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  • Anglican Consultative Council (Christianity)

    Anglicanism: Internal developments: …recommended the formation of the Anglican Consultative Council, an advisory body of about 60 members, including bishops, clergy, and laypersons; its president is the archbishop of Canterbury. The council shares information, coordinates policy, and develops unified mission strategies. Although it lacks binding authority, the council increases the Anglican tendency toward…

  • Anglican Evangelical (religion)

    Anglican Evangelical, one who emphasizes biblical faith, personal conversion, piety, and, in general, the Protestant rather than the Catholic heritage of the Anglican Communion. Such persons have also been referred to as low churchmen because they give a “low” place to the importance of the e

  • Anglican prayer beads (rosary)

    rosary: In Christianity: The Anglican prayer beads are a blend of the Orthodox and Catholic rosaries. They have four sections (“weeks”) of seven beads each, four larger “cruciform” beads separating the weeks, and an invitatory bead and a cross at the base. A prayer is said first on the cross…

  • Anglican religious community (religion)

    Anglican religious community, any of various religious communities for men and for women that first began developing within the Anglican Communion in the 19th century. Although monastic communities were numerous in the pre-Reformation English Church, they were suppressed in the 16th century by

  • Anglican–Roman Catholic International Commission (international religious organization)

    Christianity: Ethics: obeying the truth: …in the report of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission, Life in Christ: Morals, Communion and the Church (1994). It is there claimed that “Anglicans and Roman Catholics derive from the Scriptures and Tradition the same controlling vision of the nature and destiny of humanity and share the same fundamental moral…

  • Anglicanism

    Anglicanism, one of the major branches of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation and a form of Christianity that includes features of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. Anglicanism is loosely organized in the Anglican Communion, a worldwide family of religious bodies that represents the

  • Anglicans in North America, Convocation of

    Peter Akinola: …the Nigerian church established the Convocation of Anglicans in North America (CANA) to provide a way for congregations that were alienated by the actions of the Episcopal Church to retain fellowship with the Anglican Communion. CANA’s first missionary bishop, Martyn Minns of Virginia, was installed in May 2007 against the…

  • anglicism (language)

    Romance languages: Vocabulary variations: …recent times, the influx of Anglicisms has become a flood, resisted to the death by some purists. Many of these, however, are ephemeral or specialized, and none affects the basic vocabulary in which Latin-inherited words continue to predominate.

  • Anglicization (sociology)

    India: Organization: Its first principle was Anglicization. In the belief that Indian officials were corrupt (and that British corruption had been cured), all posts worth more than £500 a year were reserved for the company’s covenanted servants. Next came the government. The 23 districts each had a British collector with magisterial…

  • Anglicus, Johannes de (English theologian and philosopher)

    John Baconthorpe, English theologian and philosopher who, although he did not subscribe to the heterodox doctrine of the great Muslim philosopher Averro?s, was regarded by the Renaissance Averroists as Princeps Averroistarum (“the prince of the Averroists”), and who strongly influenced the

  • Anglin’s Ford (West Virginia, United States)

    Philippi, city, seat (1844) of Barbour county, northeastern West Virginia, U.S. It lies in the Tygart Valley River valley, about 13 miles (21 km) south of Grafton. Settled in 1780, it was early called Anglin’s Ford and then Booths Ferry until it was chartered in 1844 and named for Philip Pendleton

  • Anglin, Clarence (American criminal)

    Alcatraz escape of June 1962: … and the convicted bank-robbing brothers Clarence and John Anglin—were nowhere to be found. The guard raised the alarm, and the warden in charge promptly notified state and federal authorities as well as the U.S. military. An intensive manhunt began.

  • Anglin, John (American criminal)

    Alcatraz escape of June 1962: …convicted bank-robbing brothers Clarence and John Anglin—were nowhere to be found. The guard raised the alarm, and the warden in charge promptly notified state and federal authorities as well as the U.S. military. An intensive manhunt began.

  • Anglin, Margaret (Canadian actress)

    Margaret Anglin, one of the most brilliant actresses of her day, equally effective in Greek tragedies, Shakespearean plays, and contemporary dramas. After a brief study of acting in New York City, she made her debut (1894) in Bronson C. Howard’s Shenandoah. She achieved stardom in 1898 as Roxane in

  • Anglin, Margaret Mary (Canadian actress)

    Margaret Anglin, one of the most brilliant actresses of her day, equally effective in Greek tragedies, Shakespearean plays, and contemporary dramas. After a brief study of acting in New York City, she made her debut (1894) in Bronson C. Howard’s Shenandoah. She achieved stardom in 1898 as Roxane in

  • angling (recreation)

    Fishing, the sport of catching fish, freshwater or saltwater, typically with rod, line, and hook. Like hunting, fishing originated as a means of providing food for survival. Fishing as a sport, however, is of considerable antiquity. An Egyptian angling scene from about 2000 bce shows figures

  • Anglioni, Gasparo (Italian choreographer and composer)

    Gasparo Angiolini, Italian choreographer and composer who was among the first to integrate dance, music, and plot in dramatic ballets. In 1757 he became ballet master of the Vienna court opera house, where his first ballet dramas frequently relied upon gesture to convey plot. In 1761, however,

  • Anglo (people)

    Anglo-America: The expression Anglo has come to signify a white, English-speaking North American as distinct from one of Latin-American descent.

  • Anglo American Corporation of South Africa, Ltd. (South African corporation)

    Sir Ernest Oppenheimer: Morgan, he formed the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa, Ltd., to exploit the east Witwatersrand goldfield. Two years later he formed Consolidated Diamond Mines of South West Africa, Ltd. (reformed as the Namdeb Diamond Corp. in 1994). This diamond prospecting corporation was so successful that he gained control…

  • Anglo-Afghan Wars (British-Afghani history)

    Anglo-Afghan Wars, three conflicts (1839–42; 1878–80; 1919) in which Great Britain, from its base in India, sought to extend its control over neighbouring Afghanistan and to oppose Russian influence there. Following a protracted civil war that began in 1816, the Bārakzay clan became the ruling

  • Anglo-America (cultural region, North America)

    Anglo-America, cultural entity of North America whose common spoken language is English and whose folkways and customs historically have been those of northern Europe. It comprises most of the United States and Canada, with French-speaking Canada a notable exception. The term also designates a

  • Anglo-American (people)

    Anglo-America: The expression Anglo has come to signify a white, English-speaking North American as distinct from one of Latin-American descent.

  • Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (library science)

    library: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules: The second edition of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) is the most widely used cataloging code, designed for use in the construction of catalogs and other lists in general libraries of all sizes. It is published jointly by the American Library Association, the…

  • Anglo-American Chain of Command in Western Europe, June 1944

    When U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Arcadia Conference (December 1941–January 1942), they began a period of wartime cooperation that, for all the very serious differences that divided the two countries, remains without parallel in

  • Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry (1945)

    Palestine: The early postwar period: …announced the formation of an Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Pending the report of the committee, Jewish immigration would continue at the rate of 1,500 persons per month above the 75,000 limit set by the 1939 White Paper. A plan of provincial autonomy for Arabs and Jews was worked out in…

  • Anglo-American law

    Common law, the body of customary law, based upon judicial decisions and embodied in reports of decided cases, that has been administered by the common-law courts of England since the Middle Ages. From it has evolved the type of legal system now found also in the United States and in most of the

  • Anglo-Arab (breed of horse)

    horse: Anglo-Arab: The Anglo-Arab breed originated in France with a crossing of English Thoroughbreds with pure Arabians. The matings produced a horse larger than the Arabian and smaller than the Thoroughbred, of easy maintenance, and capable of carrying considerable weight in the saddle. Its coat is…

  • Anglo-Australian Telescope (instrument)

    Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories: Its main telescope is the Anglo-Australian Telescope, which was jointly built by Australia and Great Britain and has been operated by them since 1975. The instrument is a 3.9-metre (153-inch) reflector that has notably distortion-free optics and an extremely precise computer-controlled system for pinpointing and tracking celestial objects. The telescope…

  • Anglo-Belgian Basin (region, Europe)

    Tertiary Period: Sedimentary sequences: basins, the Paris Basin, the Anglo-Belgian Basin, and the North German Basin have become the standard for comparative studies of the Paleogene part of the Cenozoic, whereas the Mediterranean region (Italy) has become the standard for the Neogene. The Tertiary record of the Paris Basin is essentially restricted to the…

  • Anglo-Boer War (British-South African history)

    South African War, war fought from October 11, 1899, to May 31, 1902, between Great Britain and the two Boer (Afrikaner) republics—the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State—resulting in British victory. Although it was the largest and most costly war in which the British

  • Anglo-Burmese Wars (British-Myanmar history)

    Anglo-Burmese Wars, (1824–26, 1852, 1885), three conflicts that collectively forced Burma (now Myanmar) into a vulnerable position from which it had to concede British hegemony in the region of the Bay of Bengal. The First Anglo-Burmese War arose from friction between Arakan in western Burma and

  • Anglo-Catholicism (religious movement)

    Anglo-Catholicism, movement that emphasizes the Catholic rather than the Protestant heritage of the Anglican Communion. It was an outgrowth of the 19th-century Oxford Movement (q.v.), which sought to renew Catholic thought and practice in the Church of England. The term Anglo-Catholic was first

  • Anglo-Dutch Wars (European history)

    Anglo-Dutch Wars, (English Wars), the four 17th- and 18th-century naval conflicts between England and the Dutch Republic. The first three wars, stemming from commercial rivalry, established England’s naval might, and the last, arising from Dutch interference in the American Revolution, spelled t

  • Anglo-Egyptian Agreement (British-Egyptian history [1954])

    Egypt: The Nasser regime: …negotiations led to the 1954 Anglo-Egyptian Agreement, under which British troops were to be evacuated gradually from the canal zone. Some Egyptians criticized the treaty from a nationalist perspective, fearing that external events could permit the British to reoccupy the canal bases.

  • Anglo-Egyptian Condominium (British-Egyptian history)

    Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, the joint British and Egyptian government that ruled the eastern Sudan from 1899 to 1955. It was established by the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreements of January 19 and July 10, 1899, and, with some later modifications, lasted until the formation of the sovereign,

  • Anglo-Egyptian Slave Trade Convention (British-Egyptian history)

    Sudan: Ismā?īl Pasha and the growth of European influence: …1877 Ismā?īl had signed the Anglo-Egyptian Slave Trade Convention, which provided for the termination of the sale and purchase of slaves in the Sudan by 1880. Gordon set out to fulfill the terms of this treaty, and, in whirlwind tours through the country, he broke up the markets and imprisoned…

  • Anglo-Egyptian Treaty (British-Egyptian history [1936])

    Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, treaty signed in London on August 26, 1936, that officially brought to an end 54 years of British occupation in Egypt; it was ratified in December 1936. Nevertheless, Egyptian sovereignty remained circumscribed by the terms of the treaty, which established a 20-year military

  • Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty (Ethiopia [1897])

    Hawd Plateau: Under the Anglo-Ethiopian treaty of 1897, Great Britain ceded the northeastern part of the Hawd Plateau, a traditional Somali grazing area, to Ethiopia. In 1960 the newly independent Somali government refused to acknowledge this transfer, and a major dispute erupted in 1964. Later, Ethiopia decided to continue…

  • Anglo-French literature

    Anglo-Norman literature, body of writings in the Old French language as used in medieval England. Though this dialect had been introduced to English court circles in Edward the Confessor’s time, its history really began with the Norman Conquest in 1066, when it became the vernacular of the court,

  • Anglo-French Treaty (France-United Kingdom [1860])

    international trade: Liberalism: …for liberal ideas was the Anglo-French trade agreement of 1860, which provided that French protective duties were to be reduced to a maximum of 25 percent within five years, with free entry of all French products except wines into Britain. This agreement was followed by other European trade pacts.

  • Anglo-French Treaty (Europe [1786])

    international trade: Liberalism: …about trade, among them the Anglo-French Treaty of 1786, which ended what had been an economic war between the two countries.

  • Anglo-French War in China (1856–1860)

    Opium Wars: The second Opium War: In the mid-1850s, while the Qing government was embroiled in trying to quell the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), the British, seeking to extend their trading rights in China, found an excuse to renew hostilities. In early October 1856 some Chinese officials boarded the…

  • Anglo-French War of 1213–1214 (European history)

    France: Foreign relations: …fiefs finally prompted him to act in 1214; he led a force from the west, and his major allies marched on Paris from the north. Philip Augustus met the allied forces at Bouvines in July 1214 and won a decisive victory. As John retreated and his coalition collapsed, there could…

  • Anglo-French War of 1294-1303 (European history)

    France: Foreign relations: The war that ensued (1294–1303) went in favour of Philip the Fair, whose armies thrust deep into Gascony. Edward retaliated by allying with Flanders and other northern princes. His dangerous campaign, concerted with the count of Flanders in 1297, met defeat from a French force led…

  • Anglo-German Agreement (Europe [1886])

    eastern Africa: Partition by Germany and Britain: …the key occurrence was the Anglo-German Agreement of 1886, by which the two parties agreed that their spheres of influence in East Africa should be divided by a line running from south of Mombasa, then north of Kilimanjaro to a point on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria. This began…

  • Anglo-German Naval Agreement (European history [1935])

    Anglo-German Naval Agreement, (June 18, 1935) bilateral concord between Britain and Germany countenancing a German navy but limiting it to 35 percent of the size of the British navy. Part of the process of appeasement before World War II, the agreement allowed Germany to violate restrictions

  • Anglo-Hindu School (school, India)

    Ram Mohan Roy: Social and political activism: In 1822 Roy founded the Anglo-Hindu School and four years later the Vedanta College in order to teach his Hindu monotheistic doctrines. When the Bengal government proposed a more traditional Sanskrit college, in 1823, Roy protested that classical Indian literature would not prepare the youth of Bengal for the demands…

  • Anglo-Indian (people)

    Anglo-Indian, in India, a citizen of mixed Indian and, through the paternal line, European ancestry. From roughly the 18th to the early 20th century, the term referred specifically to British people working in India. The meaning of the term Anglo-Indian has to some degree been in a state of flux

  • Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, Ltd. (British corporation)

    BP PLC, British petrochemical corporation that became one of the world’s largest oil companies through its merger with the Amoco Corporation of the United States in 1998. BP was initially registered on April 14, 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Ltd. It was renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil

  • Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (United Kingdom-Iraq [1924])

    Sir Percy Cox: …10, 1922, Cox signed the Anglo-Iraq Treaty (not ratified by Iraq until 1924), which provided for a 20-year alliance, later reduced to 4 years. He retired in May 1923.

  • Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (United Kingdom-Iraq [1930])

    Iraq: British occupation and the mandatory regime: The new treaty was signed in June 1930. It provided for the establishment of a “close alliance” between Britain and Iraq with “full and frank consultation between them in all matters of foreign policy which may affect their common interests.” Iraq would maintain internal order and defend…

  • Anglo-Irish Agreement (United Kingdom-Ireland [1985])

    Anglo-Irish Agreement, accord signed by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Garret FitzGerald, the Irish taoiseach (prime minister), on Nov. 15, 1985, at Hillsborough Castle in County Down, N.Ire., that gave the government of Ireland an official consultative role in the affairs of Northern

  • Anglo-Irish defense agreement (United Kingdom-Ireland [1938])

    Eamon de Valera: Rise to power: This culminated in the Anglo-Irish defense agreement of April 1938, whereby Britain relinquished the naval bases of Cobh, Berehaven, and Lough Swilly (retained in a defense annex to the 1921 treaty), and in complementary finance and trade treaties that ended the economic war. This made possible de Valera’s proclamation…

  • Anglo-Irish Treaty (United Kingdom-Ireland [1921])

    Ireland: The Irish Free State, 1922–32: The Anglo-Irish Treaty (Article 12) also stated that Northern Ireland could opt out of the Irish Free State and provided for a commission to establish a permanent frontier. Despite Northern Ireland’s reluctance, the Boundary Commission was set up and sat in secret session during 1924–25. But…

  • Anglo-Irish War (Irish history)

    Michael Collins: … during the intensification of the Anglo-Irish War (1919–21).

  • Anglo-Japanese Alliance (British-Japanese history)

    Anglo-Japanese Alliance, (1902–23), alliance that bound Britain and Japan to assist one another in safeguarding their respective interests in China and Korea. Directed against Russian expansionism in the Far East, it was a cornerstone of British and Japanese policy in Asia until after World War I.

  • Anglo-Mohammedan Oriental College (university, Aligarh, India)

    Uttar Pradesh: Education: …universities in Uttar Pradesh are Aligarh Muslim University (1875), founded by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan; Banaras Hindu University (1916) in Varanasi, founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya; and the University of Lucknow (1921). Among the state’s many institutes for specialized studies and research are the Indian Institute of Technology at…

  • Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College (university, Aligarh, India)

    Uttar Pradesh: Education: …universities in Uttar Pradesh are Aligarh Muslim University (1875), founded by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan; Banaras Hindu University (1916) in Varanasi, founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya; and the University of Lucknow (1921). Among the state’s many institutes for specialized studies and research are the Indian Institute of Technology at…

  • Anglo-Nepalese War (British-Asian history)

    China: Tibet and Nepal: …after 1801, had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and brought the Gurkhas under British influence. During the war the Gurkhas sent several missions to China in vain expectation of assistance. When political unrest flared up in Nepal after 1832, an anti-British clique seized power and sought assistance from China…

  • Anglo-Norman (people)

    Celtic languages: Irish: The Anglo-Normans were a more serious problem. After almost complete success in the early period, however, they became largely Gaelicized in custom and language outside the towns they had founded. They contributed a large number of loanwords to Irish in the fields of warfare, architecture, and…

  • Anglo-Norman (language)

    French literature: The origins of the French language: From the last one stemmed Anglo-Norman, the French used alongside English in Britain, especially among the upper classes, from even before the Norman Conquest (1066) until well into the 14th century. Each dialect had its own literature. But, for various reasons, the status of Francien increased until it achieved dominance…

  • Anglo-Norman literature

    Anglo-Norman literature, body of writings in the Old French language as used in medieval England. Though this dialect had been introduced to English court circles in Edward the Confessor’s time, its history really began with the Norman Conquest in 1066, when it became the vernacular of the court,

  • Anglo-Norman style (architecture)

    Norman style: …whereas that of England (called Anglo-Norman architecture) became a much more distinctive national tradition.

  • Anglo-Normandes, ?les (islands, English Channel)

    Channel Islands, archipelago in the English Channel, west of the Cotentin peninsula of France, at the entrance to the Gulf of Saint-Malo, 80 miles (130 km) south of the English coast. The islands are dependencies of the British crown (and not strictly part of the United Kingdom), having been so

  • Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Ltd. (British corporation)

    BP PLC, British petrochemical corporation that became one of the world’s largest oil companies through its merger with the Amoco Corporation of the United States in 1998. BP was initially registered on April 14, 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Ltd. It was renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil

  • Anglo–Polish Pact of Mutual Assistance (European history)

    Third Reich: Poland’s refusal: …with the signature of a pact of mutual assistance between Great Britain and Poland (August 25), Hitler attempted to avert British intervention through further negotiations. The British, however, refused to bring pressure to bear on the Poles, and on September 1 the German army invaded Poland. Two days later Great…

  • Anglo-Portuguese Convention (United Kingdom-Portugal [1891])

    Cecil Rhodes: Policies as prime minister of Cape Colony: The Anglo-Portuguese Convention of 1891 ended his hopes of eliminating Portugal from Africa. Harry Johnston proved uncooperative in administering Nyasaland. When Rhodes paid his first visit to Rhodesia in 1891, he found the pioneers in an angry mood; to pacify them, he helped them generously out…

  • Anglo-Russian Convention (United Kingdom-Russia [1907])

    Anglo-Russian Entente, (1907) pact in which Britain and Russia settled their colonial disputes in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet. It delineated spheres of influence in Persia, stipulated that neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs, and recognized Britain’s influence over

  • Anglo-Russian Entente (United Kingdom-Russia [1907])

    Anglo-Russian Entente, (1907) pact in which Britain and Russia settled their colonial disputes in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet. It delineated spheres of influence in Persia, stipulated that neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs, and recognized Britain’s influence over

  • Anglo-Saxon (people)

    Anglo-Saxon, term used historically to describe any member of the Germanic peoples who, from the 5th century ce to the time of the Norman Conquest (1066), inhabited and ruled territories that are today part of England and Wales. According to St. Bede the Venerable, the Anglo-Saxons were the

  • Anglo-Saxon art

    Anglo-Saxon art, manuscript illumination and architecture produced in Britain from about the 7th century to the Norman Conquest of 1066. Anglo-Saxon art may be divided into two distinct periods, one before and one after the Danish invasions of England in the 9th century. Before the 9th century,

  • Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, chronological account of events in Anglo-Saxon and Norman England, a compilation of seven surviving interrelated manuscript records that is the primary source for the early history of England. The narrative was first assembled in the reign of King Alfred (871–899) from

  • Anglo-Saxon language

    Old English language, language spoken and written in England before 1100; it is the ancestor of Middle English and Modern English. Scholars place Old English in the Anglo-Frisian group of West Germanic languages. Four dialects of the Old English language are known: Northumbrian in northern England

  • Anglo-Saxon law

    Anglo-Saxon law, the body of legal principles that prevailed in England from the 6th century until the Norman Conquest (1066). In conjunction with Scandinavian law and the so-called barbarian laws (leges barbarorum) of continental Europe, it made up the body of law called Germanic law. Anglo-Saxon

  • Anglo-Saxon literature

    Old English literature, literature written in Old English c. 650–c. 1100. For a description of this period in the context of the history of English literature, see English literature: The Old English period. Beowulf is the oldest surviving Germanic epic and the longest Old English poem; it was

  • Anglo-Saxon script (writing system)

    runic alphabet: …Europe before about 800 ad; Anglo-Saxon, or Anglian, used in Britain from the 5th or 6th century to about the 12th century ad; and Nordic, or Scandinavian, used from the 8th to about the 12th or 13th century ad in Scandinavia and Iceland. After the 12th century, runes were still…

  • Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty (Indian history [1861])

    Sikkim: History: …of Sikkim, culminating in the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861. The treaty established Sikkim as a princely state under British paramountcy (though leaving the issue of sovereignty undefined), and the British were given rights of free trade and of road making through Sikkim to Tibet. In 1890 an agreement was concluded…

  • Anglo-Soviet Agreement (United Kingdom-Soviet Union [1941])

    World War II: Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941: The Anglo-Soviet agreement of July 12, 1941, pledged the signatory powers to assist one another and to abstain from making any separate peace with Germany. On August 25, 1941, British and Soviet forces jointly invaded Iran, to forestall the establishment of a German base there and…

  • Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company (American company)

    Nestlé SA: …the United States, established the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham, Switzerland. In September, in nearby Vevey, Henri Nestlé developed a milk-based baby food and soon began marketing it. In the succeeding decades both enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. (Henri Nestlé retired in 1875,…

  • Anglo-Tibetan Treaty (United Kingdom-Tibet [1904])

    Sir Francis Edward Younghusband: …forced the conclusion of the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty (September 6, 1904) that gained Britain long-sought trade concessions.

  • Anglo-Zanzibar War (British-Zanzibar history [1896])

    Anglo-Zanzibar War, (August 27, 1896), brief conflict between the British Empire and the East African island sultanate of Zanzibar. Following the death of the previous sultan, Zanzibari Prince Khālid ibn Barghash refused to accept the British Empire’s preferred successor and instead occupied the

  • Anglo-Zulu War (South African history)

    Anglo-Zulu War, decisive six-month war in 1879 in Southern Africa, resulting in British victory over the Zulus. During the second half of the 19th century, the British were interested in Zululand for several reasons, including their desire for the Zulu population to provide labour in the diamond

  • Angmagssalik (Greenland)

    Tasiilaq, town, southeastern Greenland, on the south coast of Ammassalik Island. The island is 25 miles (40 km) long and 12–20 miles (19–32 km) wide, with a high point of 4,336 feet (1,322 metres). Although Europeans landed as early as 1472, the region was not explored until 1884, when Gustav Holm,

  • Ango, Jean (French shipowner)

    Jean Ango, French shipowner who, succeeding to his father’s import-export business, eventually controlled, by himself or in association with others, a fleet of 70 ships. By means of his extensive fleet of commerce vessels, Ango was able, during the reign of Francis I, to ensure representation for

  • Angol (Chile)

    Angol, city, southern Chile. Angol is situated on the Rehue River near its confluence with the Malleco River, in the southern portion of the fertile Central Valley. It was founded in 1862 on the site of a former Araucanian Indian outpost. The valley produces fruits (especially apples and wine

  • Angola

    Angola, country located in southwestern Africa. A large country, Angola takes in a broad variety of landscapes, including the semidesert Atlantic littoral bordering Namibia’s “Skeleton Coast,” the sparsely populated rainforest interior, the rugged highlands of the south, the Cabinda exclave in the

  • Angola cordon bleu (bird)

    cordon bleu: cyanocephalus) and the Angola cordon bleu (U. angolensis), also called the Angola waxbill, or blue-breasted waxbill.

  • Angola waxbill (bird)

    cordon bleu: cyanocephalus) and the Angola cordon bleu (U. angolensis), also called the Angola waxbill, or blue-breasted waxbill.

  • Angola, flag of

    horizontally striped red-black national flag with a central yellow emblem of a machete, a star, and half of a cogwheel. Its width-to-length ratio is unspecified.In the 1960s and ’70s countries in Africa, Asia, and elsewhere were struggling for independence after decades of colonial rule. Many

  • Angola, history of

    Angola: History: This discussion mainly focuses on Angola since the late 15th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see Southern Africa.

  • Angola, Republic of

    Angola, country located in southwestern Africa. A large country, Angola takes in a broad variety of landscapes, including the semidesert Atlantic littoral bordering Namibia’s “Skeleton Coast,” the sparsely populated rainforest interior, the rugged highlands of the south, the Cabinda exclave in the

  • Angola, Republica de

    Angola, country located in southwestern Africa. A large country, Angola takes in a broad variety of landscapes, including the semidesert Atlantic littoral bordering Namibia’s “Skeleton Coast,” the sparsely populated rainforest interior, the rugged highlands of the south, the Cabinda exclave in the

  • Angolan literature

    Angola: The arts: …Portugal drove much of this literary activity underground after 1926 but failed to destroy it altogether. Although the leader of the MPLA at independence, Agostinho Neto, was renowned throughout the Portuguese-speaking world for his poetry, his government too curtailed artistic freedom, implementing a rigorous system of censorship. Additional artistic outlets…

  • Angolan Plateau (plateau, Angola)

    Angola: Relief: The Bié Plateau to the east of Benguela forms a rough quadrilateral of land above the 5,000-foot (1,500-metre) mark, culminating at about 8,600 feet (2,600 metres) and covering about one-tenth of the country’s surface. The Malanje highlands in the north-central part of the country are less…

  • Angolan Women, Organization of (Angolan organization)

    Angola: Labour and taxation: …rural women, belong to the Organization of Angolan Women, which was founded in the 1960s and has established literacy and social programs. National revenue is derived from taxes on income and on petroleum.

  • Angolares (people)

    Sao Tome and Principe: Ethnic groups: Another group, the Angolares, descended from runaway Angolan slaves who were shipwrecked on S?o Tomé about 1540. The Angolares remained apart in the isolated southern zone of S?o Tomé island until the late 19th century, but they later spread throughout the country and became largely assimilated. Cape Verdeans…

  • Angoni (people)

    Ngoni, approximately 12 groups of people of the Nguni (q.v.) branch of Bantu-speaking peoples that are scattered throughout eastern Africa. Their dispersal was due to the rise of the Zulu empire early in the 19th century, during which many refugee bands moved away from Zululand. One Ngoni chief,

  • Angónia highlands (highlands, Mozambique)

    Tete: …climate and soils of the Angonia Highlands favour some cattle raising and the cultivation of cassava and sorghum. Pop. (2007 prelim.) 152,909.

  • Angora (national capital, Turkey)

    Ankara, city, capital of Turkey, situated in the northwestern part of the country. It lies about 125 miles (200 km) south of the Black Sea, near the confluence of the Hatip, ?nce Su, and ?ubek streams. Pop. (2000) 3,203,362; (2013 est.) 4,417,522. While the date of the city’s foundation is

  • Angora (breed of cat)

    Longhair, breed of domestic cat noted for its long, soft, flowing coat. Long-haired cats were originally known as Persians or Angoras. These names were later discarded in favour of the name longhair, although the cats are still commonly called Persians in the United States. The longhair, a

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