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  • Ammospermophilus leucurus (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: The white-tailed antelope squirrel (A. leucurus) of the southwestern United States is one of the smallest of all ground squirrels, weighing 96 to 117 grams (3.4 to 4 ounces) and having a body up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) long and a tail of less than…

  • Ammotragus lervia (mammal)

    Aoudad, (Ammotragus lervia), North African goatlike mammal of the family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla). This species has been inappropriately called a sheep, although recent genetic information reveals that it is much more closely related to wild goats. The aoudad stands about 102 cm (40 inches) at

  • ammoxidation (chemical process)

    nitrile: …quantities by a process called ammoxidation that depends on the oxidation of propylene in the presence of ammonia and a catalyst. Acrylonitrile constitutes an important component of several polymeric substances, including the acrylic textile fibres and synthetic rubbers and thermoplastic resins.

  • ammunition

    Ammunition, the projectiles and propelling charges used in small arms, artillery, and other guns. Ammunition size is usually expressed in terms of calibre, which is the diameter of the projectile as measured in millimetres or inches. In general, projectiles less than 20 mm or .60 inch in diameter

  • Amne Machin (mountains, China)

    Min Mountains: …far west are called the Amne Machin (Jishi Mountains), and those in the north are called the Xiqing Mountains. The central section of the range lying west of the Min River, which has an axis running from north to south, is known as the Qionglai Mountains. The easternmost section, which…

  • amnesia (psychology)

    Amnesia, loss of memory occurring most often as a result of damage to the brain from trauma, stroke, Alzheimer disease, alcohol and drug toxicity, or infection. Amnesia may be anterograde, in which events following the causative trauma or disease are forgotten, or retrograde, in which events

  • Amnesia (novel by Carey)

    Peter Carey: Amnesia (2015) uses cybercrime as the lens through which to view the battle of Brisbane, a 1942 encounter between U.S. soldiers and Australian military personnel and civilians. In A Long Way from Home (2017), Carey used a road race in 1950s Australia to explore racism.

  • Amnesiac (album by Radiohead)

    Radiohead: …reaction, as would the similar Amnesiac (2001), produced during the same sessions as Kid A. But if Radiohead had seemingly disavowed its musical past on these two albums—moving away from melody and rock instrumentation to create intricately textured soundscapes—it found a way to meld this approach with its guitar-band roots…

  • amnesiac shellfish poisoning (pathology)

    algae: Toxicity: Amnesic shellfish poisoning is caused by domoic acid produced by diatoms (class Bacillariophyceae), such as Nitzschia pungens and N. pseudodelicatissima. Symptoms of this poisoning in humans progress from abdominal cramps to vomiting to memory loss to disorientation and finally to death.

  • amnestic MCI (pathology)

    Alzheimer disease: Stages of the disease: This transitional stage represents amnestic MCI and is characterized by noticeable dysfunction in memory with retention of normal cognitive ability in judgment, reasoning, and perception. In nonamnestic MCI, impairments in cognitive functions related to attention, perception, and language predominate over deficits in memory. However, as MCI progresses to Alzheimer…

  • amnestic mild cognitive impairment (pathology)

    Alzheimer disease: Stages of the disease: This transitional stage represents amnestic MCI and is characterized by noticeable dysfunction in memory with retention of normal cognitive ability in judgment, reasoning, and perception. In nonamnestic MCI, impairments in cognitive functions related to attention, perception, and language predominate over deficits in memory. However, as MCI progresses to Alzheimer…

  • amnesty (law)

    Amnesty, in criminal law, sovereign act of oblivion or forgetfulness (from Greek amnēsia) for past acts, granted by a government to persons who have been guilty of crimes. It is often conditional upon their return to obedience and duty within a prescribed period. Amnesty is granted usually for

  • Amnesty International (international organization)

    Amnesty International (AI), international nongovernmental organization (NGO) founded in London on May 28, 1961, that seeks to publicize violations by governments and other entities of rights recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), especially freedom of speech and of

  • Amniapé (people)

    South American forest Indian: Belief and aesthetic systems: …certain areas: the Guartegaya and Amniapé (Amniepe) of the upper Madeira, the tribes of the upper Xingu, the Karajá and the Tapirapé of the Araguáia River area, some Ge of central Brazil, and the Guaraní of southern Bolivia. The masks represent the spirits of plants, fish, and other animals, as…

  • Amniepe (people)

    South American forest Indian: Belief and aesthetic systems: …certain areas: the Guartegaya and Amniapé (Amniepe) of the upper Madeira, the tribes of the upper Xingu, the Karajá and the Tapirapé of the Araguáia River area, some Ge of central Brazil, and the Guaraní of southern Bolivia. The masks represent the spirits of plants, fish, and other animals, as…

  • amniocentesis (medical procedure)

    Amniocentesis, the surgical insertion of a hollow needle through the abdominal wall and into the uterus of a pregnant female and the aspiration of fluid from the amniotic sac for analysis. Examination of the amniotic fluid itself as well as the fetal cells found in the fluid can reveal such things

  • amnion (anatomy)

    Amnion, in reptiles, birds, and mammals, a membrane forming a fluid-filled cavity (the amniotic sac) that encloses the embryo. The amniotic sac and the fluid it contains are sometimes referred to as the bag of waters. In development, the amnion arises by a folding of a mass of extra-embryonic

  • Amniota (animal group)

    Amniota, a group of limbed vertebrates that includes all living reptiles (class Reptilia), birds (class Aves), mammals (class Mammalia), and their extinct relatives and ancestors. The amniotes are the evolutionary branch (clade) of the tetrapods (superclass Tetrapoda) in which the embryo develops

  • amniote (animal group)

    Amniota, a group of limbed vertebrates that includes all living reptiles (class Reptilia), birds (class Aves), mammals (class Mammalia), and their extinct relatives and ancestors. The amniotes are the evolutionary branch (clade) of the tetrapods (superclass Tetrapoda) in which the embryo develops

  • amniotic fluid (physiology)

    amniocentesis: Examination of the amniotic fluid itself as well as the fetal cells found in the fluid can reveal such things as fetal sex (the significant factor in inherited diseases that are sex-linked), chromosomal abnormality, and other types of potential problems. The procedure, generally carried out in the 15th…

  • amniotic sac (anatomy)

    amnion: …forming a fluid-filled cavity (the amniotic sac) that encloses the embryo. The amniotic sac and the fluid it contains are sometimes referred to as the bag of waters.

  • Amnok River (river, Asia)

    Yalu River, river of northeastern Asia that forms the northwestern boundary between North Korea and the Northeast region (Manchuria) of China. The Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning are bordered by the river. Its length is estimated to be about 500 miles (800 km), and it drains an area of some

  • Amnok-kang (river, Asia)

    Yalu River, river of northeastern Asia that forms the northwestern boundary between North Korea and the Northeast region (Manchuria) of China. The Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning are bordered by the river. Its length is estimated to be about 500 miles (800 km), and it drains an area of some

  • Amnon (Israeli prince)

    Absalom: …as murdering his half brother Amnon, David’s eldest son, in revenge for the rape of his full sister Tamar. For this he was driven into banishment, but he was eventually restored to favour through the good offices of his cousin Joab. Later, when some uncertainty seems to have arisen as…

  • Amnón (work by Gálvez)

    Spanish literature: Women writers: …Muslims; and her biblical drama Amnón (1804) recounts the biblical rape of Tamar by her brother Amnon. Neoclassical poet Manuel José Quintana praised Gálvez’s odes and elegies and considered her the best woman writer of her time.

  • AMO (climatology)

    climate change: Decadal variation: A similar oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), occurs in the North Atlantic and strongly influences precipitation patterns in eastern and central North America. A warm-phase AMO (relatively warm North Atlantic SSTs) is associated with relatively high rainfall in Florida and low rainfall in much of the Ohio Valley.…

  • amobarbital (drug)

    sedative-hypnotic drug: …Seconal and other trade names), amobarbital (Amytal), and pentobarbital (Nembutal). When taken in high-enough doses, these drugs are capable of producing a deep unconsciousness that makes them useful as general anesthetics. In still higher doses, however, they depress the central nervous and respiratory systems to the point of coma, respiratory…

  • Amoco Building (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Aon Center, 83-floor (1,136 feet, or 346.3 metres, tall) commercial skyscraper located at 200 E. Randolph Street in downtown Chicago’s East Loop area. Completed in 1972, the simple, rectangular-shaped, tubular steel-framed structure was originally called the Standard Oil Building because it housed

  • Amoco Cadiz oil spill (environmental disaster, off the coast of Brittany, France [1978])

    oil spill: Largest oil-tanker spills in history: …oil were spilled) and the Amoco Cadiz disaster off Brittany, France, in 1978 (223,000 metric tons of crude oil and ship fuel were spilled). Both events led to lasting changes in the regulation of shipping and in the organization of responses to ecological emergencies such as oil spills. In North…

  • Amoco Corporation (American company)

    Amoco Corporation, former American oil company, one of the largest producers and marketers of petroleum products in the United States, which was bought in 1998 by the giant British Petroleum (BP PLC). The Standard Oil Company (Indiana) was founded in 1889 by the Standard Oil trust (see Standard Oil

  • amodal perception (psychology)

    space perception: General considerations: …problems such as that of amodal perception (e.g., the question of how one perceives that there are six sides to a cube, even though only three of them can be seen at a single time).

  • amoeba (protozoan order)

    Amoeba, any of the microscopic unicellular protozoans of the rhizopodan order Amoebida. The well-known type species, Amoeba proteus, is found on decaying bottom vegetation of freshwater streams and ponds. There are numerous parasitic amoebas. Of six species found in the human alimentary tract,

  • Amoeba proteus (protozoan)

    protozoan: Food selection: Amoeba proteus, for example, selects the flagellate Chilomonas paramecium in preference to Monas punctum, even when the number of Monas in the medium is high. In this case, selection may be based on the digestibility of the prey; the latter is digested in 312 hours,…

  • amoebae (protozoan order)

    Amoeba, any of the microscopic unicellular protozoans of the rhizopodan order Amoebida. The well-known type species, Amoeba proteus, is found on decaying bottom vegetation of freshwater streams and ponds. There are numerous parasitic amoebas. Of six species found in the human alimentary tract,

  • amoebas (protozoan order)

    Amoeba, any of the microscopic unicellular protozoans of the rhizopodan order Amoebida. The well-known type species, Amoeba proteus, is found on decaying bottom vegetation of freshwater streams and ponds. There are numerous parasitic amoebas. Of six species found in the human alimentary tract,

  • amoebic dysentery (pathology)

    dysentery: Amebic dysentery, or intestinal amebiasis, is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. This form of dysentery, which traditionally occurs in the tropics, is usually much more chronic and insidious than the bacillary disease and is more difficult to treat because the causative organism occurs in…

  • Amoebida (protozoan order)

    Amoeba, any of the microscopic unicellular protozoans of the rhizopodan order Amoebida. The well-known type species, Amoeba proteus, is found on decaying bottom vegetation of freshwater streams and ponds. There are numerous parasitic amoebas. Of six species found in the human alimentary tract,

  • amoebocyte (biology)

    annelid: Tissues and fluids: …granules are taken up by amoebocytes, which increase in size, becoming large brown bodies that are never eliminated from the body.

  • amoeboid locomotion (biology)

    locomotion: Pseudopodial locomotion: Although ciliar and flagellar locomotion are clearly forms of appendicular locomotion, pseudopodial locomotion () can be classed as either axial or appendicular, depending upon the definition of the pseudopodium. Outwardly, pseudopodial locomotion appears to be the extension of a part of the body…

  • amoeboid tapetum (plant anatomy)

    magnoliid clade: Reproduction and life cycles: An amoeboid tapetum, on the other hand, breaks down early, and the contents of the cell (protoplasm) extrude between the young pollen grains, providing a more efficient way of nourishing them. This type of tapetum has been found in the Lauraceae (Laurales), where both types of…

  • Amoebozoa (biology)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Amoebozoa Amoeboid organisms. characterized by lobose pseudopods (not supported by internal microtubules); naked and testate forms exist. Tubulinea Either naked or testate amoebae. Can produce tubular subcylindrical pseudopodia. Taxa lack centrosomes and flagellated stages. Flabellinea

  • Amoêdo, Rodolfo (Brazilian artist)

    Latin American art: Realism: Rodolfo Amoêdo of Brazil studied painting first in the Rio Academy; he then won a scholarship in Paris and returned in 1890 to execute major paintings in public halls. His female nude figure reclining in a tropical rainforest is an allegory of the town of…

  • Amoghasiddhi (Buddha)

    Amoghasiddhi, (Sanskrit: “Unfailing Success”) in Mahayana and Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhism, one of the five “self-born” Buddhas. See

  • Amoghavajra (Buddhist monk)

    Buddhism: All Souls festival: An 8th-century Indian monk, Amoghavajra, is said to have introduced the ceremony into China, from where it was transmitted to Japan. During the Japanese festival of Bon (Obon), two altars are constructed, one to make offerings to the spirits of dead ancestors and the other to make offerings to…

  • Amoghavar?a I (Rā??rakū?a king)

    India: The tripartite struggle: In the Rashtrakuta kingdom, Amoghavarsa (reigned c. 814–878) faced a revolt of officers and feudatories but managed to survive and reassert Rashtrakuta power despite intermittent rebellions. Campaigns in the south against Vengi and the Gangas kept Amoghavarsa preoccupied and prevented him from participating in northern politics. The Rashtrakuta capital…

  • Amok (album by Atoms for Peace)

    Radiohead: …2013 released the intricately textured Amok, while Jonny Greenwood composed film soundtracks, among them Phantom Thread and You Were Never Really Here (both 2017).

  • āmol (Iran)

    āmol, town, northern Iran, on the Harāz River. The exact date of the founding of the town is unknown and enshrouded in legend, but it is certain that there has been a town on the site since Sāsānian times. During the Sāsānian period (224–651ce), the district of āmol, together with the neighbouring

  • Amon (Egyptian god)

    Amon, Egyptian deity who was revered as king of the gods. Amon may have been originally one of the eight deities of the Hermopolite creation myth; his cult reached Thebes, where he became the patron of the pharaohs by the reign of Mentuhotep I (2008–1957 bce). At that date he was already identified

  • Amon Carter Museum of Western Art (museum, Fort Worth, Texas, United States)

    Texas: Cultural institutions: The Amon Carter Museum of Western Art in Fort Worth houses many paintings and bronzes of Western artists and maintains a microfilm collection of Western newspapers published before 1900. Also in the city are the Fort Worth Art Museum, the William Edrington Scott Theatre, the Kimbell…

  • Amon, Temple of (temple complex, Karnak, Egypt)

    Thutmose I: 1630 bce) temple of Amon at Thebes. He erected an enclosure wall and two pylons at the western end, with a small pillared hall in between. Two obelisks were added in front of the outer pylon. Thutmose created the axial temple, which became standard for the New…

  • Amon-Re (Egyptian god)

    Amon: …Re of Heliopolis and, as Amon-Re, was received as a national god. Represented in human form, sometimes with a ram’s head, or as a ram, Amon-Re was worshipped as part of the Theban triad, which included a goddess, Mut, and a youthful god, Khons. His temple at Karnak was among…

  • Amon-Re, Temple of (temple complex, Karnak, Egypt)

    Thutmose I: 1630 bce) temple of Amon at Thebes. He erected an enclosure wall and two pylons at the western end, with a small pillared hall in between. Two obelisks were added in front of the outer pylon. Thutmose created the axial temple, which became standard for the New…

  • Among the Cinders (work by Shadbolt)

    Maurice Shadbolt: Shadbolt’s first novel, Among the Cinders (1965), was noted for its satiric views of New Zealand’s social and intellectual life and for the character Grandfather Hubert, who travels the country with his grandson. A dolphin that symbolizes good and its encounters with greedy, aggressive humans are the subject…

  • Among the Flowers (Chinese literary anthology)

    Wen Tingyun: …ci poetry, the Huajianji (Among the Flowers), compiled by Zhao Chongzuo in 940 to popularize the new genre.

  • Among the Russians (work by Thubron)

    Colin Thubron: title, Where Nights Are Longest), chronicles a 10,000-mile (16,000-km) journey by car across what was then the Soviet Union; it was praised for its richly textured descriptions of Russian life. The Lost Heart of Asia (1994), In Siberia (1999), and Shadow of the Silk Road (2006)…

  • Amongst Friends (film by Weiss [1993])

    Mira Sorvino: …him on his independent movie Amongst Friends (1993); she played a simple suburban girl whose boyfriend chooses a life of crime. She portrayed a Spanish woman in the comedy of manners Barcelona (1994).

  • Amongst Women (novel by McGahern)

    John McGahern: …his most acclaimed work is Amongst Women (1990), which centres on a tyrannical father who was a former IRA leader; it was adapted into a popular television series (1998) for the British Broadcasting Corporation. That They May Face the Rising Sun (also published as By the Lake) appeared in 2002.

  • Amonkar, Kishori (Indian vocalist)

    Kishori Amonkar, Indian classical vocalist, recognized as one of the foremost singers in the Hindustani tradition and as an innovative exponent of the Jaipur gharana (community of musicians sharing a distinctive musical style). Amonkar’s mother was the well-known vocalist Mogubai Kurdikar, who

  • Amontons, Guillaume (French physicist)

    Guillaume Amontons, French physicist and inventor of scientific instruments, best known for his work on friction and temperature measurement. Amontons is often credited with having discovered the laws of friction (1699), though in fact his work dealt solely with static friction—i.e., the friction

  • Amonute (Powhatan princess)

    Pocahontas, Powhatan Indian woman who fostered peace between English colonists and Native Americans by befriending the settlers at the Jamestown Colony in Virginia and eventually marrying one of them. Among her several native names, the one best known to the English was Pocahontas (translated at

  • Amor (Roman god)

    Cupid, ancient Roman god of love in all its varieties, the counterpart of the Greek god Eros and the equivalent of Amor in Latin poetry. According to myth, Cupid was the son of Mercury, the winged messenger of the gods, and Venus, the goddess of love. He often appeared as a winged infant carrying a

  • Amor asteroid (astronomy)

    asteroid: Near-Earth asteroids: …class of NEAs is the Amors. Members of that group have perihelion distances that are greater than 1.017 AU, which is Earth’s aphelion distance, but no greater than 1.3 AU. Amor asteroids therefore do not at present cross Earth’s orbit. Because of strong gravitational perturbations produced by their close approaches…

  • amor brujo, El (Spanish music)

    La Argentina: Her interpretation of El amor brujo (by Manuel de Falla), with its “Ritual Fire Dance” and “Dance of Terror,” was one of her most famous creations. Her choreography, derived rather than copied from traditional Hispanic dances, displayed the creative possibilities of Spanish dance. Although she eventually formed a…

  • amor cortés (literature)

    Courtly love, in the later Middle Ages, a highly conventionalized code that prescribed the behaviour of ladies and their lovers. It also provided the theme of an extensive courtly medieval literature that began with the troubadour poetry of Aquitaine and Provence in southern France toward the end

  • amor de don Perlimplín con Belisa en su jardín, El (play by García Lorca)

    Federico García Lorca: Early poetry and plays: …jardín (written 1925, premiered 1933; The Love of Don Perlimplín with Belisa in Their Garden in Five Plays: Comedies and Tragi-Comedies, 1970), a “grotesque tragedy” partially drawn from an 18th-century Spanish comic strip. Both plays reveal themes common to Lorca’s work: the capriciousness of time, the destructive powers of love…

  • Amor de perdi??o (novel by Castelo Branco)

    Camilo Castelo Branco: …work, Amor de perdi??o (1862; Doomed Love), the story of a love thwarted by family opposition that eventually led the hero to crime and exile. It is the typical expression of the view of life with which Castelo Branco came to be identified—a view in which passion is the irresistible…

  • Amor de perdi??o (film by Oliveira [1978])

    Manoel de Oliveira: …a play by José Régio; Amor de perdi??o (originally presented as a TV miniseries, 1978; “Doomed Love”) from a novel by Camilo Castelo Branco; and Francisca (1981) from a novel by Agustina Bessa Luís. In their rigid adherence to their source texts and in their overtly theatrical mise-en-scène, the films…

  • Amor object (astronomy)

    asteroid: Near-Earth asteroids: …class of NEAs is the Amors. Members of that group have perihelion distances that are greater than 1.017 AU, which is Earth’s aphelion distance, but no greater than 1.3 AU. Amor asteroids therefore do not at present cross Earth’s orbit. Because of strong gravitational perturbations produced by their close approaches…

  • amora (Jewish scholar)

    Amora, in ancient times, a Jewish scholar attached to one of several academies in Palestine (Tiberias, Sepphoris, Caesarea) or in Babylonia (Nehardea, Sura, Pumbedita). The amoraim collaborated in writing the Gemara, collected interpretations of and commentaries on the Mishna (the authoritative

  • amoraim (Jewish scholar)

    Amora, in ancient times, a Jewish scholar attached to one of several academies in Palestine (Tiberias, Sepphoris, Caesarea) or in Babylonia (Nehardea, Sura, Pumbedita). The amoraim collaborated in writing the Gemara, collected interpretations of and commentaries on the Mishna (the authoritative

  • amore dei tre re, L’? (work by Montemezzi)

    Italo Montemezzi: …L’amore dei tre re (1913; The Love of Three Kings).

  • amore delle tre melarance, L’? (opera by Prokofiev)

    Sergey Prokofiev: Pre-Revolutionary period: …he planned a new opera, The Love for Three Oranges, after a comedy tale by the 18th-century Italian dramatist Carlo Gozzi, as translated and adapted by Meyerhold. In the summer of 1917 Prokofiev was included in the Council of Workers in the Arts, which led Russia’s left wing of artistic…

  • Amore e ’l cor gentil sono una cosa (work by Dante)

    Dante: Dante’s intellectual development and public career: …gentil sono una cosa” (“Love and the Noble Heart Are the Same Thing”), the first line of which is clearly an adaptation of Guinizelli’s “Al cor gentil ripara sempre amore” (“In Every Noble Heart Love Finds Its Home”). This was the beginning of Dante’s association with a new poetic…

  • Amores (work by Ovid)

    Ovid: Works: …first poems, the Amores (The Loves), were published at intervals, beginning about 20 bce, in five books. They form a series of short poems depicting the various phases of a love affair with a woman called Corinna. Their keynote is not passion but the witty and rhetorical exploitation of…

  • Amores (work by Celtis)

    Conradus Celtis: …manuscript until 1881), and especially Amores (1502), love poems of forthright sensuality and true lyrical intensity.

  • Amores perros (film by González I?árritu [2000])

    Alejandro González I?árritu: …González I?árritu’s feature directorial debut, Amores perros (2000). The movie was an international success; it won awards at the Cannes and Chicago film festivals, garnered 10 Mexican Ariel Awards, and earned an Oscar nomination for best foreign-language film.

  • Amoretti (work by Spenser)

    Edmund Spenser: The Faerie Queene and last years: In early 1595 he published Amoretti and Epithalamion, a sonnet sequence and a marriage ode celebrating his marriage to Elizabeth Boyle after what appears to have been an impassioned courtship in 1594. This group of poems is unique among Renaissance sonnet sequences in that it celebrates a successful love affair…

  • Amoreuxia (plant genus)

    Malvales: Bixaceae: …found throughout the tropics, and Amoreuxia (3 species), restricted to the southwestern United States and Central America, consist of herbs with stout roots to trees. The leaves in these genera are spirally arranged and palmately lobed, with narrow stipules. The flowers are large and usually yellow, and there are many…

  • amorgina (ancient textile)

    Amorgós Island: The island produced amorgina, fine transparent fabrics made from locally grown flax or cotton. It was used by the Romans as a place for exiles. Today it supports a dwindling agricultural community, chiefly in the Katápola Plain, which has the only good anchorage for visitors. The principal village…

  • Amorgós Island (island, Greece)

    Amorgós Island, island trending northeast-southwest in the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, South Aegean (Modern Greek: Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region), Greece. It constitutes a dímos (municipality). The terrain of the island is for the most part mountainous and narrow. It was prosperous

  • Amori pastorali di Dafni e Cloe (work by Caro)

    Annibale Caro: …Longus’ Daphnis and Chloe called Amori pastorali di Dafni e Cloe (“The Pastoral Loves of Daphnis and Chloe”).

  • Amorite (people)

    Amorite, member of an ancient Semitic-speaking people who dominated the history of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine from about 2000 to about 1600 bc. In the oldest cuneiform sources (c. 2400–c. 2000 bc), the Amorites were equated with the West, though their true place of origin was most likely

  • Amorite language

    Amorite language, one of the most ancient of the archaic Semitic languages, which are part of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. Amorite was spoken in an area that is now northern Syria. It is known almost exclusively from glosses and names, and the only known grammar is the grammar of names.

  • amorosa visione, L’? (work by Boccaccio)

    Giovanni Boccaccio: Early works.: …in prose and terza rima; L’amorosa visione (“The Amorous Vision”; 1342–43), a mediocre allegorical poem of 50 short cantos in terza rima; the prose Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta (1343–44); and the poem Il ninfale fiesolano (perhaps 1344–45; “Tale of the Fiesole Nymph”), in ottava rima, on the love of the…

  • Amoroso Lima, Alceu (Brazilian essayist, philosopher, and literary critic)

    Alceu Amoroso Lima, essayist, philosopher, and literary critic, a leading champion of the cause of intellectual freedom in Brazil. He was also an enthusiastic supporter of Modernismo, a Brazilian cultural movement of the 1920s, and, after his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1928, a leader in the

  • Amorous Doctor, The (play by Molière)

    Molière: Early life and beginnings in theatre: …was Le Docteur amoureux (“The Amorous Doctor”); whether it was in the form still extant is doubtful. It apparently was a success and secured the favour of the king’s brother Philippe, duc d’Orléans. It is difficult to know the extent of Philippe’s patronage, which lasted seven years, until the…

  • Amorous Fiammetta (work by Boccaccio)

    Giovanni Boccaccio: Early works.: …in terza rima; the prose Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta (1343–44); and the poem Il ninfale fiesolano (perhaps 1344–45; “Tale of the Fiesole Nymph”), in ottava rima, on the love of the shepherd Africo for the nymph Mensola.

  • Amorous Quarrel, The (play by Molière)

    Molière: Early life and beginnings in theatre: …and Le Dépit amoureux (The Amorous Quarrel), performed at Béziers in 1656.

  • Amorphochilus schnablii (mammal species)

    smoky bat: Amorphochilus schnablii is the smoky bat, whereas Furipterus horrens is also commonly called the thumbless bat. Small and delicately built, both species range in size from about 3.7 to 5.8 cm (1.5 to 2.3 inches), have tails about 2.4 to 3.6 cm (1 to 1.4 inches) in length, and…

  • Amorphophallus titanum (plant)

    Titan arum, (Amorphophallus titanum), herbaceous flowering plant of the arum family (Araceae), known for its massive foul-smelling inflorescence (cluster of flowers). The plant is endemic to the steep hillsides of rainforests in western Sumatra but is cultivated in botanic gardens worldwide. The

  • amorphous candy

    candy: Products: Candies can be divided into noncrystalline, or amorphous, and crystalline types. Noncrystalline candies, such as hard candies, caramels, toffees, and nougats, are chewy or hard, with homogeneous structure. Crystalline candies, such as fondant and fudge, are smooth, creamy, and easily chewed, with a definite structure of small crystals.

  • amorphous carbon

    carbon: Properties and uses: … at high temperatures, just as amorphous carbon does. Fullerene was serendipitously discovered in 1985 as a synthetic product in the course of laboratory experiments to simulate the chemistry in the atmosphere of giant stars. It was later found to occur naturally in tiny amounts on Earth and in meteorites. Q-carbon…

  • amorphous germanium (chemistry)

    industrial glass: Semiconducting solids: …as amorphous silicon (a-Si) and amorphous germanium (a-Ge). These materials are the basis of most photovoltaic applications, such as the solar cells in pocket calculators. Amorphous solids have a liquidlike atomic order but are not considered to be true glasses because they do not exhibit a continuous transformation into the…

  • amorphous material (physics)

    Amorphous solid, any noncrystalline solid in which the atoms and molecules are not organized in a definite lattice pattern. Such solids include glass, plastic, and gel. Solids and liquids are both forms of condensed matter; both are composed of atoms in close proximity to each other. But their

  • amorphous polymer (chemistry)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Amorphous and semicrystalline: In an amorphous polymer the molecules are oriented randomly and are intertwined, much like cooked spaghetti, and the polymer has a glasslike, transparent appearance. In semicrystalline polymers, the molecules pack together in ordered regions called crystallites, as shown in Figure 2. As might be expected, linear polymers,…

  • amorphous silicon (chemistry)

    crystal: Long- and short-range order: In amorphous silicon (a-Si) the same short-range order exists, but the bond directions become changed at distances farther away from any atom. Amorphous silicon is a type of glass. Quasicrystals are another type of solid that lack long-range order.

  • amorphous silicon solar cell (photovoltaic device)

    thin-film solar cell: Types of thin-film solar cells: Amorphous silicon thin-film cells are the oldest and most mature type of thin-film. They are made of noncrystalline silicon, unlike typical solar-cell wafers. Amorphous silicon is cheaper to manufacture than crystalline silicon and most other semiconducting materials. Amorphous silicon is also popular because it is…

  • amorphous solid (physics)

    Amorphous solid, any noncrystalline solid in which the atoms and molecules are not organized in a definite lattice pattern. Such solids include glass, plastic, and gel. Solids and liquids are both forms of condensed matter; both are composed of atoms in close proximity to each other. But their

  • amorphous substance (physics)

    Amorphous solid, any noncrystalline solid in which the atoms and molecules are not organized in a definite lattice pattern. Such solids include glass, plastic, and gel. Solids and liquids are both forms of condensed matter; both are composed of atoms in close proximity to each other. But their

  • amortization (finance)

    Amortization, in finance, the systematic repayment of a debt; in accounting, the systematic writing off of some account over a period of years. An example of the first meaning is a mortgage on a home, which may be repaid in monthly installments that include interest and a gradual reduction of the

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