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  • Amsterdam News (American newspaper)

    Amsterdam News, one of the most influential and oldest continuously published African American newspapers, based in Harlem in New York City. It predominately treats issues in African American culture, especially events in and issues concerning New York City and environs, from a black perspective.

  • Amsterdam School (Dutch architecture style)

    Michel de Klerk: …the first example of the Amsterdam school. His most important work was the Eigen Haard Estates (1917–21), which show the whimsy and warm humanity of de Klerk’s design, as well as his attention to the quaintness of the Dutch tradition of folk architecture.

  • Amsterdam Stock Exchange (stock exchange, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Western architecture: Art Nouveau: …appreciated in his masterpiece, the Amsterdam Exchange (1898–1903). The exterior is in a rugged and deliberately unpicturesque vernacular, while the even more ruthless interior deploys brick, iron, and glass in a manner that owes much to the rationalist aesthetic of Viollet-le-Duc.

  • Amsterdam, Bank of (bank, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Netherlands: Ascendancy of the Dutch economy: Amsterdam’s “exchange bank” was instituted in 1609 to provide monetary exchange at established rates, but it soon became a deposit bank for the safe settling of accounts. Unlike the Bank of England, established almost a century later, it neither managed the national currency nor acted…

  • Amsterdam, Morey (American actor)

    Morey Amsterdam, U.S. comedian and master of the one-liner who performed in vaudeville and on radio before moving to television, where he portrayed the wisecracking Buddy on "The Dick Van Dyke Show," 1961-66 (b. Dec. 14, 1912?--d. Oct. 28,

  • Amsterdam, Treaty of ([1999])

    European Central Bank: …established in 1998 by the Treaty of Amsterdam. Its headquarters are in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

  • Amsterdam, University of (university, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam: Cultural life: …also home to two universities—the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632, and the Free University, founded in 1880—and numerous academies and conservatories. The architecture of the inner city (and of some of the suburbs) is a delight for many tourists interested in culture, who seek out the superbly preserved canal-side…

  • Amsterdam-Rhine Canal (canal, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam-Rhine Canal, Dutch waterway connecting the port of Amsterdam with the Rhine River. From Amsterdam the canal passes to the southeast through Utrecht on its way to the Waal River near Tiel. Inaugurated in 1952, the canal has a total length of 72 km (45 miles) and contains four locks. It was

  • Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal (canal, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam-Rhine Canal, Dutch waterway connecting the port of Amsterdam with the Rhine River. From Amsterdam the canal passes to the southeast through Utrecht on its way to the Waal River near Tiel. Inaugurated in 1952, the canal has a total length of 72 km (45 miles) and contains four locks. It was

  • Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax (Dutch football club)

    Ajax, Dutch professional football (soccer) club formed in 1900 in Amsterdam. Ajax is the Netherlands’ most successful club and is best known for producing a series of entertaining attacking teams. Ajax was promoted to the top Dutch league, the Eredivisie, for the first time in 1911. Under the

  • Amsterdamsche Wisselbank (bank, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Netherlands: Ascendancy of the Dutch economy: Amsterdam’s “exchange bank” was instituted in 1609 to provide monetary exchange at established rates, but it soon became a deposit bank for the safe settling of accounts. Unlike the Bank of England, established almost a century later, it neither managed the national currency nor acted…

  • Amstetten (Austria)

    Amstetten, town, northeastern Austria. It is situated near the Ybbs River, northeast of Steyr. Recorded in 996 as a possession of the bishops of Passau (now in Germany), it was fortified and granted market rights when it passed to the House of Habsburg in 1276. It achieved town status in 1897. The

  • AMT (taxation)

    Tax Reform Act of 1986: The TRA strengthened the “alternative minimum tax” provisions of the income tax code for individuals, which were first created in 1978. (The alternative minimum tax is the least that an individual or corporation must pay after all eligible exclusions, credits, and deductions have been taken.) The corporate tax rate…

  • Amte, Baba (Indian lawyer and social activist)

    Baba Amte, Indian lawyer and social activist who devoted his life to India’s poorest and least powerful and especially to the care of those individuals who suffered from leprosy. His work earned him numerous international awards, notably , the 1988 UN Human Rights Prize, a share of the 1990

  • Amte, Murlidhar Devidas (Indian lawyer and social activist)

    Baba Amte, Indian lawyer and social activist who devoted his life to India’s poorest and least powerful and especially to the care of those individuals who suffered from leprosy. His work earned him numerous international awards, notably , the 1988 UN Human Rights Prize, a share of the 1990

  • AMTI radar (radar technology)

    radar: Postwar progress: Airborne MTI radar for aircraft detection was developed for the U.S. Navy’s Grumman E-2 airborne-early-warning (AEW) aircraft at this time. Many of the attributes of HF over-the-horizon radar were demonstrated during the 1960s, as were the first radars designed for detecting ballistic missiles and satellites.

  • Amtmandens d?ttre (novel by Collett)

    Camilla Collett: …most famous, Amtmandens d?ttre (1854–55; The District Governor’s Daughter). In it she attacked the existing inequality of the sexes and the conventional marriage and home based on patriarchal dominion. A less-significant volume of short stories followed, and then Collett published I de lange n?tter (1862; “Through the Long Nights”), in…

  • Amtrak (American railway system)

    Amtrak, federally supported corporation that operates nearly all intercity passenger trains in the United States. It was established by the U.S. Congress in 1970 and assumed control of passenger service from the country’s private rail companies the following year. Virtually all railways, with the

  • amu (physics)

    atom: Atomic mass and isotopes: …measured in terms of the atomic mass unit, which is defined to be 112 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12, or 1.660538921 × 10?24 gram. The mass of an atom consists of the mass of the nucleus plus that of the electrons, so the atomic mass unit is…

  • Amu Darya (river, Asia)

    Amu Darya, one of the longest rivers of Central Asia. The Amu Darya was traditionally known to the Western world from Greek and Roman times as the Oxus and was called the Jay?ūn by the Arabs. It allegedly derives its present name from the city of āmul, which is said to have occupied the site of

  • Amu Darya Valley (valley, Asia)

    India: Other important sites: …civilization, is Shortughai in the Amu Darya (Oxus River) valley, in northern Afghanistan. There the remains of a small Harappan colony, presumably sited so as to provide control of the lapis lazuli export trade originating in neighbouring Badakhshan, have been excavated by a French team.

  • Amud (anthropological and archaeological site, Israel)

    Amud, paleoanthropological site in Israel known for its human remains, which provide important evidence of the diversification and development of southwestern Asian Neanderthals. The site is centred on Amud Cave, overlooking the Amud Gorge (Wādi el ?Amud) just northwest of Lake Tiberias (Sea of

  • Amud 1 (hominin fossil)

    Amud: …consist of a skeleton (designated Amud 1) of an adult male about 25 years old, along with a fragment of another adult jaw and skull fragments of two infants. Amud 1 has a cranial capacity of about 1,740 cubic cm (106 cubic inches), which is significantly larger than the average…

  • Amud 7 (hominin fossil)

    Amud: …to 10-month-old Neanderthal baby (Amud 7), upon whose pelvis had been placed the maxilla of a red deer, apparently as a burial rite. Further evidence of Neanderthal habitation and Mousterian toolmaking were revealed, including flaked blades and points as well as deer, cattle, horse, pig, and fox remains. Other…

  • Amud remains (hominid fossils)

    Amud: …in Israel known for its human remains, which provide important evidence of the diversification and development of southwestern Asian Neanderthals. The site is centred on Amud Cave, overlooking the Amud Gorge (Wādi el ?Amud) just northwest of Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee).

  • Amudaryo (river, Asia)

    Amu Darya, one of the longest rivers of Central Asia. The Amu Darya was traditionally known to the Western world from Greek and Roman times as the Oxus and was called the Jay?ūn by the Arabs. It allegedly derives its present name from the city of āmul, which is said to have occupied the site of

  • Amul (Iran)

    āmol, town, northern Iran, on the Harāz River. The exact date of the founding of the town is unknown and enshrouded in legend, but it is certain that there has been a town on the site since Sāsānian times. During the Sāsānian period (224–651ce), the district of āmol, together with the neighbouring

  • amulet (talisman)

    Amulet, an object, either natural or man-made, believed to be endowed with special powers to protect or bring good fortune. Amulets are carried on the person or kept in the place that is the desired sphere of influence—e.g., on a roof or in a field. The terms amulet and talisman are often used

  • Amulius (mythological figure)

    Romulus and Remus: …deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become one of the Vestal Virgins (and thereby vow chastity) in order to prevent her from giving birth to potential claimants to the throne. Nevertheless, Rhea bore the twins Romulus and Remus, fathered by the war god Mars. Amulius ordered…

  • Amun (Egyptian god)

    Amon, Egyptian deity who was revered as king of the gods. Amon may have been originally one of the eight deities of the Hermopolite creation myth; his cult reached Thebes, where he became the patron of the pharaohs by the reign of Mentuhotep I (2008–1957 bce). At that date he was already identified

  • Amun-Ra, Temple of (temple complex, Karnak, Egypt)

    Thutmose I: 1630 bce) temple of Amon at Thebes. He erected an enclosure wall and two pylons at the western end, with a small pillared hall in between. Two obelisks were added in front of the outer pylon. Thutmose created the axial temple, which became standard for the New…

  • Amund Ringnes (island, Nunavut, Canada)

    Amund Ringnes, one of the Sverdrup Islands in Nunavut, Canada, in the Arctic Ocean, between Axel Heiberg and Ellef Ringnes islands. About 70 miles (115 km) long, 20–45 miles (30–70 km) wide, and 2,029 square miles (5,255 square km) in area, Amund Ringnes is basically flat, the highest point being

  • Amundsen Gulf (gulf, Arctic Ocean)

    Amundsen Gulf, southeastern extension of the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Extending for 250 miles (400 km), it is bordered by Victoria Island on the east and separates Banks Island (north) from the Canadian mainland (south). In 1850 the gulf was entered from the west by the British explorer

  • Amundsen, Roald (Norwegian explorer)

    Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole, the first to make a ship voyage through the Northwest Passage, and one of the first to cross the Arctic by air. He was one of the greatest figures in the field of polar exploration. Amundsen studied medicine for a while

  • Amundsen, Roald Engelbregt Gravning (Norwegian explorer)

    Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole, the first to make a ship voyage through the Northwest Passage, and one of the first to cross the Arctic by air. He was one of the greatest figures in the field of polar exploration. Amundsen studied medicine for a while

  • ?Amūq (region, Turkey)

    ?Amūq, plain of southern Turkey, bordering Syria. Framed by mountains, the plain is about 190 square miles (500 square km) in area and forms a triangle between the cities of Antioch (southwest), Reyhanl? (southeast), and K?r?khan (north). In the centre of the plain is Lake Amik (Lake Antioch), w

  • Amur (oblast, Russia)

    Amur, oblast (province), far eastern Russia. It occupies the basins of the middle Amur River and its tributary the Zeya and extends up to the crest of the Stanovoy Range. In 1689 Russia yielded the Amur region to China by the Treaty of Nerchinsk, but Russian Cossacks reincorporated it in the latter

  • Amur cork tree (plant)

    cork tree: …or Japanese, cork tree (Phellodendron amurense) is useful as a lawn and shade tree and is tolerant of a wide range of growing conditions.

  • Amur Ho (river, Asia)

    Amur River, river of East Asia. It is the longest river of the Russian Far East, and it ranks behind only the Yangtze and Huang Ho (Yellow River) among China’s longest rivers. Its headwaters rise in Russia (Siberia), Mongolia, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in the mountains

  • Amur leopard (mammal)

    leopard: Conservation status: …were endangered species and the Amur leopard (P. pardus orientalis), Arabian leopard (P. pardus nimr), and Javan leopard (P. pardus melas) continued to decrease, with several of these subspecies declining to critical levels.

  • Amur maple (plant)

    maple: campestre) and Amur, or ginnala, maple (A. ginnala) are useful in screens or hedges; both have spectacular foliage in fall, the former yellow and the latter pink to scarlet. The Japanese maple (A. palmatum), developed over centuries of breeding, provides numerous attractive cultivated varieties with varying leaf…

  • Amur River (river, Asia)

    Amur River, river of East Asia. It is the longest river of the Russian Far East, and it ranks behind only the Yangtze and Huang Ho (Yellow River) among China’s longest rivers. Its headwaters rise in Russia (Siberia), Mongolia, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in the mountains

  • Amur River Basin (basin, Russia)

    Russia: The mountains of the south and east: …and separates the Lena and Amur drainage systems, which flow to the Arctic and Pacific oceans, respectively. Branching northeastward from the eastern end of the Stanovoy, the Dzhugdzhur Range rises to 6,253 feet (1,906 metres) along the coast, and its line is continued toward the Chukchi Peninsula by the Kolyma…

  • Amur tiger (mammal)

    Leipzig Zoological Garden: …2,000 lions and 250 rare Siberian tigers, as well as hundreds of bears and hyenas.

  • Amurath I (Ottoman sultan)

    Murad I, Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1360 to 1389. Murad’s reign witnessed rapid Ottoman expansion in Anatolia and the Balkans and the emergence of new forms of government and administration to consolidate Ottoman rule in these areas. Murad ascended the throne in succession to his father, Orhan.

  • Amurath II (Ottoman sultan)

    Murad II, Ottoman sultan (1421–44 and 1446–51) who expanded and consolidated Ottoman rule in the Balkans, pursued a policy of restraint in Anatolia, and helped lead the empire to recovery after its near demise at the hands of Timur following the Battle of Ankara (1402). Early in his reign, Murad

  • Amurath III (Ottoman sultan)

    Murad III, Ottoman sultan in 1574–95 whose reign saw lengthy wars against Iran and Austria and social and economic deterioration within the Ottoman state. Externally Murad continued the military offensive of his predecessors. He took Fez (now Fès, Mor.) from the Portuguese in 1578. He fought an

  • Amurath IV (Ottoman sultan)

    Murad IV, Ottoman sultan from 1623 to 1640 whose heavy-handed rule put an end to prevailing lawlessness and rebelliousness and who is renowned as the conqueror of Baghdad. Murad, who came to the throne at age 11, ruled for several years through the regency of his mother, K?sem, and a series of

  • Amurath V (Ottoman sultan)

    Murad V, Ottoman sultan from May to August 1876, whose liberal disposition brought him to the throne after the deposition of his autocratic uncle Abdülaziz. A man of high intelligence, Murad received a good education and was widely read in both Turkish and European literature. In 1867 he

  • Amurru (ancient district, Egypt)

    Lebanon: Origins and relations with Egypt: The northernmost district (Amurru) included the coastal region from Ugarit to Byblos, the central district (Upi) included the southern Al-Biqā? valley and Anti-Lebanon Mountains, and the third district (Canaan) included all of Palestine from the Egyptian border to Byblos. Also among the letters are many documents addressed by…

  • Amurru (people)

    Amorite, member of an ancient Semitic-speaking people who dominated the history of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine from about 2000 to about 1600 bc. In the oldest cuneiform sources (c. 2400–c. 2000 bc), the Amorites were equated with the West, though their true place of origin was most likely

  • Amursk (Russia)

    Amursk, city, Khabarovsk kray (region), far eastern Russia. It lies on the left bank of the Amur River, 25 miles (40 km) south of Komsomolsk-na-Amure. Founded in 1958, Amursk became one of the fastest growing towns in the far eastern Soviet Union. Its wood-processing complex, opened in 1967, is one

  • Amurskaya (oblast, Russia)

    Amur, oblast (province), far eastern Russia. It occupies the basins of the middle Amur River and its tributary the Zeya and extends up to the crest of the Stanovoy Range. In 1689 Russia yielded the Amur region to China by the Treaty of Nerchinsk, but Russian Cossacks reincorporated it in the latter

  • Amursky, Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov, Count (Russian statesman and explorer)

    Nikolay Nikolayevich Amursky, Graf Muravyov, Russian statesman and explorer whose efforts led to the expansion of the Russian Empire to the Pacific. In 1860 he planted the Russian flag at what was to become the port of Vladivostok. A lieutenant general in the Russian army, Muravyov was appointed

  • amusement park

    roller coaster: Coney Island amusement park: …American trolley companies were building amusement parks at the end of their lines to attract evening and weekend riders. The best-known trolley terminus was Coney Island in New York City, which became home to several competing theme parks inspired by the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Just as Coney…

  • amusement tax

    Amusement tax, impost on the general admission charges to recreational and entertainment events. The tax may be imposed on the admission charge or on the owner’s total admission receipts, but the pure amusement tax is almost always quoted separately and presumably shifted to the buyer of the

  • Amusements Serious and Comical, Calculated for the Meridian of London (work by Brown)

    Tom Brown: His prose Amusements Serious and Comical, Calculated for the Meridian of London (1700; mod. ed., 1927) presents a vivid picture of the city and its inhabitants. It is particularly attentive to the follies of the upper classes.

  • Amusgo (people)

    Amuzgo, ethnolinguistic Indian group of eastern Guerrero and western Oaxaca states, southern Mexico. Their language is related to that of the Mixtec, their neighbours to the north and west. Although many Amuzgo can speak Spanish, the majority (about 65 percent) speak only Amuzgo. The people are a

  • amusia (pathology)

    agnosia: …auditory agnosia) or music (amusia). In young children, acquired verbal auditory agnosia, which is a symptom of Landau-Kleffner syndrome, may lead to mutism, or loss of the ability or will to speak. The sensory organ of hearing is intact, and pure tones can be perceived. Individuals with amusia are…

  • Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (work by Postman)

    Neil Postman: …enduring concern with language, in Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (1985), a lively critique of television that would become his most influential work. He argued that television, as a medium that must express ideas primarily through alluring visual imagery, reduces politics, news, history,…

  • Amuzgo (people)

    Amuzgo, ethnolinguistic Indian group of eastern Guerrero and western Oaxaca states, southern Mexico. Their language is related to that of the Mixtec, their neighbours to the north and west. Although many Amuzgo can speak Spanish, the majority (about 65 percent) speak only Amuzgo. The people are a

  • Amuzgo language

    Amuzgo: Their language is related to that of the Mixtec, their neighbours to the north and west. Although many Amuzgo can speak Spanish, the majority (about 65 percent) speak only Amuzgo.

  • Amvrakikós Kólpos (gulf, Greece)

    Gulf of árta, deep inlet on the western coast of Greece. Almost landlocked by the peninsulas of Préveza on the north and áktion on the south, it has access to the sea through the narrow Prévezis Strait. The northern shore of the gulf is formed by the combined deltas of the Loúros and árachthos

  • AMWA (American organization)

    American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA), professional and advocacy organization that serves as a vehicle for protecting the interests and advancing the careers of female physicians. The association is also committed to serving female medical students. It has a membership of some 10,000 and

  • Amway (American company)

    marketing: Direct selling: …used by companies such as Amway and Shaklee, distributors are rewarded not only for their direct sales but also for the sales of those they have recruited to become distributors. In 2007 Amway’s parent company tested an Internet recruitment model by launching Fanista, a Web site that sells entertainment media…

  • AMX-30 (French tank)

    tank: Ammunition: …the 105-mm gun of its AMX-30 tank, introduced in the mid-1960s. However, during the 1970s both APDS and HEAT began to be superseded by armour-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding-sabot (APFSDS) ammunition. These projectiles had long-rod penetrator cores of tungsten alloy or depleted uranium; they could be fired with muzzle velocities of 1,650…

  • Amy (film by Kapadia [2015])

    Amy Winehouse: The 2015 film Amy chronicled her career through the use of documentary footage and interviews with her colleagues and intimates. It won an Academy Award for best documentary.

  • Amy Vanderbilt’s Complete Book of Etiquette (work by Vanderbilt)

    Amy Vanderbilt: In 1952 she published Amy Vanderbilt’s Complete Book of Etiquette, a book that has been called a “guide to gracious living.” Vanderbilt took five years to research and write the book, which underwent periodic revisions and sold millions of copies. The book was later retitled Amy Vanderbilt’s Etiquette.

  • Amy Vanderbilt’s Etiquette (work by Vanderbilt)

    Amy Vanderbilt: In 1952 she published Amy Vanderbilt’s Complete Book of Etiquette, a book that has been called a “guide to gracious living.” Vanderbilt took five years to research and write the book, which underwent periodic revisions and sold millions of copies. The book was later retitled Amy Vanderbilt’s Etiquette.

  • Amy, Pierre (French humanist)

    Fran?ois Rabelais: Life.: Rabelais was closely associated with Pierre Amy, a liberal Franciscan humanist of international repute. In 1524 the Greek books of both scholars were temporarily confiscated by superiors of their convent, because Greek was suspect to hyperorthodox Roman Catholics as a “heretical” language that opened up the original New Testament to…

  • Amyderya (river, Asia)

    Amu Darya, one of the longest rivers of Central Asia. The Amu Darya was traditionally known to the Western world from Greek and Roman times as the Oxus and was called the Jay?ūn by the Arabs. It allegedly derives its present name from the city of āmul, which is said to have occupied the site of

  • amygdala (anatomy)

    Amygdala, region of the brain primarily associated with emotional processes. The name amygdala is derived from the Greek word amygdale, meaning “almond,” owing to the structure’s almondlike shape. The amygdala is located in the medial temporal lobe, just anterior to (in front of) the hippocampus.

  • amygdalin (plant)

    benzaldehyde: …occurring naturally as the glycoside amygdalin. Prepared synthetically, it is used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes, cinnamic acid, and other organic compounds, and to some extent in perfumes and flavouring agents.

  • amygdaloid body (anatomy)

    Amygdala, region of the brain primarily associated with emotional processes. The name amygdala is derived from the Greek word amygdale, meaning “almond,” owing to the structure’s almondlike shape. The amygdala is located in the medial temporal lobe, just anterior to (in front of) the hippocampus.

  • Amygdaloideae (plant subfamily)

    Rosales: Evolution: The subfamily Amygdaloideae is represented by fossil fruit pits of Prunus from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and of Prinsepia from the Oligocene to the Pliocene.

  • amygdule (mineral)

    Amygdule, secondary deposit of minerals found in a rounded, elongated, or almond-shaped cavity in igneous rock. The cavities (vesicles) were created by the expansion of gas bubbles or steam within lava. Some amygdules consist partially of lava, which indicates their formation during solidification

  • amyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    Amyl alcohol, any of eight organic compounds having the same molecular formula, C5H11OH, but different structures. The term is commonly applied to mixtures of these compounds, which are used as solvents for resins and oily materials and in the manufacture of other chemicals, especially amyl a

  • amyl nitrite (drug)

    Amyl nitrite, drug once commonly used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a condition characterized by chest pain precipitated by oxygen deficiency in the heart muscle. Amyl nitrite is one of the oldest vasodilators (i.e., agents that expand blood vessels). The drug is useful in treating cyanide

  • α-amylase (enzyme)

    amylase: Alpha-amylase is widespread among living organisms. In the digestive systems of humans and many other mammals, an alpha-amylase called ptyalin is produced by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. The optimum pH of alpha-amylase is

  • amylase (biochemistry)

    Amylase, any member of a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis (splitting of a compound by addition of a water molecule) of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules such as maltose (a molecule composed of two glucose molecules). Three categories of amylases, denoted alpha, beta, and

  • β-amylase (enzyme)

    amylase: Beta-amylases are present in yeasts, molds, bacteria, and plants, particularly in the seeds. They are the principal components of a mixture called diastase that is used in the removal of starchy sizing agents from textiles and in the conversion of cereal grains to fermentable sugars.…

  • amylo-1:4,1:6-transglucosidase (biochemistry)

    Andersen's disease: …by absence of the enzyme amylo-1:4,1:6-transglucosidase, which is an essential mediator of the synthesis of glycogen. An abnormal form of glycogen, amylopectin, is produced and accumulates in body tissues, particularly in the liver and heart. Affected children appear normal at birth but fail to thrive and later lose muscle tone,…

  • amyloid (chemistry)

    aging: Changes in tissue and cell morphology: Amyloid, an insoluble protein-carbohydrate complex, increases in tissues as a result of aging. It is presumably a product of autoimmune reactions, immune reactions misdirected against the organism itself. In an extreme case of a rare autoimmune disease, amyloidosis, particular organs are virtually choked with amyloid…

  • amyloid plaque (neurology)

    Alzheimer disease: Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles: The presence of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are used to diagnose Alzheimer disease in autopsy. Neuritic plaques—also called senile, dendritic, or amyloid plaques—consist of deteriorating neuronal material surrounding deposits of a sticky protein called amyloid beta…

  • amyloid precursor protein (chemistry)

    Alzheimer disease: Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles: …from a larger molecule called amyloid precursor protein, which is a normal component of nerve cells. Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted protein fibres located within nerve cells. These fibres consist of a protein, called tau, that normally occurs in neurons. When incorrectly processed, tau molecules clump together and form tangles.

  • amyloidosis (pathology)

    Amyloidosis, disease characterized by the deposition of an abnormal protein called amyloid in the connective tissues and organs of the body that inhibits normal functioning. Amyloid is a fibrous, insoluble protein-carbohydrate complex that forms when normally soluble proteins such as antibodies

  • amylopectin (chemistry)

    algae: Nutrient storage: …the form of amylose or amylopectin. These starches are polysaccharides in which the monomer, or fundamental unit, is glucose. Green algal starch comprises more than 1,000 sugar molecules, joined by alpha linkages between the number 1 and number 4 carbon atoms. The cell walls of many, but not all, algae…

  • amylose (chemistry)

    algae: Nutrient storage: …starch in the form of amylose or amylopectin. These starches are polysaccharides in which the monomer, or fundamental unit, is glucose. Green algal starch comprises more than 1,000 sugar molecules, joined by alpha linkages between the number 1 and number 4 carbon atoms. The cell walls of many, but not…

  • Amyntas (king of Pisidia)

    Pisidia: …Roman triumvir Mark Antony made Amyntas of Galatia king of Pisidia in 36 bc. On Amyntas’s death (25 bc), most of Pisidia was incorporated in the Roman province of Galatia, though it was partly regrouped with Lycia and Pamphylia by Vespasian in ad 74. The advance of Roman civilization was…

  • Amyntas I (king of Macedonia)

    Argead Dynasty: …and by the reign of Amyntas I (6th century bc) Macedonian power extended eastward beyond the Axius (Axiós) River to dominate the neighbouring Thracian tribes. Amyntas’ successor, Alexander I (reigned before 492–c. 450), advanced his frontiers eastward to the Strymon (Struma) River. His byname, “the Philhellene,” indicates his efforts to…

  • Amyntas II (king of Macedonia)

    Amyntas III (or II), king of Macedonia from about 393 to 370/369 bce. His skillful diplomacy created a minor role for Macedonia in Greek affairs and prepared the way for its emergence as a great power under his son Philip II (ruled 359–336). Amyntas came to the throne during the disorders that

  • Amyntas III (king of Macedonia)

    Amyntas III (or II), king of Macedonia from about 393 to 370/369 bce. His skillful diplomacy created a minor role for Macedonia in Greek affairs and prepared the way for its emergence as a great power under his son Philip II (ruled 359–336). Amyntas came to the throne during the disorders that

  • Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton’s Life (work by Toland)

    John Toland: …followed the next year by Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton’s Life, in which Toland sought to defend himself by furnishing a catalog of works long-excluded from the biblical canon as apocryphal writings.

  • Amyot, Jacques (French scholar)

    Jacques Amyot, French bishop and classical scholar famous for his translation of Plutarch’s Lives (Les Vies des hommes illustres Grecs et Romains, 1559), which became a major influence in shaping the Renaissance concept of the tragic hero. Amyot was educated at the University of Paris and at

  • Amyot, Jean-Joseph-Marie (Jesuit missionary)

    Jean-Joseph-Marie Amiot, Jesuit missionary whose writings made accessible to Europeans the thought and life of East Asia. Amiot entered the Society of Jesus in 1737 and was sent as a missionary to China in 1750. While in China, he helped verify certain geographical locations, thereby making a major

  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pathology)

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), degenerative neurological disorder that causes muscle atrophy and paralysis. The disease usually occurs after age 40; it affects men more often than women. ALS is frequently called Lou Gehrig disease in memory of the famous baseball player Lou Gehrig, who died

  • amyrin (chemical compound)

    isoprenoid: Triterpenes: The best source of β-amyrin is the resin elemi, obtained primarily from trees in the family of flowering plants known as Burseraceae. The carbon skeleton of β-amyrin bears a striking relationship to those of squalene and cholesterol, and it has been shown that squalene is a common precursor of…

  • Amyris (plant)

    Torchwood, (genus Amyris), any of 40 tropical species of large shrubs or trees found in the Americas that burn well due to the high resin content of its wood. Sea torchwood (A. elemifera) grows along the coasts of Florida, and balsam torchwood (A. balsamifera) is known especially from Cuba. Incense

  • Amyrtaeus of Sais (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: The 28th, 29th, and 30th dynasties: …Nile delta, and the Egyptian Amyrtaeus formed a Saite 28th dynasty, of which he was the sole king (404–399 bce). His rule was recognized in Upper Egypt by 401 bce, at a time when Persia’s troubles elsewhere forestalled an attempt to regain Egypt.

  • Amytal (drug)

    sedative-hypnotic drug: …Seconal and other trade names), amobarbital (Amytal), and pentobarbital (Nembutal). When taken in high-enough doses, these drugs are capable of producing a deep unconsciousness that makes them useful as general anesthetics. In still higher doses, however, they depress the central nervous and respiratory systems to the point of coma, respiratory…

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