-?Allāf but soon broke away

  • Abū Is?āq Ismā?īl ibn al-Qāsim ibn Suwayd ibn Kaysān (Arab poet)

    Abū al-?Atāhiyah, first Arab poet of note to break with the conventions established by the pre-Islamic poets of the desert and to adopt a simpler and freer language of the village. Abū al-?Atāhiyah (“Father of Craziness”) came from a family of mawlās, poor non-Arabs who were clients of the ?Anaza

  • Abu Ja (king of Zazzau)

    Suleja: Abu Ja (Jatau), his brother and successor as sarkin Zazzau, founded Abuja town in 1828, began construction of its wall a year later, and proclaimed himself the first emir of Abuja. Withstanding Zaria attacks, the Abuja emirate remained an independent Hausa refuge. Trade with the…

  • Abu Ja?far ibn Hud (ruler of Murcia)

    Murcia: …led to a rising under Abu Ja?far ibn Hud in 1144 and the reestablishment of Murcian independence. The kingdom was then united with Valencia.

  • Abū Ja?far Mu?ammad al-Qulīnī (Muslim scholar)

    Hadith: Sectarian variations: …of them is that of Abū Ja?far Mu?ammad al-Qulīnī (died ah 328 [939 ce]), Kāfī fī ?ilm al-dīn, which might be translated: “Everything You Need to Know About the Science of Religious Practice.”

  • Abū Ja?far Mu?ammad ibn Abū al-?asan ?Alī ibn ?usayn ibn Mūsā al-Qummī (Muslim theologian)

    Ibn Bābawayh, Islamic theologian, author of one of the “Four Books” that are the basic authorities for the doctrine of Twelver (Ithnā ?Ashāri) Shī?ah. Little is known about Ibn Bābawayh’s life. According to legend he was born as the result of special prayers to the mahdī (the expected one). In 966

  • Abū Ja?far Mu?ammad ibn Jarīr al-?abarī (Muslim scholar)

    Al-?abarī, Muslim scholar, author of enormous compendiums of early Islamic history and Qur?ānic exegesis, who made a distinct contribution to the consolidation of Sunni thought during the 9th century. He condensed the vast wealth of exegetical and historical erudition of the preceding generations

  • Abū Ja?far ?Abd Allāh al-Man?ūr ibn Mu?ammad (?Abbāsid caliph)

    Al-Man?ūr, the second caliph of the ?Abbāsid dynasty (754–775), generally regarded as the real founder of the ?Abbāsid caliphate. He established the capital city at Baghdad (762–763). Al-Man?ūr was born at Al-?umaymah, the home of the ?Abbāsid family after their emigration from the Hejaz in

  • Abū Jihād (Palestinian leader)

    Khalīl Ibrāhīm al-Wazīr, Palestinian leader who became the military strategist and second in command of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Wazīr fled from Ramla with his family during the 1948 war that followed the creation of the State of Israel. He grew up in the Gaza Strip, where he

  • Abū Jirāb (ancient site, Egypt)

    Abū Jirāb, ancient Egyptian site, about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Abū ?īr, between ?aqqārah and Al-Jīzah; it is known as the location of two 5th-dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce) sun temples. The first part of the 5th dynasty is recognized as a period of unusually strong emphasis on the worship of the

  • Abū Kālījār al-Marzubān ibn Sul?ān ad-Dawlah (Būyid ruler)

    Abū Kālījār al-Marzubān ibn Sul?ān ad-Dawlah, ruler of the Būyid dynasty from 1024, who for a brief spell reunited the Būyid territories in Iraq and Iran. When his father, Sul?ān ad-Dawlah, died in December 1023/January 1024, Abū Kālījār’s succession to the sultan’s Iranian possessions of Fārs and

  • Abu Khatar (cape, Africa)

    Cape Bojador, extension of the West African coast into the Atlantic Ocean, now part of the Western Sahara. Located on a dangerous reef-lined stretch of the coast, its Arabic name, Abū Kha?ar, means “the father of danger.” It was first successfully passed by the Portuguese navigator Captain Gil

  • Abū Lahab (uncle of Mu?ammad)

    Muhammad: Biography according to the Islamic tradition: …?ālib die, and another uncle, Abū Lahab, succeeds to the leadership of the clan of Hāshim. Abū Lahab withdraws the clan’s protection from Muhammad, meaning that the latter can now be attacked without fear of retribution and is therefore no longer safe at Mecca. After failing to win protection in…

  • Abu Madi, Iliya (Arab writer)

    Iliya Abu Madi, Arab poet and journalist whose poetry achieved popularity through his expressive use of language, his mastery of the traditional patterns of Arabic poetry, and the relevance of his ideas to contemporary Arab readers. When he was 11 years old, Abu Madi moved with his family from

  • Abū Man?ūr ibn Yūsuf (Islamic merchant)

    Ibn ?Aqīl: …death of his influential patron, Abū Man?ūr ibn Yūsuf, in 1067 or 1068, he was forced to retire from his teaching position. Until 1072 he lived in partial retirement under the protection of Abū Man?ūr’s son-in-law, a wealthy ?anbalī merchant. The controversy over his ideas came to an end in…

  • Abū Man?ūr Mu?ammad ibn A?mad Daqīqī (Persian poet)

    Daqīqī, poet, one of the most important figures in early Persian poetry. Very little is known about Daqīqī’s life. A panegyrist, he wrote poems praising various Sāmānid and other princes and much lyrical poetry. He is remembered chiefly for an uncompleted verse chronicle dealing with pre-Islamic

  • Abū Man?ūr Mu?ammad ibn Ma?mūd al-?anafī al-Mutakallim al-Māturīdī as-Samarqandī (Muslim theologian)

    Abū Man?ūr Mu?ammad al-Māturīdī, eponymous figurehead of the Māturīdiyyah school of theology that arose in Transoxania, which came to be one of the most important foundations of Islamic doctrine. Except for the place and time of Māturīdī’s death, almost nothing is known about the details of his

  • Abū Man?ūr Sebüktigin (Ghaznavid ruler)

    Sebüktigin, founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, which ruled much of the area of present-day Afghanistan for more than 150 years. Once a Turkish slave, Sebüktigin married the daughter of the governor of the town of Ghazna (modern Ghaznī), which was under the control of the Sāmānid dynasty. He

  • Abū Marwān ?Abd al-Malik ibn Abī al-?Ala? Zuhr (Spanish Muslim physician)

    Ibn Zuhr, one of medieval Islam’s foremost thinkers and the greatest medical clinician of the western caliphate. An intensely practical man, Ibn Zuhr disliked medical speculation; for that reason, he opposed the teachings of the Persian master physician Avicenna. In his Taysīr fī al-mudāwāt wa

  • Abu Mazen (Palestinian leader)

    Mahmoud Abbas, Palestinian politician who served briefly as prime minister of the Palestinian Authority (PA) in 2003 and was elected its president in 2005 following the death of Yasser Arafat. He was an early member of the Fatah movement and was instrumental in building networks and contacts that

  • Abū Ma?shar (Muslim astrologer)

    Albumazar, leading astrologer of the Muslim world, who is known primarily for his theory that the world, created when the seven planets were in conjunction in the first degree of Aries, will come to an end at a like conjunction in the last degree of Pisces. Albumazar’s reputation as an astrologer

  • Abū Mu?ammad al-Baghawī (Muslim scholar)

    Hadith: The compilations: …such was the work of Abū Mu?ammad al-Baghawī (died ah 516 [1122 ce]) called Ma?ābī? al-Sunnah (“The Lamps of the Sunnah”). Commentaries on all these classical musannafāt, or compilations, were many, and they were important in education and piety.

  • Abū Mu?ammad al-?asan ibn A?mad al-Hamdānī (Arab author)

    Al-Hamdānī, Arab geographer, poet, grammarian, historian, and astronomer whose chief fame derives from his authoritative writings on South Arabian history and geography. From his literary production al-Hamdānī was known as the “tongue of South Arabia.” Most of al-Hamdānī’s life was spent in Arabia

  • Abū Mu?ammad al-Qāsim ibn ?Alī al-?arīrī (Islamic scholar)

    Al-?arīrī, scholar of Arabic language and literature and government official who is primarily known for the refined style and wit of his collection of tales, the Maqāmāt, published in English as The Assemblies of al-Har?r? (1867, 1898). His works include a long poem on grammar (Mul?at al-i?rāb fī

  • Abū Mu?ammad ?Abd Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutaybah al-Dīnawarī (Muslim author)

    Ibn Qutaybah, writer of adab literature—that is, of literature exhibiting wide secular erudition—and also of theology, philology, and literary criticism. He introduced an Arabic prose style outstanding for its simplicity and ease, or “modern” flavour. Little is known of Ibn Qutaybah’s life. Of

  • Abū Mu?ammad ?Alī ibn A?mad ibn Sa?īd ibn ?azm (Spanish Muslim scholar)

    Ibn ?azm, Muslim litterateur, historian, jurist, and theologian of Islamic Spain, famed for his literary productivity, breadth of learning, and mastery of the Arabic language. One of the leading exponents of the ?āhirī (Literalist) school of jurisprudence, he produced some 400 works, covering

  • Abū Mūsā (island, Persian Gulf)

    Sharjah: …to the Sharjah island of Abū Mūsā, in the open gulf northwest of Sharjah town, and landed troops there. A subsequent agreement between Iran and Sharjah promised that both flags would fly over the island, settled the question of possible future oil discoveries in the area (where Sharjah had granted…

  • Abū Mūsā al-Ash?arī (Muslim leader)

    Battle of ?iffīn: …of the Qur?ān and delegated Abū Mūsā al-Ash?arī as his representative, while Mu?āwiyah sent ?Amr ibn al-?ā?. By agreeing to arbitration, ?Alī conceded to deal with Mu?āwiyah on equal terms, thus permitting him to challenge ?Alī’s claim as leader of the Muslim community. This concession aroused the anger of a…

  • Abu Muslim (Muslim leader)

    Abu Muslim, leader of a revolutionary movement in Khorāsān who, while acting as an agent for the ?Abbāsid family, was instrumental in the downfall of the Umayyad caliphate and in placing the ?Abbāsids on the throne. There are numerous versions of Abu Muslim’s background, but it seems most likely

  • Abū Muslim al-Khorāsāni (Muslim leader)

    Abu Muslim, leader of a revolutionary movement in Khorāsān who, while acting as an agent for the ?Abbāsid family, was instrumental in the downfall of the Umayyad caliphate and in placing the ?Abbāsids on the throne. There are numerous versions of Abu Muslim’s background, but it seems most likely

  • Abū Mu?īn Nā?er-e Khusraw al-Marvāzī al-Qubādiyānī (Persian author)

    Nā?er-e Khusraw, poet, theologian, and religious propagandist, one of the greatest writers in Persian literature. Nā?er-e Khusraw came of a family of government officials who belonged to the Shī?ite branch of Islam, and he attended school for only a short while. In 1045 he went on a pilgrimage to

  • Abū Najīb al-Suhrawardī (Muslim mystic)

    Suhrawardīyah: …discipline, founded in Baghdad by Abū Najīb as-Suhrawardī and developed by his nephew ?Umar as-Suhrawardī. The order’s ritual prayers (dhikr) are based upon thousands of repetitions of seven names of God, identified with seven “subtle spirits” (la?ā?if sab?ah) which in turn correspond to seven lights.

  • Abū Na?r al-Fārābī (Muslim philosopher)

    Al-Fārābī, Muslim philosopher, one of the preeminent thinkers of medieval Islam. He was regarded in the medieval Islamic world as the greatest philosophical authority after Aristotle. Very little is known of al-Fārābī’s life, and his ethnic origin is a matter of dispute. He eventually moved from

  • Abū Na?r al-Mālik ar-Ra?īm (Būyid ruler)

    Būyid Dynasty: …1055, the last Būyid ruler, Abū Na?r al-Mālik ar-Ra?īm, was deposed by the Seljuq Toghr?l Beg.

  • Abū Na?r Man?ur (Islamic mathematician)

    al-Bīrūnī: Life: …educated by a Khwārezm-Shāh prince, Abū Na?r Man?ūr ibn ?Irāq, a member of the dynasty that ruled the area and possibly a patron of al-Bīrūnī. Some of the mathematical works of this prince were written especially for al-Bīrūnī and are at times easily confused with al-Bīrūnī’s own works.

  • Abū Na?r Man?ur ibn ?Irāq (Islamic mathematician)

    al-Bīrūnī: Life: …educated by a Khwārezm-Shāh prince, Abū Na?r Man?ūr ibn ?Irāq, a member of the dynasty that ruled the area and possibly a patron of al-Bīrūnī. Some of the mathematical works of this prince were written especially for al-Bīrūnī and are at times easily confused with al-Bīrūnī’s own works.

  • Abū Na?r, A?mad Shah Bahādur Mujāhid-ud-dīn (Mughal emperor)

    A?mad Shah, ineffectual Mughal emperor of India from 1748 to 1754, who has been characterized as good-natured but incompetent and without personality, training, or qualities of leadership. He was entirely dominated by others, including the queen mother, Udham Bai, and the eunuch superintendent of

  • Abū Ni?āl (Palestinian leader)

    Abū Ni?āl, (Arabic: “Father of the Struggle”) militant leader of the Fatah Revolutionary Council, more commonly known as the Abū Ni?āl Organization (ANO), or Abū Ni?āl Group, a Palestinian organization that engaged in numerous acts of terrorism beginning in the mid-1970s. Abū Ni?āl and his family

  • Abū Ni?āl Group (Palestinian organization)

    Abū Ni?āl: …more commonly known as the Abū Ni?āl Organization (ANO), or Abū Ni?āl Group, a Palestinian organization that engaged in numerous acts of terrorism beginning in the mid-1970s.

  • Abū Ni?āl Organization (Palestinian organization)

    Abū Ni?āl: …more commonly known as the Abū Ni?āl Organization (ANO), or Abū Ni?āl Group, a Palestinian organization that engaged in numerous acts of terrorism beginning in the mid-1970s.

  • Abū Nuwās (Persian poet)

    Abū Nuwās, important poet of the early ?Abbāsid period (750–835). Abū Nuwās, of mixed Arab and Persian heritage, studied in Basra and al-Kūfah, first under the poet Wālibah ibn al-?ubāb, later under Khalaf al-A?mar. He also studied the Qur?ān (Islāmic sacred scripture), ?adīth (traditions relating

  • Abū Nuwās al-?asan ibn Hāni? al-?akamī (Persian poet)

    Abū Nuwās, important poet of the early ?Abbāsid period (750–835). Abū Nuwās, of mixed Arab and Persian heritage, studied in Basra and al-Kūfah, first under the poet Wālibah ibn al-?ubāb, later under Khalaf al-A?mar. He also studied the Qur?ān (Islāmic sacred scripture), ?adīth (traditions relating

  • Abū Nuwās Street (street, Baghdad, Iraq)

    Baghdad: Districts: Parallel to Sa?dūn, Abū Nuwās Street on the riverfront was once the city’s showpiece and—as befits a thoroughfare named for a poet known for his libidinous verse—its entertainment centre. During the 1990s the street lost much of its old glamour, and its cafes, restaurants, and luxury hotels either…

  • Abū Nu?ās (Persian poet)

    Abū Nuwās, important poet of the early ?Abbāsid period (750–835). Abū Nuwās, of mixed Arab and Persian heritage, studied in Basra and al-Kūfah, first under the poet Wālibah ibn al-?ubāb, later under Khalaf al-A?mar. He also studied the Qur?ān (Islāmic sacred scripture), ?adīth (traditions relating

  • Abū ol-Fat? ?Omar ebn Ebrahīm ol-Khayyāmī (Persian poet and astronomer)

    Omar Khayyam, Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet, renowned in his own country and time for his scientific achievements but chiefly known to English-speaking readers through the translation of a collection of his robā?īyāt (“quatrains”) in The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (1859), by the English

  • Abū ol-?asan Sīmjūrī (Sīmjūrid ruler)

    Iran: The Ghaznavids: He and Abū al-?asan Sīmjūrī, as Sāmānid generals, competed with each other for the governorship of Khorāsān and control of the Sāmānid empire by placing on the throne emirs they could dominate. Abū al-?asan died in 961, but a court party instigated by men of the scribal…

  • Abū Qīr Bay (bay, Egypt)

    Abū Qīr Bay, semicircular inlet of the Mediterranean Sea, lying between Abū Qīr Point (southwest) and the mouth of the Rosetta Branch (northeast) of the Nile River delta, in Lower Egypt. The bay was the scene of the Battle of the Nile (1798), in which an English fleet under Rear Admiral Sir Horatio

  • Abū Qubays, Mount (mountain, Saudi Arabia)

    Mecca: City site: …rises to 1,332 feet, and Mount Abū Qubays, which attains 1,220 feet, to the east and Mount Qu?ayq?ān, which reaches 1,401 feet, to the west. Mount Hirā? rises to 2,080 feet on the northeast and contains a cave in which Muhammad sought isolation and visions before he became a prophet.…

  • Abū Rīshah, ?Umar (Syrian poet and diplomat)

    ?Umar Abū Rīshah, Syrian poet and diplomat, noted for his early poetry, which broke with the traditions of Arab classicism. Abū Rīshah attended the University of Damascus in Syria, the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, and the University of Manchester, England. He was an early contributor to

  • Abu Roash (ancient site, Egypt)

    Abū Ruwaysh, ancient Egyptian site of a 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) pyramid built by Redjedef, usually considered the third of the seven kings of that dynasty. The site is about 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the Pyramids of Giza (Al-Jīzah) on the west bank of the Nile River. It is part of a

  • Abū Rujmayn (mountains, Syria)

    Syria: Relief: …the extreme south, and the Abū Rujmayn and Bishrī Mountains, which stretch northeastward across the central part of the country.

  • Abū Ruwaysh (ancient site, Egypt)

    Abū Ruwaysh, ancient Egyptian site of a 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) pyramid built by Redjedef, usually considered the third of the seven kings of that dynasty. The site is about 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the Pyramids of Giza (Al-Jīzah) on the west bank of the Nile River. It is part of a

  • Abu Sahl (Jewish physician)

    Dunash Ben Tamim, Jewish physician and one of the first scholars to make a comparative study of the Hebrew and Arabic languages. He practiced medicine at the Fā?imid court of al-Qayrawān, (now in Tunisia) and, like other educated Jews of his time, was versed in Hebrew. The work for which he is b

  • Abū Sahl al-Kūhī (Islamic mathematician)

    mathematics: Mathematics in the 10th century: …grandson Ibrāhīm ibn Sinān (909–946), Abū Sahl al-Kūhī (died c. 995), and Ibn al-Haytham solved problems involving the pure geometry of conic sections, including the areas and volumes of plane and solid figures formed from them, and also investigated the optical properties of mirrors made from conic sections. Ibrāhīm ibn…

  • Abū ?alābīkh, Tall (archaeological site, Iraq)

    history of Mesopotamia: Sumer and Akkad from 2350 to 2000 bce: …found in the archives of Tall Abū ?alābīkh, near Nippur in central Babylonia, synchronous with those of Shuruppak (shortly after 2600). The Sumerian king list places the 1st dynasty of Kish, together with a series of kings bearing Akkadian names, immediately after the Flood. In Mari the Akkadian language was…

  • Abu Sayyaf Group (militant organization)

    Abu Sayyaf Group, militant organization based on Basilan island, one of the southern islands in the Philippine archipelago. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the group, whose origins are somewhat obscure, carried out terrorist attacks in the Philippines, including a series of high-profile kidnappings in

  • Abū Sa?īd (Il-Khanid ruler)

    Il-Khanid dynasty: His son and successor, Abū Sa?īd (reigned 1317–35), reconverted to Sunni Islam and thus averted war. However, during Abū Sa?īd’s reign, factional disputes and internal disturbances continued and became rampant. Abū Sa?īd died without leaving an heir, and with his death the unity of the dynasty was fractured. Thereafter…

  • Abū Sa?īd (Timurid ruler)

    Jahān Shāh: …seized Herāt from the Timurid Abū Sa?īd, but the growing power of the Ak Koyunlu (“White Sheep”) under Uzun ?asan brought about an agreement between Abū Sa?īd and Jahān Shāh to divide Iran between them. After being defeated by the Ottoman Turks in 1461, Uzun ?asan fought the Kara Koyunlu…

  • Abū Sa?īd al-Jannābī (Bahrainian leader)

    Qarmatian: …exploits of two Bahraini leaders, Abū Sa?īd al-Jannābī and his son and successor, Abū ?āhir Sulaymān, who invaded Iraq several times and in 930 sacked Mecca and carried off the Black Stone of the Ka?bah. See also Ismā?īlite.

  • Abū Sa?īd ibn Abī al-?asan Yasār al-Ba?rī (Muslim scholar)

    Al-?asan al-Ba?rī, deeply pious and ascetic Muslim who was one of the most important religious figures in early Islam. ?asan was born nine years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. One year after the Battle of ?iffīn (657), he moved to Basra, a military camp town situated 50 miles (80 km)

  • Abū Sa?īd ibn Abū al-Khayr (Persian author)

    Persian literature: Religious poetry: …these poems is attributed to Abū Sa?īd ibn Abū al-Khayr, who died in 1049. He would be the first mystical poet in Persian literature, but one of his hagiographers asserts that he did not write any poetry himself; he instead merely used anonymous quatrains in his preaching that were circulating…

  • Abū Sa?īd ?Abd al-Malik ibn Qurayb al-A?ma?ī (Arab scholar)

    Al-A?ma?ī, noted scholar and anthologist, one of the three leading members of the Basra school of Arabic philology. A gifted student of Abū ?Amr ibn al-?Alā?, the founder of the Basra school, al-A?ma?ī joined the court of the ?Abbāsid caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd in Baghdad. Renowned for his piety and

  • Abu Seif, Salah (Egyptian filmmaker)

    Salah Abu Seif, Egyptian filmmaker whose movies, noted for their realism and progressive political messages, drew criticism from Muslim religious leaders and the Egyptian government; several of his films were banned (b. May 10, 1915--d. June 23,

  • Abū Shahrayn (ancient mound, Iraq)

    Abū Shahrayn, mound in southern Iraq, site of the ancient Sumerian city of Eridu

  • Abu Simbel (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Abu Simbel, site of two temples built by the Egyptian king Ramses II (reigned 1279–13 bce), now located in Aswān mu?āfa?ah (governorate), southern Egypt. In ancient times the area was at the southern frontier of pharaonic Egypt, facing Nubia. The four colossal statues of Ramses in front of the main

  • Abū ?īr (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Abū ?īr, ancient site between Al-Jīzah (Giza) and ?aqqārah, northern Egypt, where three 5th-dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce) kings (Sahure, Neferirkare, and Neuserre) built their pyramids. The pyramids were poorly constructed (in comparison with Egyptian monuments of similar types) and are now in a

  • Abū Sufyān (Arab leader)

    Umayyad dynasty: The Umayyads, headed by Abū Sufyān, were a largely merchant family of the Quraysh tribe centred at Mecca. They had initially resisted Islam, not converting until 627, but subsequently became prominent administrators under Muhammad and his immediate successors. In the first Muslim civil war (fitnah; 656–661)—the struggle for the…

  • Abū Taghlib (Muslim ruler)

    ?amdānid Dynasty: …Iraq to his domains, and Abū Taghlib (reigned 969–979) was forced to seek refuge and help from the Fā?imids of Egypt, though without success. ?A?ud ad-Dawlah later maintained two ?amdānids, Ibrāhīm and al-?usayn, as joint rulers of Mosul (981–991), but the dynasty’s power had already shifted to Syria.

  • Abū ?āhir Sulaymān (Bahrainian leader)

    Qarmatian: … and his son and successor, Abū ?āhir Sulaymān, who invaded Iraq several times and in 930 sacked Mecca and carried off the Black Stone of the Ka?bah. See also Ismā?īlite.

  • Abū ?ālib (uncle of Mu?ammad)

    Muhammad: Biography according to the Islamic tradition: …clan of Hāshim, his uncle Abū ?ālib. While accompanying his uncle on a trading journey to Syria, Muhammad is recognized as a future prophet by a Christian monk.

  • Abū ?ālib Kalīm (Muslim poet)

    Islamic arts: Indian literature in Persian: …poets, the most outstanding is Abū ?ālib Kalīm (died 1651), who came from Hamadan. Abounding in descriptive passages of great virtuosity, his poignant and often pessimistic verses have become proverbial, thanks to their compact diction and fluent style. Also of some importance is ?ā?ib of Tabriz (died 1677), who spent…

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