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  • Anopheles maculipennis (insect)

    evolution: Ecological isolation: The Anopheles maculipennis group consists of six mosquito species, some of which are involved in the transmission of malaria. Although the species are virtually indistinguishable morphologically, they are isolated reproductively, in part because they breed in different habitats. Some breed in brackish water, others in running…

  • anophthalmia (pathology)

    malformation: Somatic characters: More frequent anomalies are anophthalmia (absence of eyes) and microphthalmia (abnormally small eyes), both occasionally the result of abnormal heredity. Defective closure of lines of junction in the embryo produces malformations such as cleft palate, in which the ventral laminae of the palate have failed to fuse, and cleft…

  • Anoplius depressipes (wasp)

    spider wasp: Anoplius depressipes, which captures swamp spiders (Dolomedes), drags its prey across the water. Some spider wasps fly with their prey.

  • Anoplius fuscus (wasp)

    spider wasp: Anoplius fuscus, a European species, captures spiders of five different families. Larvae of the European genus Homonotus live on the body of a spider that remains active in its normal habitat until it is gradually killed by the feeding larva.

  • Anoplophora glabripennis (insect)

    Asian longhorned beetle, (Anoplophora glabripennis), species of beetle (order Coleoptera, family Cerambycidae), originally native to eastern China and Korea, that became a serious pest of hardwood trees in North America and parts of Eurasia. The glossy black adults are large, 17–40 mm (0.7–1.6

  • Anoplura (insect)

    Sucking louse, (suborder Anoplura), any of some 500 species of small, wingless, flat lice (order Phthiraptera) that have piercing and sucking mouthparts and live on blood and tissue fluids of mammals as an ectoparasite (external parasite). The adult sucking louse, or true louse, glues her eggs, or

  • Anoptichthys jordani (fish)

    cave fish: …of the best known is Astyanax mexicanus (previously Anoptichthys jordani), an eyeless, 7.5-cm characin (family Characidae) found in Mexico and often kept in home aquariums. The gobies in the genus Typhleotris inhabit karst caves in Madagascar. Others include Caecobarbus geertsi, an African member of the minnow family (Cyprinidae), and certain…

  • anorchism (congenital defect)

    reproductive system disease: In the male: Anorchism (absence of one or both testes) is rare; it may be associated with the absence of various other structures of the spermatic tract. Generally, if one testis (also called testicle) is absent, the other is found to be within the abdomen rather than in…

  • anorexia (pathology)

    Anorexia, persistent lack of appetite not caused by repletion. It may spring from psychoneurotic causes, as in anorexia nervosa (q.v.), a lack of appetite, primarily in young women, that may lead to extreme emaciation and even to death. Anorexia, like nausea and vomiting, may be brought about by

  • anorexia nervosa (pathology)

    Anorexia nervosa, eating disorder characterized by the refusal of an emaciated individual to maintain a normal body weight. A person with anorexia nervosa typically weighs no more than 85 percent of the expected weight for the person’s age, height, and sex, and in some cases much less. In addition,

  • anorgasmia (sexual behaviour)

    frigidity: …inability to achieve orgasm (anorgasmia). Failure of sexual response in females—as in males—may have specific physical sources; such is the case of women who experience vaginal spasms (vaginismus) or pain (dyspareunia) during attempted intercourse. Likewise, female sexual response may be impaired by purely psychological causes, triggered by emotional conflicts…

  • anorgasmy (sexual behaviour)

    frigidity: …inability to achieve orgasm (anorgasmia). Failure of sexual response in females—as in males—may have specific physical sources; such is the case of women who experience vaginal spasms (vaginismus) or pain (dyspareunia) during attempted intercourse. Likewise, female sexual response may be impaired by purely psychological causes, triggered by emotional conflicts…

  • anorthite (mineral)

    Anorthite, a feldspar mineral, calcium aluminosilicate (CaAl2Si2O8), that occurs as white or grayish, brittle, glassy crystals. Primarily a rock-forming mineral, it is used in the manufacture of glass and ceramics. Anorthite occurs in basic igneous rocks, as at Trentino, Italy; S?dermanland,

  • anorthoclase (mineral)

    Anorthoclase, any member of a continuous series of feldspar minerals related to sanidine

  • anorthosite (rock)

    Anorthosite, type of intrusive igneous rock composed predominantly of calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar. All anorthosites found on Earth consist of coarse crystals, but some samples of the rock taken from the Moon are finely crystalline. Most anorthosites formed during Precambrian times.

  • Anorthotiko Komma Ergazomenou Laou (political party, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Political process: …of the Working People (Anorthotiko Komma Ergazomenou Laou; AKEL), founded in 1941. A pro-Moscow communist party that controlled the principal trade union federation, it received about one-third of the vote in the first 25 years of the Republic of Cyprus. Following the collapse of communism in Russia and eastern…

  • anoscope (medical instrument)

    sigmoidoscopy: The proctoscope and anoscope, shorter rigid instruments used to visualize the lower rectum and anus, are used to diagnose and treat hemorrhoids and other lesions in the anorectal area.

  • anosmia (disorder)

    human sensory reception: Odour sensitivity: The temporary anosmia (absence of sense of smell) following colds may be complete or partial; in the latter case, only the odours of certain substances are affected. Paranosmia (change in perceived odour quality) also may occur during respiratory infections. Changes in sensitivity are reported to occur in…

  • Anostomidae (fish family)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Anostomidae (headstanders) Elongated snout; small mouth with folded or fleshy lips or sucking disk. Head-standing habits. Herbivorous. Aquarium and food fishes. Size to 40 cm (16 inches). South America. 12 genera, at least 137 species. Family Prochilodontidae (flannel-mouth characiforms) Predorsal

  • Anostomus anostomus (fish)

    headstander: The striped headstander (Anostomus anostomus) has two yellowish orange stripes on each side alternating with black ones. The tail and all fins are bright orange. Some species of headstanders are kept as aquarium fish.

  • Anostraca (crustacean)

    Fairy shrimp, any of the crustaceans of the order Anostraca, so called because of their graceful movements and pastel colours. Some grow to 2.5 cm (about 1 inch) or more in length. They occur in freshwater ponds of Europe, Central Asia, western North America, the drier regions of Africa, and

  • Anotaciones a las obras de Garcilaso de la Vega (work by Herrera)

    Fernando de Herrera: …clearly set forth in his Anotaciones a las obras de Garcilaso de la Vega (1580; “Notes on the Works of Garcilaso de la Vega”), which praised the Italianate innovations of the poet Garcilaso de la Vega and several other poets of Sevilla. In his own poetry, published as Algunas obras…

  • Anotheca spinosa (amphibian)

    Anura: From tadpole to adult: The Mexican hylid, Anotheca spinosa, lays its eggs in bromeliads or in water-filled cavities in trees. The small tadpoles, like those of Hyla, feed on aquatic insect larvae, such as those of mosquitoes, but the larger tadpoles of Anotheca apparently feed only on the eggs of frogs.

  • Another America (Otra America) (work by Kingsolver)

    Barbara Kingsolver: Another America (Otra America) (1991), a poetry collection in English, with a Spanish translation, primarily concerns the struggles of impoverished women against sexual and political abuse, war, and death.

  • Another Beauty (memoir by Zagajewski)

    Adam Zagajewski: …memoir W cudzym pi?knie (1998; Another Beauty), he wrote of his growing conviction that “a poem, essay, or story must grow from an emotion, an observation, a joy, a sorrow that is my own, and not my nation’s.” His second novel, Cienka kreska (1983; “The Thin Line”), explored the spiritual…

  • Another Country (work by Baldwin)

    Another Country, novel by James Baldwin, published in 1962. The novel is renowned for its frank portrayal of bisexuality and interracial relations, published in a time when these subjects were taboo. Shortly after the action begins, Rufus Scott, a black jazz musician, commits suicide, impelling his

  • Another Country (motion picture [1984])

    Colin Firth: …Guy Burgess in the play Another Country. In 1984 Firth starred in the film adaptation, though he was cast in a different role. Over the next decade Firth worked steadily, appearing in numerous stage, movie, and television productions. In 1988 he received critical praise for the TV film Tumbledown, in…

  • Another Day on Earth (album by Eno)

    Brian Eno: …vocal album of his own, Another Day on Earth (2005). He returned to the producer’s chair for Paul Simon’s critically lauded Surprise (2006) and Coldplay’s multi-platinum Viva la Vida (2008).

  • Another Man’s Poison (film by Rapper [1951])

    Irving Rapper: Later films: Another Man’s Poison (1951) also came from the stage. The crime drama, which was based on Leslie Sands’s play, starred Davis in one of her campiest roles, as a mystery writer who kills her estranged criminal husband when he suddenly reappears. When his partner in…

  • Another Part of the Forest (play by Hellman)

    The Little Foxes: Hellman’s later play Another Part of the Forest (1947) portrays the Hubbard family 20 years prior to the action in The Little Foxes.

  • Another Part of the Forest (film by Gordon [1948])

    Michael Gordon: Films of the 1940s: …was handed the prestige project Another Part of the Forest (1948), playwright Lillian Hellman’s prequel to The Little Foxes (1941), with the impressive cast of O’Brien, Fredric March, and Dan Duryea.

  • Another Part of the Wood (novel by Bainbridge)

    Dame Beryl Bainbridge: Another Part of the Wood (1968) concerns a child’s death resulting from adult neglect. Harriet Said (1972) deals with two teenage girls who seduce a man and murder his wife. Other novels in this vein are The Bottle Factory Outing (1974), Sweet William (1975), A…

  • Another Place (work by Gormley)

    Antony Gormley: For Another Place (1997; at Crosby in Merseyside, England), for example, Gormley placed 100 cast-iron figures facing out to sea over a 2-mile (3.2-kilometre) stretch of beach. For 6 Times (2010; in Edinburgh), he placed six figures along the Water of Leith, four of them partly…

  • Another Roadside Attraction (novel by Robbins)

    Tom Robbins: Another Roadside Attraction (1971), anchored by extensive research into early Christianity, is about a native of rural Washington who steals the mummy of Jesus Christ. Even Cowgirls Get the Blues (1976; filmed 1994) is the story of a female hitchhiker with enormous thumbs who visits…

  • Another September (poetry by Kinsella)

    Thomas Kinsella: …first volume of collected work; Another September (1958; rev. ed. 1962), which contains poems that explore the imposition of existential order through various forms, be they natural or products of the poet’s imagination; and Downstream (1962), a collection focusing on war and political and social disruption in modern Ireland.

  • Another Side of Bob Dylan (album by Dylan)

    Bob Dylan: …Festival, while previewing songs from Another Side of Bob Dylan, he confounded his core audience by performing songs of a personal nature rather than his signature protest repertoire. Although his new lyrics were as challenging as his earlier compositions, a backlash from purist folk fans began and continued for three…

  • Another Thin Man (film by Van Dyke [1939])

    W.S. Van Dyke: Powell and Loy, Eddy and MacDonald: Another Thin Man (1939) was a more-expected project, and Van Dyke spun another enjoyable confection; that installment included Nick and Nora Charles’s new baby.

  • Another Time, Another Place (film by Allen [1958])

    Lewis Allen: In 1958 Allen helmed Another Time, Another Place, in which Lana Turner was cast as a woman suffering a nervous breakdown when her lover (Sean Connery) is killed during World War II. Allen’s last movies were Whirlpool (1959), a British production filmed in West Germany, and Decision at Midnight…

  • Another Woman (film by Allen [1988])

    Woody Allen: The 1980s: …took a Bergmanesque approach with Another Woman (1988), in which Gena Rowlands was superb as a philosophy professor who undergoes a life-changing epiphany. Much of the credit for the film’s impact was due to the contribution of Sven Nykvist, the cinematographer for many of Bergman’s greatest films. Allen’s hilarious contribution…

  • Another Year (film by Leigh [2010])

    Mike Leigh: …the world around her, while Another Year (2010) follows a happily married couple and their less-sanguine family and friends. Both films earned Academy Award nominations for best original screenplay. In 2011 Leigh directed the Royal National Theatre debut of his play Grief, about the cloistered existence of a family still…

  • Anotophysi (fish series)

    fish: Annotated classification: Series Anotophysi Order Gonorynchiformes (milkfish, beaked sandfishes, snake mudheads, and relatives) Toothless; with epibranchial organs and a characteristic caudal skeleton. The anterior ribs and vertebrae show affinities with the superorder Ostariophysi, and the group may belong with the

  • Anou (king of Vientiane)

    Chao Anu, ruler of the Lao kingdom of Vientiane who tried unsuccessfully to secure independence for central and southern Laos from its Siamese overlords. In his youth Anu, along with his brother Inthavong, fought with the Siamese against the Burmese. His military ability and bravery won him the

  • Anou, Chao (king of Vientiane)

    Chao Anu, ruler of the Lao kingdom of Vientiane who tried unsuccessfully to secure independence for central and southern Laos from its Siamese overlords. In his youth Anu, along with his brother Inthavong, fought with the Siamese against the Burmese. His military ability and bravery won him the

  • Anou, Chou (king of Vientiane)

    Chao Anu, ruler of the Lao kingdom of Vientiane who tried unsuccessfully to secure independence for central and southern Laos from its Siamese overlords. In his youth Anu, along with his brother Inthavong, fought with the Siamese against the Burmese. His military ability and bravery won him the

  • Anouilh, Jean (French dramatist)

    Jean Anouilh, playwright who became one of the strongest personalities of the French theatre and achieved an international reputation. His plays are intensely personal messages; often they express his love of the theatre as well as his grudges against actors, wives, mistresses, critics,

  • Anouilh, Jean-Marie-Lucien-Pierre (French dramatist)

    Jean Anouilh, playwright who became one of the strongest personalities of the French theatre and achieved an international reputation. His plays are intensely personal messages; often they express his love of the theatre as well as his grudges against actors, wives, mistresses, critics,

  • Anouk Aimée (French actress)

    Anouk Aimée, French motion-picture actress who starred in films in various languages with a number of noted directors, including Federico Fellini, Jacques Demy, Bernardo Bertolucci, Robert Altman, and Claude Lelouch. The daughter of an actor and actress, Aimée made her first film appearance at age

  • Anous (bird)

    tern: There are five species of noddy terns, or noddies, belonging to the genus Anous. Noddies, named for their nodding displays, are tropical birds with wedge-shaped or only slightly forked tails. A distinct type of tern, the Inca tern (Larosterna inca), of Peru and northern Chile, bears distinctive white plumes on…

  • Anouvong (king of Vientiane)

    Chao Anu, ruler of the Lao kingdom of Vientiane who tried unsuccessfully to secure independence for central and southern Laos from its Siamese overlords. In his youth Anu, along with his brother Inthavong, fought with the Siamese against the Burmese. His military ability and bravery won him the

  • anovulation (pathology)

    Stein-Leventhal syndrome: …infrequent or absent ovulation (anovulation). About 5 percent of women are affected by Stein-Leventhal syndrome, which is responsible for a substantial proportion of cases of female infertility. The syndrome was first described in 1935 when American gynecologists Irving F. Stein, Sr., and Michael L. Leventhal associated the presence of…

  • anovulatory uterine bleeding (pathology)

    Uterine bleeding, abnormal bleeding from the uterus, which is not related to menstruation. Menstruation is the normal cyclic bleeding that occurs when the egg has been released from the ovary and fertilization has not occurred. Other episodes of bleeding that cannot be considered part of the

  • Anowa (play by Aidoo)

    African theatre: Ghana: …of a Ghost (1965) and Anowa (1970). Both, however, are works of great stature. The Dilemma of a Ghost is concerned with the arrival in Africa of a black American woman married to a Ghanaian and the struggle she has in coming to terms with her cultural past and with…

  • anoxia (pathology)

    coma: …contrast, lack of oxygen (anoxia) may result in a coma that lasts for several weeks and is often fatal. Stroke, a rupture or blockage of vessels supplying blood to the brain, can cause sudden loss of consciousness in some patients, while comas caused by metabolic abnormalities or cerebral tumours…

  • Anoxypristis (fish genus)

    sawfish: … forming the genera Pristis and Anoxypristis in the family Pristidae. Sawfishes are found in shallow water in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. They are bottom dwellers, frequenting bays and estuaries and sometimes swimming considerable distances up rivers; one species, the largetooth sawfish (P. pristis) lives and breeds in…

  • ANP (hormone)

    renal system: The role of hormones in renal function: This hormone, called atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), exerts a vasodilator effect on the kidney and also reduces tubular reabsorption of sodium. Both actions result in increased urinary elimination of salt and water and tend to restore atrial pressure toward the normal. It is probably an important hormone controlling…

  • Anpetu Waste (Sioux scholar, ethnographer, writer, and translator)

    Ella Cara Deloria, Dakota Sioux scholar, ethnographer, writer, and translator who was a critically important recorder of Sioux culture and languages at a time when the traditional culture was in danger of being lost. Both Deloria’s parents were of mixed Euro-American and Yankton Sioux descent. Her

  • Anping (district, Taiwan)

    An-p’ing, seaport and former town, now a city district (ch’ü, or qu) of T’ai-nan special municipality, southwestern Taiwan. Situated on the Taiwan Strait, it is the traditional port for T’ai-nan. An-p’ing is the oldest Chinese settlement in southern Taiwan, dating from the late 16th century. It is

  • ANPK imeni A.I. Mikoyana (Russian design bureau)

    MiG, Russian aerospace design bureau that is the country’s major producer of jet fighter aircraft. It developed the family of technologically advanced MiG aircraft, including the Soviet Union’s first jet fighter. The MiG design bureau is part of the state-owned multifirm aerospace complex VPK MAPO

  • ANPK MiG (Russian design bureau)

    MiG, Russian aerospace design bureau that is the country’s major producer of jet fighter aircraft. It developed the family of technologically advanced MiG aircraft, including the Soviet Union’s first jet fighter. The MiG design bureau is part of the state-owned multifirm aerospace complex VPK MAPO

  • Anpu (Egyptian god)

    Anubis, ancient Egyptian god of the dead, represented by a jackal or the figure of a man with the head of a jackal. In the Early Dynastic period and the Old Kingdom, he enjoyed a preeminent (though not exclusive) position as lord of the dead, but he was later overshadowed by Osiris. His role is

  • ?anqā? (Islamic mythology)

    phoenix: …phoenix was identified with the ?anqā? (Persian: sīmorgh), a huge mysterious bird (probably a heron) that was originally created by God with all perfections but thereafter became a plague and was killed.

  • Anqing (China)

    Anqing, city situated on the north bank of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in southwestern Anhui sheng (province), China. Situated at a crossing place on the Yangtze, it commands the narrow section of the floodplain between the Dabie Mountains to the north and the Huang Mountains on the south bank,

  • Anquetil, Jacques (French cyclist)

    Tour de France: …have won five Tours each: Jacques Anquetil of France (1957 and 1961–64), Eddy Merckx of Belgium (1969–72 and 1974), Bernard Hinault of France (1978–79, 1981–82, and 1985), and Miguel Indurain of Spain (1991–95).

  • Anquetil-Duperron, A.-H. (French scholar and linguist)

    A.-H. Anquetil-Duperron, scholar and linguist who was generally credited with supplying the first translation of the Avesta (Zoroastrian scripture) into a modern European language and with awakening interest in the study of Eastern languages and thought. At the University of Paris, Anquetil

  • Anquetil-Duperron, Abraham-Hyacinthe (French scholar and linguist)

    A.-H. Anquetil-Duperron, scholar and linguist who was generally credited with supplying the first translation of the Avesta (Zoroastrian scripture) into a modern European language and with awakening interest in the study of Eastern languages and thought. At the University of Paris, Anquetil

  • Anquetin, Louis (French artist)

    Synthetism: …by Paul Gauguin, émile Bernard, Louis Anquetin, and others in the 1880s to emphasize two-dimensional flat patterns, thus breaking with Impressionist art and theory. The style shows a conscious effort to work less directly from nature and to rely more upon memory.

  • ANR (political party, Paraguay)

    Horacio Cartes: …to enter politics, joining the Colorado Party in 2009 and mounting his own movement within it, though theretofore he had never even voted. When the party, impressed by Cartes’s business acumen, dropped its requirement that an individual must be a member of the party for 10 years before becoming a…

  • Anredera cordifolia (plant)

    Basellaceae: Madeira-vine, or mignonette-vine (Anredera cordifolia or Boussingaultia baselloides), and Malabar nightshade (several species of Basella) are cultivated as ornamentals. Malabar spinach (Basella alba) is a hot-weather substitute for spinach.

  • an?ta (Hinduism)

    Hinduism: Ethical and social doctrines: …one could be guilty of anrita—i.e., infidelity to fact, or departure from what is true and real or from what constitutes the established order—whether or not one had deliberately committed a crime. Other transgressions included making mistakes in sacrifices and coming into contact with corpses, ritually impure persons, or persons…

  • ANS

    Autonomic nervous system, in vertebrates, the part of the nervous system that controls and regulates the internal organs without any conscious recognition or effort by the organism. The autonomic nervous system comprises two antagonistic sets of nerves, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous

  • ANSA (Italian news agency)

    news agency: A few, like the Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata of Italy, have expanded coverage abroad in a limited degree to supplement their domestic service but still depend on Reuters and Agence France-Presse for much of their foreign news. Germany since 1949 has built Deutsche-Presse Agentur into one of the more…

  • Ansa Sasraku (king of Akwamu)

    Akwamu: …1681 under their king (Akwamuhene), Ansa Sasraku. They also extended their influence over the state of Ladoku in the east (1679) and, under Ansa’s successor, over the Fante state of Agona in the west (1689). In 1702 they crossed the Volta River to occupy Whydah, a coastal state of Dahomey…

  • Ansambl Moiseyeva (Soviet dance company)

    Igor Moiseyev: …festival, he founded (1937) the State Academic Folk Dance Ensemble, which featured 35 dancers, principally amateurs, and dances from the 11 republics then forming the U.S.S.R. Subsequently he built a company of about 100 professional dancers trained by either the Bolshoi Theatre School or its National Dance Department, which Moiseyev…

  • an?ār (Companions of the Prophet)

    Rashidun: …large and influential body of an?ār (companions of the Prophet) kept close watch on the caliphs to ensure their strict adherence to divine revelation (the Qur?ān) and the Sunnah. The Rashidun thus assumed all of Muhammad’s duties except the prophetic: as imams, they led the congregation in prayer at the…

  • Ansar (followers of al-Mahdī)

    Mahdist, (Arabic: “Helper”), follower of al-Mahdī (Mu?ammad A?mad ibn al-Sayyid ?Abd Allāh) or of his successor or descendants. Ansar is an old term applied to some of the companions of the prophet Mu?ammad; it was revived for the followers and descendants of al-Mahdī, the Sudanese who in the late

  • Ansar al-Sharia (Libyan organization)

    2012 Benghazi attacks: Reactions and investigation: …act by the al-Qaeda-affiliated group Ansar al-Sharia. Several investigations into the incident faulted insufficient bureaucratic measures responsible for the failure to prevent and respond properly to the attacks. As the 2012 U.S. presidential election loomed, outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton assumed responsibility for the bureaucratic failures as head of…

  • Ansarī (Shī?ite sect)

    ?Alawite, any member of a minority sect of Shī?ite Muslims living chiefly in Syria. The roots of ?Alawism lie in the teachings of Mu?ammad ibn Nu?ayr an-Namīrī (fl. 850), a Basran contemporary of the 10th Shī?ite imam, and the sect was chiefly established by ?usayn ibn ?amdān al-Kha?ībī (d. 957 or

  • Ansari X Prize (technology award)

    Anousheh Ansari: …was used to fund the Ansari X Prize, a cash award of $10 million for the first private company to launch a reusable crewed spacecraft into space twice within two weeks. In 2004 the aerospace development company Scaled Composites of Mojave, California, won the Ansari X Prize with SpaceShipOne, a…

  • An?ārī, Abū al-Muhājir Dīnār al- (Arabian general)

    North Africa: From the Arab conquest to 1830: …was initiated by ?Uqbah’s successor, Abū al-Muhājir Dīnār al-An?ārī, the Arabs had to fight semisettled Berber communities that had developed some tradition of centralized political authority. In the course of his campaign, Abū al-Muhājir Dīnār prevailed on the Berber “king” Kusaylah to become Muslim. From his base in Tlemcen, Kusaylah…

  • Ansari, Anousheh (American businesswoman)

    Anousheh Ansari, Iranian-born American businesswoman who was the first female space tourist, the first person of Iranian descent, and the first Muslim woman to go into space. Ansari emigrated from Iran to the United States in 1984 as a teenager. She earned a bachelor’s degree in electronics and

  • An?ārī, Khwajah ?Abd Allāh al- (Persian poet)

    Islamic arts: The mystical poem: Khwajah ?Abd Allāh al-An?ārī of Herāt (died 1088), a prolific writer on religious topics in both Arabic and Persian, first popularized the literary “prayer,” or mystical contemplation, written in Persian in rhyming prose interspersed with verses. Sanā?ī (died 1131?), at one time a court poet…

  • Ansari, Mohammad Hamid (vice president of India)

    Mohammad Hamid Ansari, Indian diplomat, politician, educator, and writer who served as vice president of India (2007–17). Ansari, who was born to a wealthy Muslim family, completed B.A. and M.A. degrees in political science from Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. In 1961 he

  • Ansari, Mukhtar Ahmad (Indian physician and nationalist)

    Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari, Indian physician and nationalist who was a member of the Foundation Committee of Jamia Millia Islamia, a prominent Islamic university established in 1920 in Delhi. The institution’s formation, in which Ansari was heavily involved, was based on nationalist rejection of British

  • Ansariyah (Shī?ite sect)

    ?Alawite, any member of a minority sect of Shī?ite Muslims living chiefly in Syria. The roots of ?Alawism lie in the teachings of Mu?ammad ibn Nu?ayr an-Namīrī (fl. 850), a Basran contemporary of the 10th Shī?ite imam, and the sect was chiefly established by ?usayn ibn ?amdān al-Kha?ībī (d. 957 or

  • An?ariyyah, Al- (mountain range, Syria)

    Syria: Relief: The Al-An?ariyyah mountain range borders the coastal plain and runs from north to south. The mountains have an average width of 20 miles (32 km), and their average height declines from 3,000 feet (900 metres) in the north to 2,000 feet in the south. Their highest…

  • Ansbach (Germany)

    Ansbach, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It lies on the Rezat River, southwest of Nürnberg. Ansbach originated around the Benedictine monastery of Onolzbach (founded 748) and was sold to a Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern line (later margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Bayreuth) in

  • Anschar, Saint (missionary)

    Saint Ansgar, ; canonized 865; feast day February 3), missionary of medieval Europe, first archbishop of Hamburg, and the patron saint of Scandinavia. Of noble birth, Ansgar entered the Benedictine abbey of Corbie in Picardy, where he was educated. After 823 he taught in the monastic school at

  • Anschauung vom heiligen Geiste bei Luther, Die (work by Otto)

    Rudolf Otto: Scholarly pursuits.: …reflected in his first book, Die Anschauung vom heiligen Geiste bei Luther (1898; “The Perception of the Holy Spirit by Luther”). He was to expand his inquiry in his book, Naturalistische und religi?se Weltansicht (1904; Naturalism and Religion, 1907), in which he contrasted the naturalistic and the religious ways of…

  • Anschluss (German history)

    Anschluss, political union of Austria with Germany, achieved through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938. Mooted in 1919 by Austria, Anschluss with Germany remained a hope (chiefly with Austrian Social Democrats) during 1919–33, after which Hitler’s rise to power made it less attractive. In July

  • Anschütz-Kaempfe, H. (German inventor)

    gyroscope: Mechanical gyroscopes: … was developed by German inventor H. Anschütz-Kaempfe for use in a submersible. In 1909 American inventor Elmer A. Sperry built the first automatic pilot using a gyroscope to maintain an aircraft on course. The first automatic pilot for ships was installed in a Danish passenger ship by a German company…

  • Anscocolor (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Introduction of colour: In 1936 Germany produced Agfacolor, a single-strip, three-layer negative film and accompanying print stock. After World War II Agfacolor appeared as Sovcolor in the Eastern bloc and as Anscocolor in the United States, where it was initially used for amateur filmmaking. The first serious rival to Technicolor was the…

  • Anscombe, G. E. M. (British philosopher)

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