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  • anaesthesia (medicine)

    Anesthesia, loss of physical sensation, with or without loss of consciousness, as artificially induced by the administration of drugs, inhalant gases, or other agents. The use of anesthetic gases in surgery was first proposed by British chemist Sir Humphrey Davy in 1798, following his observation

  • anaesthesiology (medicine)

    Anesthesiology, medical specialty dealing with anesthesia and related matters, including resuscitation and pain. The development of anesthesiology as a specialized field came about because of the dangers of anesthesia, which involves the use of carefully graduated doses of strong poisons to deaden

  • anaesthetic (medicine)

    Anesthetic, any agent that produces a local or general loss of sensation, including pain. Anesthetics achieve this effect by acting on the brain or peripheral nervous system to suppress responses to sensory stimulation. The unresponsive state thus induced is known as anesthesia. General anesthesia

  • Anafesto, Paolo Lucio (Venetian doge)

    doge: …tradition, the first doge was Paolo Lucio Anafesto, elected in 697.

  • Anafranil (drug)

    obsessive-compulsive disorder: The tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drug clomipramine (Anafranil) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (Prozac) have been found to markedly reduce the symptoms in about 60 percent of cases and have thus become the treatment of choice. Both drugs affect the brain’s metabolism of the neurotransmitter serotonin, and this…

  • Anagallis (plant)

    Pimpernel, (genus Anagallis), any of several plants of the primrose family (Primulaceae), consisting of about 30 species of low herbs mostly native to western Europe. Most species are prostrate in habit. The plant has leaves that are opposite or in whorls and small, solitary flowers that are

  • Anagallis arvensis (plant)

    pimpernel: The scarlet pimpernel (A. arvensis), also called poor-man’s weatherglass, is an annual native to Europe but is naturalized elsewhere, including North America. It grows 6 to 30 cm (2.4 to 12 inches) tall and has red or blue flowers.

  • anagamin (Buddhism)

    ariya-puggala: …type of ariya-puggala is the anagamin (“never-returner”), or one who will not be reborn in the human realm and will enter the realm of the gods at the time of death. The never-returner, however, is still not considered to have reached nibbana.

  • Anagasta kuehniella (insect)

    Flour moth, (Ephestia kuehniella), species of moth in the subfamily Phycitinae (family Pyralidae, order Lepidoptera) that is a cosmopolitan pest of cereal products and other stored foods. Sometimes also called Anagasta kuehniella, the flour moth requires vitamins A and B and the larvae cannot live

  • anagenesis (biology)

    evolution: Evolution within a lineage and by lineage splitting: Evolution can take place by anagenesis, in which changes occur within a lineage, or by cladogenesis, in which a lineage splits into two or more separate lines. Anagenetic evolution has doubled the size of the human cranium over the course of two million years; in the lineage of the horse…

  • anaglyph (photography)

    Louis Ducos du Hauron: …for three-dimensional photography called an anaglyph. Though he realized little profit from his inventions, he did receive a pension from the government and in 1912 was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour.

  • Anagni (Italy)

    Anagni, town, Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy. It lies on a hill above the Sacco Valley, southeast of Rome. The ancient Anagnia, capital of the Hernici people, lost its independence to Rome in 306 bc. A bishopric from the 5th century ad, it was besieged by the Arabs in 877. Its leading

  • Anagni, Treaty of (Europe [1295])

    Sicilian Vespers: …he renounced Sicily), by the Treaty of Anagni (June 1295). But the Sicilians took as their king James’s brother, Frederick III, who finally secured the kingdom for himself by the Peace of Caltabellotta (August 31, 1302), beginning a long period of Spanish hegemony on the island.

  • anagnorisis (literature)

    Anagnorisis, (Greek: “recognition”), in a literary work, the startling discovery that produces a change from ignorance to knowledge. It is discussed by Aristotle in the Poetics as an essential part of the plot of a tragedy, although anagnorisis occurs in comedy, epic, and, at a later date, the

  • anagogical interpretation (biblical criticism)

    biblical literature: Anagogical interpretation: Anagogical (mystical or spiritual) interpretation seeks to explain biblical events or matters of this world so that they relate to the life to come. Jordan is thus interpreted as the river of death; by crossing it one enters into the heavenly Canaan, the…

  • anagram (word game)

    Anagram, the transposing of the letters of a word or group of words to produce other words that possess meaning, preferably bearing some logical relation to the original. The construction of anagrams is of great antiquity. Their invention is often ascribed without authority to the Jews, probably

  • Anagran Inc. (American company)

    Lawrence Roberts: …and that same year founded Anagran Inc., which also developed IP routers. He received the Charles Stark Draper Prize from the National Academy of Engineering in 2001.

  • ?ānah (Iraq)

    ?ānah, town, western Iraq. Located on the Euphrates River and on a main road connecting Iraq and Syria, it is a local trade centre for crops grown in the fertile strip along the river below the cliffs of the desert. A town with a similar name has existed on or near the present site at least since

  • Anaheim (California, United States)

    Anaheim, city, Orange county, California, U.S. It lies on the plain of the Santa Ana River, 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Los Angeles. Anaheim was founded by German immigrants in 1857—the land purchased was part of the Mexican land grant Rancho San Juan Cajón de Santa Ana—as a cooperative

  • Anaheim Angels (American baseball team)

    Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, American professional baseball team based in Anaheim, California, that plays in the American League (AL). The Angels won a World Series title in 2002, their first appearance in the “Fall Classic.” The Angels began play in 1961 as one of two expansion teams (with the

  • Anaheim Ducks (American hockey team)

    Anaheim Ducks, American professional ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California, that plays in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The Ducks have won one Stanley Cup championship (2007). Founded in 1993, the franchise was originally owned by the Disney Company and was

  • Anāhitā (Iranian goddess)

    Anāhiti, ancient Iranian goddess of royalty, war, and fertility; she is particularly associated with the last. Possibly of Mesopotamian origin, her cult was made prominent by Artaxerxes II, and statues and temples were set up in her honour throughout the Persian empire. A common cult of the v

  • Anāhiti (Iranian goddess)

    Anāhiti, ancient Iranian goddess of royalty, war, and fertility; she is particularly associated with the last. Possibly of Mesopotamian origin, her cult was made prominent by Artaxerxes II, and statues and temples were set up in her honour throughout the Persian empire. A common cult of the v

  • Anaho Island (island, Nevada, United States)

    Pyramid Lake: ” Anaho Island in the lake is a national wildlife refuge, established in 1913 by order of President Woodrow Wilson. An important sanctuary for waterfowl such as the cormorant, great blue heron, and seagull, it is one of eight nesting areas for white pelicans in the…

  • Anáhuac (historical and geographical region, Mexico)

    Anáhuac, historical and cultural region of Mexico. The heartland of Aztec Mexico, Anáhuac (Nahuatl: “Land on the Edge of the Water”) designated that part of New Spain that became independent Mexico in 1821. The original Anáhuac of the Aztecs was the part of the Mesa Central of Mexico, an area about

  • Anahuac Disturbance (United States history)

    Texas Revolution: The Anahuac Disturbance and the conventions of 1832 and 1833: In April 1830, wary of the rapidly swelling deluge of immigrants from the United States, the Mexican government legislated against further settlement in Coahuila and Texas by Anglo-Americans and reimposed the suspended tariff. Over roughly the…

  • Anahuac; or, Mexico and the Mexicans Ancient and Modern (work by Tylor)

    Sir Edward Burnett Tylor: Early life and travels: …expedition in his first book, Anahuac; or, Mexico and the Mexicans Ancient and Modern (1861). Although mainly a well-conceived travelogue, Anahuac contains elements that characterize Tylor’s later work when he had become a full–fledged anthropologist: a firm grasp on factual data, a sense of cultural differences, and a curious combination…

  • Anai Mudi (mountain, India)

    Anai Peak, peak in eastern Kerala state, southwestern India. Located in the Western Ghats range, it rises to 8,842 feet (2,695 metres) and is peninsular India’s highest peak. From this point radiate three ranges—the Anaimalai to the north, the Palni to the northeast, and the Cardamom Hills to the

  • Anai Peak (mountain, India)

    Anai Peak, peak in eastern Kerala state, southwestern India. Located in the Western Ghats range, it rises to 8,842 feet (2,695 metres) and is peninsular India’s highest peak. From this point radiate three ranges—the Anaimalai to the north, the Palni to the northeast, and the Cardamom Hills to the

  • Anaia, Pedro de (Portuguese explorer)

    Sofala: …Portuguese Pedro (or Pêro) de Anaia occupied Sofala and built a fort and factory in the hope of capturing the gold trade held by the Arabs. The conquest of the town followed, the first governors of the Portuguese East African possessions being entitled captains general of Sofala. The Dominican friars…

  • Anaia, Pêro de (Portuguese explorer)

    Sofala: …Portuguese Pedro (or Pêro) de Anaia occupied Sofala and built a fort and factory in the hope of capturing the gold trade held by the Arabs. The conquest of the town followed, the first governors of the Portuguese East African possessions being entitled captains general of Sofala. The Dominican friars…

  • Anaimalai Hills (mountains, India)

    Anaimalai Hills, mountain range in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu state, southern India. The Anaimalai Hills are located at a junction of the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats and have a general northwest-southeast trend. Anai Peak (8,842 feet [2,695 metres]) lies at the extreme southwestern end of

  • Anaitides (polychaete genus)

    annelid: Annotated classification: …1 m; examples of genera: Anaitides, Syllis, Hesione, Nereis, Glycera (bloodworm), Nephtys, Halosydna. Order Eunicida Free-moving; head with or without appendages and eyes;

  • Anak Krakatau (volcanic island, Indonesia)

    Krakatoa: …become a small island called Anak Krakatau (“Child of Krakatoa”). The volcano has been active sporadically since that time, and the cone has continued to grow to an elevation of about 1,000 feet (300 metres) above the sea.

  • Anak semua bangsa (work by Pramoedya)

    Pramoedya Ananta Toer: …and Anak semua bangsa (1980; Child of All Nations), met with great critical and popular acclaim in Indonesia after their publication, but the government subsequently banned them from circulation, and the last two volumes of the tetralogy, Jejak langkah (1985; Footsteps) and Rumah kaca (1988; House of Glass), had to…

  • Anakena (bay, Easter Island)

    Easter Island: Archaeology: …ahus at Tahai, Vinapu, and Anakena, carbon-dated to about 700–850 ce. The first two were admired and described by Captain Cook; the wall in Anakena remained hidden below ground until it was excavated archaeologically in 1987. The excavations in Anakena have revealed that a variety of statues were carved in…

  • Anakin Skywalker (fictional character)

    Darth Vader, film character, lead villain of the popular American science fiction franchise Star Wars. First seen in the movie Star Wars (1977; later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV—A New Hope), the towering, black-clad Darth Vader is a menacing villain. His head is covered by a mechanical helmet,

  • anakrisis (Greek law)

    Greek law: …to a preliminary examination (anakrisis). Parties to a civil suit concerning pecuniary affairs were then sent to a public arbitrator (diaitētēs). If one of them refused to accept the award or if the matter was not subject to compulsory arbitration, the case was referred to a dicastery presided over…

  • Anaktuvuk Pass (mountain pass, United States)

    Alaskan mountains: Physiography of the northern ranges: …low passes, the best-known being Anaktuvuk Pass, at an elevation of 2,200 feet (670 metres) in the central part of the range. Atigun Pass, at the head of the Dietrich River, connects the oil-producing areas of the North Slope with interior Alaska and the south.

  • anal atresia (pathology)

    atresia and stenosis: Anal atresia (imperforate anus) is a malformation of the intestinal tract (about one out of every 6,000 births in the United States) with varying degrees of congenital absence of the anus and lower end of the bowel. It is often associated with other anomalies of…

  • anal canal (anatomy)

    Anal canal, the terminal portion of the digestive tract, distinguished from the rectum because of the transition of its internal surface from a mucous membrane layer (endodermal) to one of skinlike tissue (ectodermal). The anal canal is 2.5 to 4 cm (1 to 1.5 inches) in length; its diameter is

  • anal intercourse (sexual behaviour)

    Sodomy, noncoital carnal copulation. The term is understood in history, literature, and law in several senses: (1) as denoting any homosexual practices between men, in allusion to the biblical story of Sodom (Genesis 18:19), (2) as denoting anal intercourse, (3) as synonymous with bestiality or

  • anal sphincter (anatomy)

    anal canal: …evacuation of feces; and the anal opening itself.

  • anal stage (psychology)

    Anal stage, in Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the period in a child’s psychosexual development during which the child’s main concerns are with the processes of elimination. The anal stage, generally the second and third years of life, is held to be significant for the child’s later development

  • analcime (mineral)

    Analcime, common feldspathoid mineral, a hydrated sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi2O6·H2O) that occurs in seams and cavities in basalt, diabase, granite, or gneiss and in extensive beds thought to have formed by precipitation from alkaline lakes. Analcime is found in Trentino, Italy; New Zealand; and

  • analcite (mineral)

    Analcime, common feldspathoid mineral, a hydrated sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi2O6·H2O) that occurs in seams and cavities in basalt, diabase, granite, or gneiss and in extensive beds thought to have formed by precipitation from alkaline lakes. Analcime is found in Trentino, Italy; New Zealand; and

  • Anale (county, Ireland)

    Longford, county in the province of Leinster, north-central Ireland. The town of Longford, in the west-central part of the county, is the county seat. County Longford is bounded by Counties Leitrim (northwest), Cavan (northeast), Westmeath (southeast), and Roscommon (west). The main features of

  • Analects (Chinese text)

    Lunyu, (Chinese: “Conversations”) one of four texts of Confucianism that, when published together in 1190 by the Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi, became the great Chinese classic known as Sishu (“Four Books”). Lunyu has been translated into English as The Analects of Confucius. Lunyu is considered

  • Analects of Confucius, The (Chinese text)

    Lunyu, (Chinese: “Conversations”) one of four texts of Confucianism that, when published together in 1190 by the Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi, became the great Chinese classic known as Sishu (“Four Books”). Lunyu has been translated into English as The Analects of Confucius. Lunyu is considered

  • Anales de la corona de Aragón (work by Zurita y Castro)

    Jerónimo de Zurita y Castro: …in his major work, the Anales de la corona de Aragón (1562–80). Covering the period from the Moorish invasions (8th century) until the death of King Ferdinand II (1516), this was the first national history of Aragon, and it remains a useful source for Spanish history.

  • Anales de los Cakchiqueles, Memorial de Tecpán-Atitlán (16th-century work)

    Kaqchikel language: The Annals of the Cakchiquels (also called Anales de los Cakchiqueles, Memorial de Tecpán-Atitlán, or Memorial de Sololá), written in Kaqchikel between 1571 and 1604, is considered an important example of Native American literature. It contains both mythology and historical information pertaining especially to the Kaqchikel…

  • analgesia (pathology)

    Analgesia, loss of sensation of pain that results from an interruption in the nervous system pathway between sense organ and brain. Different forms of sensation (e.g., touch, temperature, and pain) stimulating an area of skin travel to the spinal cord by different nerve fibres in the same nerve

  • analgesic (drug)

    Analgesic, any drug that relieves pain selectively without blocking the conduction of nerve impulses, markedly altering sensory perception, or affecting consciousness. This selectivity is an important distinction between an analgesic and an anesthetic. Analgesics may be classified into two types:

  • Analog (American magazine)

    At the Mountains of Madness: …and then serially published in Astounding Stories in 1936.

  • analog circuit (electronics)

    integrated circuit: Analog versus digital circuits: Analog, or linear, circuits typically use only a few components and are thus some of the simplest types of ICs. Generally, analog circuits are connected to devices that collect signals from the environment or send signals back to the environment. For…

  • analog computer

    Analog computer, any of a class of devices in which continuously variable physical quantities such as electrical potential, fluid pressure, or mechanical motion are represented in a way analogous to the corresponding quantities in the problem to be solved. The analog system is set up according to

  • analog information

    information processing: Elements of information processing: …called analog-form information, or simply analog information. Until the development of the digital computer, cognitive information was stored and processed only in analog form, basically through the technologies of printing, photography, and telephony.

  • analog modulation (telecommunications)

    telecommunication: Analog modulation: As is noted in analog-to-digital conversion, voice signals, as well as audio and video signals, are inherently analog in form. In most modern systems these signals are digitized prior to transmission, but in some systems the analog signals are still transmitted directly without…

  • analog signal (electronics)

    telemetry: Multiplexing and sampling.: …system in a continuous (analog) or discrete (digital) way. The latter systems are relatively more complex because it is necessary to convert analog signals to digital form, a process known as encoding, for a purely digital arrangement.

  • analog signal modulation (telecommunications)

    telecommunication: Analog modulation: As is noted in analog-to-digital conversion, voice signals, as well as audio and video signals, are inherently analog in form. In most modern systems these signals are digitized prior to transmission, but in some systems the analog signals are still transmitted directly without…

  • analog transmission

    telephone: From analog to digital transmission: …fibre optics (see below), these analog systems were rapidly replaced by digital systems. In digital transmission, which may also be carried over the coaxial and microwave systems, the telephone signals are first converted from an analog format to a quantized, discrete time format. The signals are then multiplexed together using…

  • analog-form information

    information processing: Elements of information processing: …called analog-form information, or simply analog information. Until the development of the digital computer, cognitive information was stored and processed only in analog form, basically through the technologies of printing, photography, and telephony.

  • analog-to-digital conversion (technology)

    telecommunication: Analog-to-digital conversion: In transmission of speech, audio, or video information, the object is high fidelity—that is, the best possible reproduction of the original message without the degradations imposed by signal distortion and noise. The basis of relatively noise-free and distortion-free telecommunication is the

  • analogical inference (reason)

    Analogy, (from Greek ana logon, “according to a ratio”), originally, a similarity in proportional relationships. It may be a similarity between two figures (e.g., triangles) that differ in scale or between two quantities, one of which, though unknown, can be calculated if its relation to the other

  • analogist (linguistics)

    linguistics: Greek and Roman antiquity: …the views of the “analogists,” who looked on language as possessing an essential regularity as a result of the symmetries that convention can provide, and the views of the “anomalists,” who pointed to language’s lack of regularity as one facet of the inescapable irregularities of nature. The situation was…

  • analogous structure (evolution)

    Analogy, in biology, similarity of function and superficial resemblance of structures that have different origins. For example, the wings of a fly, a moth, and a bird are analogous because they developed independently as adaptations to a common function—flying. The presence of the analogous

  • analogue (parallel relation)

    weather forecasting: Techniques: …forecasting relied heavily on the analog method, in which groups of weather situations (maps) from previous years were compared to those of the current year to determine similarities with the atmosphere’s present patterns (or “habits”). An association was then made between what had happened subsequently in those “similar” years and…

  • analogue (literature)

    Analogue, in literature, a story for which there is a counterpart or another version in other literatures. Several of the stories in Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales are versions of tales that can be found in such earlier sources as Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron and John Gower’s Confessio

  • analogue computer

    Analog computer, any of a class of devices in which continuously variable physical quantities such as electrical potential, fluid pressure, or mechanical motion are represented in a way analogous to the corresponding quantities in the problem to be solved. The analog system is set up according to

  • analogue information

    modem: digital data signals into modulated analog signals suitable for transmission over analog telecommunications circuits. A modem also receives modulated signals and demodulates them, recovering the digital signal for use by the data equipment. Modems thus make it possible for established telecommunications media to support a wide variety of data communication,…

  • analogue modulation (telecommunications)

    telecommunication: Analog modulation: As is noted in analog-to-digital conversion, voice signals, as well as audio and video signals, are inherently analog in form. In most modern systems these signals are digitized prior to transmission, but in some systems the analog signals are still transmitted directly without…

  • analogue signal modulation (telecommunications)

    telecommunication: Analog modulation: As is noted in analog-to-digital conversion, voice signals, as well as audio and video signals, are inherently analog in form. In most modern systems these signals are digitized prior to transmission, but in some systems the analog signals are still transmitted directly without…

  • analogue transmission

    telephone: From analog to digital transmission: …fibre optics (see below), these analog systems were rapidly replaced by digital systems. In digital transmission, which may also be carried over the coaxial and microwave systems, the telephone signals are first converted from an analog format to a quantized, discrete time format. The signals are then multiplexed together using…

  • analogue-to-digital conversion (technology)

    telecommunication: Analog-to-digital conversion: In transmission of speech, audio, or video information, the object is high fidelity—that is, the best possible reproduction of the original message without the degradations imposed by signal distortion and noise. The basis of relatively noise-free and distortion-free telecommunication is the

  • analogy (reason)

    Analogy, (from Greek ana logon, “according to a ratio”), originally, a similarity in proportional relationships. It may be a similarity between two figures (e.g., triangles) that differ in scale or between two quantities, one of which, though unknown, can be calculated if its relation to the other

  • analogy (evolution)

    Analogy, in biology, similarity of function and superficial resemblance of structures that have different origins. For example, the wings of a fly, a moth, and a bird are analogous because they developed independently as adaptations to a common function—flying. The presence of the analogous

  • Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature, The (work by Butler)

    Joseph Butler: …published his most celebrated work, The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature, attacking Deist writers whose approach to God consisted in arguing rationally from nature rather than from faith in the doctrine of revelation. Butler sought to demonstrate that nature and natural religion…

  • analvos

    religious dress: Eastern Orthodox religious dress: The analvos (shaped like the Western scapular, although the two garments have no historical connection) differentiates the full, or perfect, monk from the other grades, and its substance must be of animal, nonvegetable origin to remind the wearer constantly of death. The mandyas is the bishop’s…

  • analysis (mathematics)

    Analysis, a branch of mathematics that deals with continuous change and with certain general types of processes that have emerged from the study of continuous change, such as limits, differentiation, and integration. Since the discovery of the differential and integral calculus by Isaac Newton and

  • analysis (mental process)

    mathematics: Analysis and mechanics: The scientific revolution had bequeathed to mathematics a major program of research in analysis and mechanics. The period from 1700 to 1800, “the century of analysis,” witnessed the consolidation of the calculus and its extensive application to mechanics. With expansion came specialization…

  • analysis (Greek geometry)

    Pappus of Alexandria: ” “Analysis” was a method used in Greek geometry for establishing the possibility of constructing a particular geometric object from a set of given objects. The analytic proof involved demonstrating a relationship between the sought object and the given ones such that one was assured of…

  • analysis

    Psychoanalysis, method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as “depth psychology.” The psychoanalytic movement originated in the clinical observations and formulations of Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund

  • Analysis of Beauty, The (work by Hogarth)

    aesthetics: Major concerns of 18th-century aesthetics: …of the most famous being The Analysis of Beauty (1753) by the painter William Hogarth, which introduces the theory that beauty is achieved through the “serpentine line.”

  • Analysis of Matter, The (work by Russell)

    Bertrand Russell: …Analysis of Mind (1921) and The Analysis of Matter (1927), he abandoned this notion in favour of what he called neutral monism, the view that the “ultimate stuff” of the world is neither mental nor physical but something “neutral” between the two. Although treated with respect, these works had markedly…

  • Analysis of Mind, The (work by Russell)

    Bertrand Russell: In The Analysis of Mind (1921) and The Analysis of Matter (1927), he abandoned this notion in favour of what he called neutral monism, the view that the “ultimate stuff” of the world is neither mental nor physical but something “neutral” between the two. Although treated…

  • Analysis of the Laws of England, An (work by Blackstone)

    Sir William Blackstone: Early life: In 1754 Blackstone published Analysis of the Laws of England, a synopsis of his lectures for the guidance of his pupils. In October 1758 he was elected the first holder of a chair (the Vinerian professorship) of common law. His lectures formed the basis of his Commentaries, which were…

  • Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (work by Mill)

    John Stuart Mill: The later years: …1869 he republished his father’s Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind with additional illustrations and explanatory notes.

  • analysis of variance (statistics)

    Bartlett's test: …is a standard tool in analysis of variance (ANOVA) computer programs, can be used when a single measurable variable is involved, such as when testing the efficacy of a new drug. The test was introduced by the English statistician Maurice Stevenson Bartlett in 1937.

  • Analysis Situs (work by Veblen)

    Oswald Veblen: Veblen’s Analysis Situs (1922) was the first book to cover the basic ideas of topology systematically. It was his most influential work and for many years the best available topology text. Veblen also laid the foundations for topological research at Princeton.

  • analysis situs

    Topology, branch of mathematics, sometimes referred to as “rubber sheet geometry,” in which two objects are considered equivalent if they can be continuously deformed into one another through such motions in space as bending, twisting, stretching, and shrinking while disallowing tearing apart or

  • analysis, chemical

    Chemical analysis, chemistry, determination of the physical properties or chemical composition of samples of matter. A large body of systematic procedures intended for these purposes has been continuously evolving in close association with the development of other branches of the physical sciences

  • Analysis, Treasury of (ancient geometry books)

    Pappus of Alexandria: …referred to as the “Treasury of Analysis.” “Analysis” was a method used in Greek geometry for establishing the possibility of constructing a particular geometric object from a set of given objects. The analytic proof involved demonstrating a relationship between the sought object and the given ones such that one…

  • Analyst; or, a Discourse Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician, The (work by Berkeley)

    George Berkeley: His American venture and ensuing years: In 1734 Berkeley published The Analyst; or, A Discourse Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician, which Florian Cajori, a historian of mathematics, called “the most spectacular event of the century in the history of British mathematics.” Besides being a contribution to mathematics, it was an argument ad hominem for religion.…

  • analyte (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: …the material being analyzed (the analyte) and a reagent that is added to the analyte. Wet techniques often depend on the formation of a product of the chemical reaction that is easily detected and measured. For example, the product could be coloured or could be a solid that precipitates from…

  • Analytic (Kantianism)

    Western philosophy: Literary forms: …three parts: (1) an “analytic,” or analysis of reason’s right functioning, (2) a “dialectic,” or logic of error, showing the pitfalls into which a careless reason falls, and (3) a “methodology,” an arrangement of rules for practice. It is a form that was unique to Kant, but it raised…

  • analytic a priori proposition

    epistemology: Immanuel Kant: and synthetic propositions): (1) analytic a priori propositions, such as “All bachelors are unmarried” and “All squares have four sides,” (2) synthetic a posteriori propositions, such as “The cat is on the mat” and “It is raining,” and (3) what he called “synthetic a priori” propositions, such as “Every…

  • analytic geometry

    Analytic geometry, mathematical subject in which algebraic symbolism and methods are used to represent and solve problems in geometry. The importance of analytic geometry is that it establishes a correspondence between geometric curves and algebraic equations. This correspondence makes it possible

  • analytic language

    Analytic language, any language that uses specific grammatical words, or particles, rather than inflection (q.v.), to express syntactic relations within sentences. An analytic language is commonly identified with an isolating language (q.v.), since the two classes of language tend to coincide.

  • analytic number theory

    number theory: From classical to analytic number theory: Inspired by Gauss, other 19th-century mathematicians took up the challenge. Sophie Germain (1776–1831), who once stated, “I have never ceased thinking about the theory of numbers,” made important contributions to Fermat’s last theorem, and Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752–1833) and Peter Gustav Lejeune

  • analytic philosophy

    Analytic philosophy, a loosely related set of approaches to philosophical problems, dominant in Anglo-American philosophy from the early 20th century, that emphasizes the study of language and the logical analysis of concepts. Although most work in analytic philosophy has been done in Great Britain

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