You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • abstinence syndrome (physiology)

    alcoholism: Defining alcoholism: …effects and that causes a withdrawal syndrome when drinking is stopped. This definition is inadequate, however, because alcoholics, unlike other drug addicts, do not always need ever-increasing doses of alcohol. Opium addicts, on the other hand, become so adapted to the drug that they can survive more than a hundred…

  • abstinence, sexual

    Celibacy, the state of being unmarried and, therefore, sexually abstinent, usually in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious

  • abstract (philosophy)

    philosophy of mind: Abstract and concrete: …this sort are called “abstract.”

  • abstract (document)

    information processing: Primary and secondary literature: …in the form of reviews, abstracts, and indexes. Over the past 100 years there has evolved a system of disciplinary, national, and international abstracting and indexing services that acts as a gateway to several attributes of primary literature: authors, subjects, publishers, dates (and languages) of publication, and citations. The professional…

  • abstract algebra (mathematics)

    Modern algebra, branch of mathematics concerned with the general algebraic structure of various sets (such as real numbers, complex numbers, matrices, and vector spaces), rather than rules and procedures for manipulating their individual elements. During the second half of the 19th century, various

  • abstract alphabet (information theory)

    information processing: Acquisition and recording of information in analog form: …to be represented by an alphabet of graphic symbols. Combinations of a relatively small set of such symbols could stand for more complex concepts as words, phrases, and sentences. The invention of the written phonetic alphabet is thought to have taken place during the 2nd millennium bc. The pragmatic advantages…

  • abstract animation (motion pictures)

    motion-picture technology: Noncellular animation: Although abstract animation can be realized through orthodox animation techniques (as in parts of Fantasia, 1940), it may also be inked or painted directly onto the film. This form of abstract animation was pioneered in the 1920s with the individual and collaborative work of the German…

  • abstract art

    Abstract art, painting, sculpture, or graphic art in which the portrayal of things from the visible world plays no part. All art consists largely of elements that can be called abstract—elements of form, colour, line, tone, and texture. Prior to the 20th century these abstract elements were

  • abstract data type (computing)

    computer programming language: Data structures: Abstract data types (ADTs) are important for large-scale programming. They package data structures and operations on them, hiding internal details. For example, an ADT table provides insertion and lookup operations to users while keeping the underlying structure, whether an array, list, or binary tree, invisible.…

  • Abstract Design in American Quilts (American exhibition)

    quilting: The quilt revival: …was a 1971 exhibit, “Abstract Design in American Quilts,” curated by Jonathan Holstein and Gail van der Hoof at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City, in which vintage quilts, a few Amish-made, were displayed like modern art. “Art quilts” soon joined the quilter’s vocabulary, typified…

  • Abstract Expressionism (art)

    Abstract Expressionism, broad movement in American painting that began in the late 1940s and became a dominant trend in Western painting during the 1950s. The most prominent American Abstract Expressionist painters were Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, and Mark Rothko. Others

  • abstract garden

    garden and landscape design: Japanese: …characteristic Japanese styles are the abstract garden and the tea garden. The most famous example of the former is the garden of the Ryōan-ji in Kyōto, where an area about the size of a tennis court is covered with raked sand and set with 15 stones divided into five groups.…

  • abstract music

    program music: It is contrasted with so-called absolute, or abstract, music, in which artistic interest is supposedly confined to abstract constructions in sound. It has been stated that the concept of program music does not represent a genre in itself but rather is present in varying degrees in different works of music.…

  • abstract particular (philosophy)

    universal: Trope nominalism: Such tropes are “abstract particulars”: the shape trope, for example, is not coloured (it has no colour trope as a part), so one notices it by looking at the disk and “abstracting away” the colour. But the shape trope is still a particular in the sense that it…

  • abstract poem

    Abstract poem, a term coined by Edith Sitwell to describe a poem in which the words are chosen for their aural quality rather than specifically for their sense or meaning. An example from “Popular Song” in Sitwell’s Fa?ade (1923)

  • abstract reference (philosophy)

    universal: Plenitudes from abstract reference: The difficulty of doing without abstract reference provides a second, oft-cited reason to posit a plenitude of universals. Many predicative expressions—e.g., “… is hungry”—are paired with words that look like names for an abstract object—e.g., “hunger.” Moreover, for every predicate there is some…

  • abstract space (mathematics)

    Maurice Fréchet: …founder of the theory of abstract spaces.

  • abstracting (document)

    information processing: Primary and secondary literature: …in the form of reviews, abstracts, and indexes. Over the past 100 years there has evolved a system of disciplinary, national, and international abstracting and indexing services that acts as a gateway to several attributes of primary literature: authors, subjects, publishers, dates (and languages) of publication, and citations. The professional…

  • abstraction (cognitive process)

    Abstraction, the cognitive process of isolating, or “abstracting,” a common feature or relationship observed in a number of things, or the product of such a process. The property of electrical conductivity, for example, is abstracted from observations of bodies that allow electricity to flow

  • abstraction

    Abstract art, painting, sculpture, or graphic art in which the portrayal of things from the visible world plays no part. All art consists largely of elements that can be called abstract—elements of form, colour, line, tone, and texture. Prior to the 20th century these abstract elements were

  • abstraction, principle of (mathematics)

    set theory: Essential features of Cantorian set theory: …x (and possibly others), Cantor’s principle of abstraction asserts the existence of a set A such that, for each object x, x ? A if and only if S(x) holds. (Mathematicians later formulated a restricted principle of abstraction, also known as the principle of comprehension, in which self-referencing predicates, or…

  • Abstraction-Création (art group)

    Abstraction-Création, association of international painters and sculptors that from 1931 to 1936 promoted the principles of pure abstraction in art. The immediate predecessor of the Abstraction-Création group was the Cercle et Carré (“Circle and Square”) group, founded by Michel Seuphor and Joaquin

  • Absurd, Theatre of the

    Theatre of the Absurd, dramatic works of certain European and American dramatists of the 1950s and early ’60s who agreed with the Existentialist philosopher Albert Camus’s assessment, in his essay “The Myth of Sisyphus” (1942), that the human situation is essentially absurd, devoid of purpose. The

  • absurdity (literature and philosophy)

    Arabic literature: Tawfīq al-?akīm: …plays (and productions) was an Absurdist drama, Yā ?āli? al-shajarah (1962; The Tree Climber), where the usage of the standard literary language in dialogue helped contribute to the “unreal” nature of the play’s dramatic logic. Al-?akīm also wrote a few plays in the colloquial dialect of Egypt, but his most…

  • Absurdly Silly Encyclopedia & Fly Swatter, The (work by Stine)

    R.L. Stine: …40 humour books for children, The Absurdly Silly Encyclopedia & Fly Swatter (1978), was published under the pseudonym Jovial Bob Stine.

  • ABT (American ballet company)

    American Ballet Theatre, ballet company based in New York City and having an affiliated school. It was founded in 1939 by Lucia Chase and Richard Pleasant and presented its first performance on January 11, 1940. Chase was director, with Oliver Smith, from 1945 to 1980. The dancer Mikhail

  • Abtsbessingen faience (earthenware)

    Abtsbessingen faience, tin-glazed earthenware produced in a factory in the village of Abtsbessingen, Thuringia (now in Germany), which flourished probably from the first half of the 18th century to about 1816. A hayfork factory mark indicates the patronage of the prince of Schwarzburg. Ordinary

  • Abu (island, Egypt)

    Elephantine, island in the Nile opposite Aswān city in Aswān mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Upper Egypt. Elephantine is the Greek name for pharaonic Abu. There the 18th- and 19th-dynasty pharaohs built a large temple to Khnum, the ram god of the cataract region, to his consort, Sati, and to Anuket,

  • Abu (India)

    Abu, town, southwestern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated on the slopes of Mount Abu, an isolated massif in the Aravalli Range. The town is a noted hill resort, and the Jaina temples built of marble at nearby Dilwara are famous. Tejpal temple, built about 1200 ce, is known for the

  • Abū adh-Dhawwūd Mu?ammad (?Uqaylid ruler)

    ?Uqaylid Dynasty: Abū adh-Dhawwūd Mu?ammad (reigned c. 990–996), the first ?Uqaylid, was drawn into the struggle between the ?amdānids and Marwānids for possession of Mosul and eventually succeeded the ?amdānids as emir of Mosul, though remaining nominally subject to the Būyids of Baghdad.

  • Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah (?Abbāsid caliph)

    Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, Islamic caliph (reigned 749–54), first of the ?Abbāsid dynasty, which was to rule over the eastern Islamic world for approximately the next 500 years. The ?Abbāsids were descended from an uncle of Muhammad and were cousins to the ruling Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyads were

  • Abū al-Barakāt al-Baghdādī (Jewish philosopher)

    Judaism: Other Jewish thinkers, c. 1050–c. 1150: …philosopher of the Islamic East, Abū al-Barakāt al-Baghdādī (who died as a very old man sometime after 1164), also belongs to this period. An inhabitant of Iraq, he was converted to Islam in his old age (for reasons of expediency, according to his biographers). His philosophy appears to have had…

  • Abū al-Fa?l Zuhayr ibn ?u?ammad al-Muhallabī (Arab poet)

    Bahā? al-Dīn Zuhayr, Arab poet attached to the Ayyūbid dynasty of Cairo. Bahā? al-Dīn Zuhayr studied at Qū?, a centre of trade and scholarship in Upper Egypt, and eventually moved to Cairo. There he entered the service of the Ayyūbid prince al-?āli? Ayyūb, serving as the prince’s secretary on a

  • Abu al-Fa?l ?Allāmī (Indian author and theologian)

    Abu al-Fa?l ?Allāmī, historian, military commander, secretary, and theologian to the Mughal emperor Akbar. Abu al-Fa?l ?Allāmī studied with his father, Sheikh Mubārak Nāgawrī, a distinguished scholar, and, after teaching in his father’s school, was presented to Akbar in 1574 by the poet Fayzī, Abu

  • Abū al-Faraj (Syrian philosopher)

    Bar Hebraeus, medieval Syrian scholar noted for his encyclopaedic learning in science and philosophy and for his enrichment of Syriac literature by the introduction of Arabic culture. Motivated toward scholarly pursuits by his father, a Jewish convert to Christianity, Bar Hebraeus emigrated to

  • Abū al-Faraj al-I?bahānī (Muslim scholar)

    Abū al-Faraj al-I?bahānī, literary scholar who composed an encyclopaedic and fundamental work on Arabic song, composers, poets, and musicians. Abū al-Faraj was a descendant of Marwān II, the last Umayyad caliph of Syria. Despite the enmity between this family and the ?Alids, he was a Shī?ite

  • Abū al-Faraj ?Alī ibn al-?usayn al-Qurashī al-I?bahānī (Muslim scholar)

    Abū al-Faraj al-I?bahānī, literary scholar who composed an encyclopaedic and fundamental work on Arabic song, composers, poets, and musicians. Abū al-Faraj was a descendant of Marwān II, the last Umayyad caliph of Syria. Despite the enmity between this family and the ?Alids, he was a Shī?ite

  • Abū al-Fat? al-Iskandarī (literary character)

    al-Hamadhānī: …narrator ?Isā ibn Hishām with Abū al-Fat? al-Iskandarī, a witty orator and talented poet who roams in search of fortune unencumbered by Islamic conventions of honour.

  • Abū al-Fat? Mu?ammad ibn ?Annāz (Kurdish ruler)

    ?Annazid dynasty: …Shādhanjān clan, was founded by Abū al-Fat? Mu?ammad ibn ?Annāz (died 1010). During his rule, which spanned 20 years, conflict with neighbouring groups—including the ?asanwayhid (?asanūyid) dynasty, another Kurdish dynasty, as well as the rival Arab Mazyadid (Banū Mazyad) and ?Uqaylid (Banū ?Uqayl) dynasties—was frequent. The ?Annazids under Abū al-Fat?…

  • Abū al-Fat? ?Umar ibn Ibrahīm al-Khaiyāmī al-Nīshaburi (Persian poet and astronomer)

    Omar Khayyam, Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet, renowned in his own country and time for his scientific achievements but chiefly known to English-speaking readers through the translation of a collection of his robā?īyāt (“quatrains”) in The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (1859), by the English

  • Abū al-Fawāris (Būyid ruler)

    Abū Kālījār al-Marzubān ibn Sul?ān ad-Dawlah: …was challenged by his uncle Abū al-Fawāris, the ruler of Kerman, to the west. By 1028 Abū Kālījār was victorious and added Kerman to his domains. In the meantime (1027) he had attacked the Iraqi lands of another uncle, Jalāl ad-Dawlah, and had precipitated a civil war between the Iraqi…

  • Abū al-Fidā? (Ayyūbid ruler and author)

    Abū al-Fidā?, Ayyūbid dynasty historian and geographer who became a local sultan under the Mamlūk empire. Abū al-Fidā? was a descendant of Ayyūb, the father of Saladin, founder of the Ayyūbid dynasty that had been supplanted by the Mamlūks in Egypt and elsewhere before his birth. In 1285 he

  • Abū al-Fidā? Ismā?īl ibn ?Alī al-Mālik al-Mu? (Ayyūbid ruler and author)

    Abū al-Fidā?, Ayyūbid dynasty historian and geographer who became a local sultan under the Mamlūk empire. Abū al-Fidā? was a descendant of Ayyūb, the father of Saladin, founder of the Ayyūbid dynasty that had been supplanted by the Mamlūks in Egypt and elsewhere before his birth. In 1285 he

  • Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur (Khivan khan)

    Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur, khan (ruler) of Khiva and one of the most prominent historians in Chagatai Turkish literature. The son of ?Arab Mu?ammad Khan, Abū al-Ghāzī spent most of his early life in Urgench. When his father died and a dynastic struggle arose among Abū al-Ghāzī and his brothers for the

  • Abū al-?asan (Marīnid sultan)

    Abū al-?asan ?Alī, Marīnid sultan of Morocco (reigned 1331–51) who increased the territories of his dynasty and, for a brief time, created a united North African empire. In 1331 Abū al-?asan succeeded his father, Abū Sa?īd, to the throne. With the goals of expelling the Christians from Spain and

  • Abū al-?asan (Indian painter)

    Abū al-?asan, one of the leading Mughal painters of the emperor Jahāngīr’s atelier, honoured by the emperor with the title Nādir al-Zamān (“Wonder of the Age”). Abū al-?asan was the son of āqā Rezā of Herāt, who worked with Jahāngīr (reigned 1605–27) before his accession to the throne. Abū al-?asan

  • Abū al-?asan ??af Khan (Mughal gran vizier)

    Mumtaz Mahal: Life, family, and marriage: Abū al-?asan ā?af Khan, Arjumand’s father and Nūr Jahān’s brother, also attained a high rank within the court and later became grand vizier under Shah Jahān.

  • Abū al-?asan ibn Mūsā ibn Ja?far ?Alī al-Ri?ā (Shī?ite imam)

    ?Alī al-Ri?ā, eighth imam of the Twelver Shī?ites, noted for his piety and learning. In 817 the caliph al-Ma?mūn, in an attempt to heal the division between the majority Sunnis and the Shī?ites, appointed him his successor. The appointment aroused varying reactions—few of them, even among the

  • Abū al-?asan ?Alī (Marīnid sultan)

    Abū al-?asan ?Alī, Marīnid sultan of Morocco (reigned 1331–51) who increased the territories of his dynasty and, for a brief time, created a united North African empire. In 1331 Abū al-?asan succeeded his father, Abū Sa?īd, to the throne. With the goals of expelling the Christians from Spain and

  • Abū al-?asan ?Alī (Na?rid ruler)

    Na?rid dynasty: Then, when the Na?rid ruler Abū al-?asan ?Alī (1466–85) introduced a succession struggle at home, while externally antagonizing Castile by refusing to pay tribute, Na?rid rule was finally ended by the Christian conquest of Granada (1492).

  • Abū al-?asan ?Alī ibn al-?usayn al-Mas?ūdī (Arab historian)

    Al-Mas?ūdī, historian and traveler, known as the “Herodotus of the Arabs.” He was the first Arab to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work, Murūj al-dhahab wa ma?ādin al-jawāhir (“The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems”), a world history. As a child, al-Mas?ūdī showed an

  • Abū al-?asan ?Alī ibn Hilāl ibn al-Bawwāb (Arab calligrapher)

    Ibn al-Bawwāb, Arabic calligrapher of the ?Abbāsid Age (750–1258) who reputedly invented the cursive ray?ānī and mu?aqqaq scripts. He refined several of the calligraphic styles invented a century earlier by Ibn Muqlah, including the naskhī and tawqī scripts, and collected and preserved for his s

  • Abū al-?asan ?Alī ibn ?Abd Allāh al-Shādhilī (Muslim mystic)

    Al-Shādhilī, Sufi Muslim theologian who was the founder of the order of the Shādhilīyah. The details of al-Shādhilī’s life are clouded by legend. He is said to have been a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and to have gone blind in his youth because of excessive study. In 1218/19 he

  • Abū al-Hawl (monument, Giza, Egypt)

    Great Sphinx of Giza, colossal limestone statue of a recumbent sphinx located in Giza, Egypt, that likely dates from the reign of King Khafre (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) and depicts his face. It is one of Egypt’s most famous landmarks and is arguably the best-known example of sphinx art. The Great Sphinx

  • Abū al-Hayjā? ?Abd Allāh (?amdānid ruler)

    ?amdānid Dynasty: …as a military commander and Abū al-Hayjā? ?Abd Allāh initiating the ?amdānid dynasty by assuming the post of governor of Mosul (905–929). The dynasty struck an independent course under ?Abd Allāh’s son Nā?ir ad-Dawlah al-?asan (reigned 929–969) and expanded westward into Syria. In 979 the ?amdānids were driven out of…

  • Abū al-?azm Jahwar ibn Jahwar (Jahwarid ruler)

    Jahwarid dynasty: …led by a prominent aristocrat, Abū al-?azm Jahwar ibn Jahwar, to abolish the institution of the caliphate and proclaim Córdoba a republic. Jahwar was elected head and, as virtually an absolute sovereign ostensibly assisted by a council, restored peace and economic prosperity in his 12-year-reign (1031–43). His son Abū al-Walīd…

  • Abū al-Hudhayl al-?Allāf (Muslim theologian)

    Mu?tazilah: …most important Mu?tazilī theologians were Abū al-Hudhayl al-?Allāf (died c. 841) and al-Na??ām (died 846) in Basra and Bishr ibn al-Mu?tamir (died 825) in Baghdad. It was al-Ash?arī (died 935 or 936), a student of the Mu?tazilī al-Jubbā?ī, who broke the force of the movement by refuting its teachings with…

  • Abū al-?usayn Mu?ammad ibn A?mad ibn Jubayr al Kinānī (Spanish Muslim author)

    Ibn Jubayr, Spanish Muslim known for a book recounting his pilgrimage to Mecca. The son of a civil servant, Ibn Jubayr became secretary to the Almohad governor of Granada, but he left that post for his pilgrimage, which was begun in 1183 and ended with his return to Granada in 1185. He wrote a

  • Abū al-?usayn Muslim ibn al-?ajjāj al-Qushayrī (Muslim scholar)

    Muslim ibn al-?ajjāj, scholar who was one of the chief authorities on the ?adīth, accounts of the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Mu?ammad. Muslim traveled widely; his great work, the ?a?ī? (“The Genuine”), is said to have been compiled from about 300,000 traditions, which he collected in A

  • Abū al-Jaysh Is?āq (Ziyādid ruler)

    Ziyādid Dynasty: Abū al-Jaysh Is?āq, however, restored Ziyādid power and territory in a celebrated reign (904–981).

  • Abū al-Ma?āsin Yūsuf ibn Rāfi? ibn Shaddād Bahā? al-Dīn (Arab author)

    Bahā? al-Dīn, Arab writer and statesman, author of the Sirat Salā? ad-Dīn (“Life of Saladin”). He was first a teacher at Baghdad and then professor at Mosul. In July 1188, after making the pilgrimage to Mecca, Bahā? al-Dīn entered the service of Saladin, who was waging war against the Christians in

  • Abū al-Majd Majdūd ibn ādam (Persian poet)

    Sanā?ī, Persian poet, author of the first great mystical poem in the Persian language, whose verse had great influence on Persian and Muslim literature. Little is known of Sanā?ī’s early life. He was a resident of Ghazna and served for a time as poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultans, composing

  • Abū al-Mughīth al-?usayn ibn Man?ūr al-?allāj (Islamic mystic)

    Al-?allāj, controversial writer and teacher of Islāmic mysticism (?ūfism). Because he represented in his person and works the experiences, causes, and aspirations of many Muslims, arousing admiration in some and repression on the part of others, the drama of his life and death has been considered a

  • Abū al-Mundhir (Arab scholar)

    Hishām ibn al-Kalbī, scholar of the customs, lineage, and battles of the early Arabs. Hishām’s father was a distinguished scholar of Kūfah who endeavoured to put into writing oral traditions gathered from Bedouins and professional reciters. Hishām is said to have taught in Baghdad, perhaps late in

  • Abū al-Muzaffar ibn Yūnus (?Abbāsid vizier)

    Ibn al-Jawzī: The arrest in 1194 of Ibn Yūnus, his old friend and patron, marked the end of Ibn al-Jawzī’s career and his close links with governmental circles. In that year he was arrested and exiled to the city of Wāsi?. He was partially rehabilitated on the eve of his death and…

  • Abū al-Qāsim (Muslim physician and author)

    Abū al-Qāsim, Islām’s greatest medieval surgeon, whose comprehensive medical text, combining Middle Eastern and Greco-Roman classical teachings, shaped European surgical procedures until the Renaissance. Abū al-Qāsim was court physician to the Spanish caliph ?Abd ar-Ra?mān III an-Nā?ir and wrote

  • Abū al-Qāsim ibn Wāsūl (Berber ruler)

    North Africa: The Banū Midrār of Sijilmāssah: The principality was named after Abū al-Qāsim ibn Wāsūl, nicknamed Midrār, the Miknāsah chief who founded the town of Sijilmāssah there in 757. Tafilalt had played a role in trans-Saharan trade before the influx and settlement of the Miknāsah. After the establishment of Sijilmāssah, however, it became the foremost centre…

  • Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn ?Abbās az-Zahrāwī (Muslim physician and author)

    Abū al-Qāsim, Islām’s greatest medieval surgeon, whose comprehensive medical text, combining Middle Eastern and Greco-Roman classical teachings, shaped European surgical procedures until the Renaissance. Abū al-Qāsim was court physician to the Spanish caliph ?Abd ar-Ra?mān III an-Nā?ir and wrote

  • Abū al-Qāsim Mu?ammad ibn ?Abbād (?Abbādid ruler)

    ?Abbādid dynasty: …1023 the qadi (religious judge) Abū al-Qāsim Mu?ammad ibn ?Abbād declared Sevilla independent of Córdoba. His son Abu ?Amr ?Abbād, known as al-Mu?ta?id (1042–69), greatly enlarged his territory by forcibly annexing the minor kingdoms of Mertola, Niebla, Huelva, Saltés, Silves, and Santa María de Algarve.

  • Abū al-Qāsim Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd Allāh ibn ?Abd al-Mu??alib ibn Hāshim (prophet of Islam)

    Muhammad, the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qur?ān. Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in 570 in Mecca and to have died in 632 in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with his adherents in 622. The Qur?ān yields little concrete biographical information about

  • Abū al-Ray?ān Mu?ammad ibn A?mad al-Bīrūnī (Persian scholar and scientist)

    Al-Bīrūnī, Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a

  • Abū al-Shawk (Kurdish ruler)

    ?Annazid dynasty: …was succeeded by his son, ?usām al-Dawlah Abū al-Shawk Fāris (died 1046), although two other sons independently ruled the urban centres of Shahrazūr and Bandanījīn. Abū al-Shawk’s 36-year rule spanned a period of internal and external conflict, yet it was under Abū al-Shawk that the dynasty reached its peak—in large…

  • Abū al-?ayyib A?mad ibn ?usayn al-Mutanabbī (Muslim poet)

    Al-Mutanabbī, poet regarded by many as the greatest of the Arabic language. He primarily wrote panegyrics in a flowery, bombastic, and highly influential style marked by improbable metaphors. Al-Mutanabbī was the son of a water carrier who claimed noble and ancient southern Arabian descent. Because

  • Abū al-Wafā? (Persian mathematician)

    Abū al-Wafā?, a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. Abū al-Wafā? worked in a private observatory in Baghdad, where he made observations to determine, among other astronomical parameters, the obliquity of the

  • Abū al-Wafā? al-Būzajānī (Persian mathematician)

    Abū al-Wafā?, a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. Abū al-Wafā? worked in a private observatory in Baghdad, where he made observations to determine, among other astronomical parameters, the obliquity of the

  • Abū al-Wafā? ?Alī ibn ?Aqīl ibn Mu?ammad ibn ?Aqīl ibn A?mad al-Baghdādī al-?afarī (Muslim theologian)

    Ibn ?Aqīl, Islamic theologian and scholar of the ?anbalī school, the most traditionalist of the schools of Islamic law. His thoughts and teachings represent an attempt to give a somewhat more liberal direction to ?anbalism. In 1055–66 Ibn ?Aqīl received instruction in Islamic law according to the

  • Abu al-Walīd Marwān ibn Jonah (Spanish-Jewish grammarian)

    Ibn Janā?, perhaps the most important medieval Hebrew grammarian and lexicographer. Known as the founder of the study of Hebrew syntax, he established the rules of biblical exegesis and clarified many difficult passages. Trained as a physician, Ibn Janāh practiced medicine, but, out of profound

  • Abū al-Walīd Mu?ammad al-Rashīd (Jahwarid ruler)

    Jahwarid dynasty: His son Abū al-Walīd Mu?ammad al-Rashīd (reigned 1043–58) managed through political chicanery to keep the ?Abbādids of Sevilla (Seville) out of Córdoba but eventually resigned his authority to his own vizier, Ibn al-Raqā. When ?Abd al-Malik, al-Rashīd’s jealous son, assassinated the vizier in 1058, his father rewarded…

  • Abū al-Walīd Mu?ammad ibn A?mad ibn Mu?ammad ibn Rushd (Muslim philosopher)

    Averro?s, influential Islamic religious philosopher who integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought. At the request of the Almohad caliph Abū Ya?qūb Yūsuf, he produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle’s works (1169–95) and on Plato’s Republic, which exerted

  • Abū al-?Abbās (?af?id ruler)

    North Africa: Political fragmentation and the triumph of Islamic culture (c. 1250–c. 1500): …reunified in 1370 by Sultan Abū al-?Abbās, the ?af?id state enjoyed periods of relative stability interspersed with strife. Political instability did not, however, prevent learning from developing in the towns. The greatest intellectual figure of the Maghrib before the modern period, the historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldūn, was born and…

  • Abū al-?Abbās A?mad ibn A?mad al-Takrūrī al-Massūfī (Islamic author and jurist)

    A?mad Bābā, jurist, writer, and a cultural leader of the western Sudan. A descendant of a line of jurists, A?mad Bābā was educated in Islāmic culture, including jurisprudence. When Timbuktu was conquered by the Sultan of Morocco in 1591, he was accused of refusing to recognize the Sultan’s a

  • Abū al-?Abbās al-Saffā? (?Abbāsid caliph)

    Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, Islamic caliph (reigned 749–54), first of the ?Abbāsid dynasty, which was to rule over the eastern Islamic world for approximately the next 500 years. The ?Abbāsids were descended from an uncle of Muhammad and were cousins to the ruling Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyads were

  • Abū al-?Abbās al-Walīd ibn Yazīd ibn ?Abd al-Malīk ibn Marwān (Umayyad caliph)

    Al-Walīd ibn Yazīd, caliph (reigned 743–744) of the Umayyad dynasty. As a young man he was of artistic temperament and acquired a good education. He was, however, totally unfit to rule and went off to live in the desert, where he could be free from the burdens of public affairs and the moral

  • Abū al-?Abbās al-Walīd ibn ?Abd al-Malīk ibn Marwān (Umayyad caliph)

    Al-Walīd, sixth caliph (reigned 705–715) of the Arab Umayyad dynasty, who is best known for the mosques constructed during his reign. Al-Walīd, the eldest son of the caliph ?Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, was fervently orthodox in his religious views, and he had a great interest in architecture. As

  • Abū al-?Abbās Mu?ammad ibn Yazīd (Arab grammarian)

    Al-Mubarrad, Arab grammarian and literary scholar whose Al-Kāmil (“The Perfect One”) is a storehouse of linguistic knowledge. After studying grammar in Basra, al-Mubarrad was called to the court of the ?Abbāsid caliph al-Mutawakkil at Sāmarrā? in 860. When the caliph was killed in 861, al-Mubarrad

  • Abū al-?Abbās ?Abd Allāh al-Ma?mūn ibn al-Rashīd (?Abbāsid caliph)

    Al-Ma?mūn, seventh ?Abbāsid caliph (813–833), known for his attempts to end sectarian rivalry in Islām and to impose upon his subjects a rationalist Muslim creed. The son of the celebrated caliph Hārūn ar-Rashīd and an Iranian concubine, al-Ma?mūn was born in 786, six months before his half-brother

  • Abū al-?Alā? A?mad ibn ?Abd Allāh al-Ma?arrī (Arab poet)

    Al-Ma?arrī, great Arab poet, known for his virtuosity and for the originality and pessimism of his vision. Al-Ma?arrī was a descendant of the Tanūkh tribe. A childhood disease left him virtually blind. He studied literature and Islam in Aleppo, and he may have also traveled to study in Antioch and

  • Abū al-?Atāhiyah (Arab poet)

    Abū al-?Atāhiyah, first Arab poet of note to break with the conventions established by the pre-Islamic poets of the desert and to adopt a simpler and freer language of the village. Abū al-?Atāhiyah (“Father of Craziness”) came from a family of mawlās, poor non-Arabs who were clients of the ?Anaza

  • Abū al-?Atāhiyyah (Arab poet)

    Abū al-?Atāhiyah, first Arab poet of note to break with the conventions established by the pre-Islamic poets of the desert and to adopt a simpler and freer language of the village. Abū al-?Atāhiyah (“Father of Craziness”) came from a family of mawlās, poor non-Arabs who were clients of the ?Anaza

  • Abū Ayyūb Sulaymān ibn Ya?yā ibn Gabirūt (Jewish poet and philosopher)

    Ibn Gabirol, one of the outstanding figures of the Hebrew school of religious and secular poetry during the Jewish Golden Age in Moorish Spain. He was also an important Neoplatonic philosopher. Born in Málaga about 1022, Ibn Gabirol received his higher education in Saragossa, where he joined the

  • Abū Ba?r (plain, Saudi Arabia)

    Arabian Desert: Physiography: …gravel plains of Raydā? and Abū Ba?r, and adjacent areas covered by sand, formed the delta of the Dawāsir-Jawb system. The remnants of several of the deltas formed by those ancient rivers are as large in area as the delta of the Nile River. The northern Al-?ummān Plateau is smooth…

  • Abu Bakar (sultan of Johore)

    Abu Bakar, sultan of the Malay state of Johore (now part of Malaysia) from 1885 to 1895. He maintained independence from Britain and stimulated economic development in Johore at a time when most Southeast Asian states were being incorporated into European colonial empires. Under an 1824 British

  • Abū Bakr (Muslim caliph)

    Abū Bakr, Muhammad’s closest companion and adviser, who succeeded to the Prophet’s political and administrative functions, thereby initiating the office of the caliph. Of a minor clan of the ruling merchant tribe of Quraysh at Mecca, Abū Bakr purportedly was the first male convert to Islam, but

  • Abū Bakr al-Khwarizmī (Muslim scholar)

    al-Hamadhānī: …through a public debate with Abū Bakr al-Khwarizmī, a leading savant, in Nīshāpūr. He subsequently traveled throughout the area occupied today by Iran and Afghanistan before settling in Herāt and marrying. Al-Hamadhānī is credited with the composition of 400 maqāmahs (Arabic plural maqāmāt), of which some 52 are extant (Eng.…

  • Abū Bakr al-Lamtūnī (Almoravid leader)

    Yūsuf ibn Tāshufīn: In 1061 Abū Bakr, who was then the leader of the Almoravids, went south into the desert to put down a tribal rebellion. He gave the command of his troops in the Maghrib to Ibn Tāshufīn, his cousin. Ibn Tāshufīn proved so popular that when Abū Bakr…

  • Abū Bakr al-?iddīq (Muslim caliph)

    Abū Bakr, Muhammad’s closest companion and adviser, who succeeded to the Prophet’s political and administrative functions, thereby initiating the office of the caliph. Of a minor clan of the ruling merchant tribe of Quraysh at Mecca, Abū Bakr purportedly was the first male convert to Islam, but

  • Abū Bakr ibn Sa?d ibn Zangī (Salghurid governor)

    Iran: The Khwārezm-Shahs: …Shīrāz of the Salghurid atabeg Abū Bakr ibn Sa?d ibn Zangī (reigned 1231–60), whom he mentions by name in his Būstān (“The Orchard”), a book of ethics in verse. Abū Bakr’s father, Sa?d, for whom Sa?dī took his pen name, conferred great prosperity on Shīrāz.

  • Abū Bakr ibn ?Umar (Almoravid leader)

    Yūsuf ibn Tāshufīn: In 1061 Abū Bakr, who was then the leader of the Almoravids, went south into the desert to put down a tribal rebellion. He gave the command of his troops in the Maghrib to Ibn Tāshufīn, his cousin. Ibn Tāshufīn proved so popular that when Abū Bakr…

  • Abū Bakr Mu?ammad ibn al-?asan al-Azdī ibn Durayd (Arab philologist)

    Ibn Durayd, Arab philologist who wrote a large Arabic dictionary, Jamharat al-lughah (“Collection of Language”). Ibn Durayd traced his descent to an Arab tribe of Oman, and in 871, to avoid the Zanj (black African) slave rebellion, during which Basra was sacked, he moved to Oman. He stayed there

  • Abū Bakr Mu?ammad ibn Ya?yā ibn al-Sāyigh al-Tujībī al-Andalusī al-Saraqustī (Spanish Muslim philosopher)

    Avempace, earliest known representative in Spain of the Arabic Aristotelian–Neoplatonic philosophical tradition and forerunner of the polymath scholar Ibn ?ufayl and of the philosopher Averro?s. Avempace’s chief philosophical tenets seem to have included belief in the possibility that the human

Your preference has been recorded
Get a Premium membership for 30% off!
Save 30% with our Memorial Day Sale!
港台一级毛片免费观看