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  • Amherst, Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron (British army commander)

    Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, army commander who captured Canada for Great Britain (1758–60) during the French and Indian War (1754–63). Amherst, Mass., and several other American and Canadian places are named for him. Amherst received a commission in the foot guards in 1731 and was selected

  • Amherst, Jeffery, 5th duke de Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (British army commander)

    Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, army commander who captured Canada for Great Britain (1758–60) during the French and Indian War (1754–63). Amherst, Mass., and several other American and Canadian places are named for him. Amherst received a commission in the foot guards in 1731 and was selected

  • Amherst, Sir Jeffery (British army commander)

    Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, army commander who captured Canada for Great Britain (1758–60) during the French and Indian War (1754–63). Amherst, Mass., and several other American and Canadian places are named for him. Amherst received a commission in the foot guards in 1731 and was selected

  • Amherst, William Pitt (British diplomat)

    William Pitt Amherst, lst Earl Amherst, diplomat who, as British governor-general of India (1823–28), played a central role in the acquisition of Asian territory for the British Empire after the First Burmese War (1824–26). Amherst inherited in 1797 the baronial title of his uncle Jeffrey Amherst.

  • Amherst, William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl (British diplomat)

    William Pitt Amherst, lst Earl Amherst, diplomat who, as British governor-general of India (1823–28), played a central role in the acquisition of Asian territory for the British Empire after the First Burmese War (1824–26). Amherst inherited in 1797 the baronial title of his uncle Jeffrey Amherst.

  • Amhurst, Nicholas (British author)

    Nicholas Amhurst, satirical poet, political pamphleteer on behalf of the Whigs, and editor of The Craftsman, a political journal of unprecedented popularity that was hostile to the Whig government of Sir Robert Walpole. Expelled from the University of Oxford in 1719 (probably because of his

  • Ami (people)

    Ami, most numerous indigenous ethnic group on the island of Taiwan, numbering more than 124,000 in the late 20th century and located in the fertile but relatively inaccessible southeastern hilly region and along the eastern coastal plain. Of Malay stock, they speak three dialects of an

  • AMI (American company)

    Jeff Bezos: Personal life: …which he accused officials at American Media Inc. (AMI), the parent company of the Enquirer, of “extortion and bribery” for suggesting that they would release nude photographs of Bezos if he did not stop his inquiry, amid other demands. The Bezos-led investigation later alleged that his lover’s brother had leaked…

  • Ami des enfants, L’? (work by Aza?s and Cotton)

    Pierre-Hyacinthe Aza?s: …and assisted her in writing L’Ami des enfants, 12 vol. (1816; “The Friend of Children”), a sequel to a collection of children’s stories by Arnaud Berquin.

  • Ami des hommes, ou Traité de la population (work by Mirabeau)

    Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau: In his popular Ami des hommes, ou Traité de la population (1756–58; “The Friend of Man, or Treatise on Population”), Mirabeau borrowed heavily from the ideas of Richard Cantillon, an earlier 18th-century British writer, in stressing the primacy of agriculture over commerce as a source of wealth. Mirabeau’s…

  • Ami du Peuple, L’? (French newspaper)

    Jean-Paul Marat: Attacks on the aristocracy: …as editor of the newspaper L’Ami du Peuple (“The Friend of the People”), Marat became an influential voice in favour of the most radical and democratic measures, particularly in October, when the royal family was forcibly brought from Versailles to Paris by a mob. He particularly advocated preventive measures against…

  • Ami language

    Ami: …an Indonesian-related language, also called Ami. The Ami traditionally practice slash-and-burn agriculture, growing dry rice, millet, sweet potatoes, tobacco, and betel nut. Today, wet rice cultivation is also important. Composed of extended family units, Ami society revolves around villages (each headed by a chief) containing up to 1,000 people. Men…

  • Ami viendra vous voir, Un (work by Chra?bi)

    Driss Chra?bi: …values appear most noticeably in Un Ami viendra vous voir (1966; “A Friend Is Coming to See You”), in which Chra?bi combines the themes of insanity, violence, and the oppression of women. Women’s rights, in Europe as in North Africa, are also touched on in Succession ouverte (1962; Heirs to…

  • Amia calva (fish)

    Bowfin, (Amia calva), freshwater fish of the order Amiiformes (superorder Holostei); it is the only living representative of its family (Amiidae), which dates back to the Jurassic Period (199.6 to 145.5 million years ago). The bowfin is a voracious fish found in sluggish North American waters from

  • amicable numbers (mathematics)

    number theory: Pythagoras: …called a pair of integers amicable (“friendly”) if each was the sum of the proper divisors of the other. They knew only a single amicable pair: 220 and 284. One can easily check that the sum of the proper divisors of 284 is 1 + 2 + 4 + 71…

  • amice (liturgical vestment)

    Amice, (derived from Latin amictus, “wrapped around”), liturgical vestment worn under the alb. It is a rectangular piece of white linen held around the neck and shoulders by two bands tied at the waist. Probably derived from a scarf worn by the secular classes, it first appeared as a liturgical

  • Amichai, Yehuda (Israeli author)

    Yehuda Amichai, Israeli writer who is best known for his poetry. Amichai and his Orthodox Jewish family immigrated to Palestine in 1936. During World War II he served in the British army, but he later fought the British as a guerrilla prior to the formation of Israel; he also was involved in the

  • Amici, Dominic Felix (American actor)

    Don Ameche, (DOMINIC FELIX AMICI), U.S. actor (born May 31, 1908, Kenosha, Wis.—died Dec. 6, 1993, Scottsdale, Ariz.), was a versatile performer who was at home on radio, on television, and in films but was best remembered for two standout motion-picture roles; his performance in the title role i

  • Amici, Giovanni Battista (Italian astronomer)

    Giovanni Battista Amici, astronomer and optician who made important improvements in the mirrors of reflecting telescopes and also developed prisms for use in refracting spectroscopes (instruments used to separate light into its spectral components). Amici served as professor of mathematics at the

  • Amicia of Leicester (English aristocrat)

    Montfort Family: 1181 or later) married Amicia, ultimately the heiress of the English earldom of Leicester, and it was through their son, the crusader Simon de Montfort, that the family first attained real prominence. By his wife Alice de Montmorency he left four sons: Amaury de Montfort (see below), who succeeded…

  • Amicis, Edmondo De (Italian author)

    Edmondo De Amicis, novelist, short-story writer, poet, and author of popular travel books and children’s stories. Educated at the military academy at Modena, De Amicis was commissioned in the artillery. He wrote many sketches of military life for the army journal L’Italia militare and became its

  • Amicizia, L’? (work by Tomizza)

    Italian literature: Other writings: … also tackled this theme in L’amicizia (1980; “The Friendship”).

  • amictic egg (biology)

    reproductive behaviour: Flatworms and rotifers: One egg type, called amictic, is produced in the early spring. These eggs apparently cannot be fertilized, and the embryo develops without fertilization (parthenogenesis); the result is females with a life-span no longer than two weeks. When the population reaches a peak in the early summer, a second type…

  • amicus curiae (law)

    Amicus curiae, (Latin: “friend of the court”), one who assists the court by furnishing information or advice regarding questions of law or fact. He is not a party to a lawsuit and thus differs from an intervenor, who has a direct interest in the outcome of the lawsuit and is therefore permitted to

  • Amida (sculpture by Jōchō)

    Jōchō: The Amida (Amitabha) of the Hōō-dō (Phoenix Hall), of the Byōdō Temple at Uji, near Kyōto, is his only extant work. Carved in 1053, it embodies tranquillity and gracefulness, effects achieved by Jōchō’s brilliant use of the joined-wood technique.

  • ?amida (Jewish prayer)

    Amidah, in Judaism, the main section of morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, recited while standing up. On weekdays the amidah consists of 19 benedictions. These include 3 paragraphs of praise, 13 of petition, and another 3 of thanksgiving. Some call this section of the daily prayer by the

  • Amida (Buddhism)

    Amitabha, (Sanskrit: “Infinite Light”) in Mahayana Buddhism, and particularly in the so-called Pure Land sects, the great saviour buddha. As related in the Sukhavati-vyuha-sutras (the fundamental scriptures of the Pure Land sects), many ages ago a monk named Dharmakara made a number of vows, the

  • Amida (Turkey)

    Diyarbak?r, city, southeastern Turkey. It lies on the right bank of the Tigris River. The name means “district (diyar) of the Bakr people.” Amida, an ancient town predating Roman colonization in the 3rd century ce, was enlarged and strengthened under the Roman emperor Constantius II, who also

  • Amida Nyorai (sculpture by Jōchō)

    Jōchō: The Amida (Amitabha) of the Hōō-dō (Phoenix Hall), of the Byōdō Temple at Uji, near Kyōto, is his only extant work. Carved in 1053, it embodies tranquillity and gracefulness, effects achieved by Jōchō’s brilliant use of the joined-wood technique.

  • Amida Triad (Japanese art)

    Japanese art: Painting: One fresco depicting an Amida (Amitabha) Triad shows graceful figures rendered with comparative naturalism and defined with consistent, unmodulated brush lines known as “wire lines” (tessen-byō). Like the Hōryū pagoda sculptures, the wall paintings suggest the influence of Tang style.

  • amidah (Jewish prayer)

    Amidah, in Judaism, the main section of morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, recited while standing up. On weekdays the amidah consists of 19 benedictions. These include 3 paragraphs of praise, 13 of petition, and another 3 of thanksgiving. Some call this section of the daily prayer by the

  • amide (chemical compound)

    Amide, any member of either of two classes of nitrogen-containing compounds related to ammonia and amines. The covalent amides are neutral or very weakly acidic substances formed by replacement of the hydroxyl group (OH) of an acid by an amino group (NR2, in which R may represent a hydrogen atom or

  • amide group (chemical compound)

    polyamide: …chain are linked together by amide groups. Amide groups have the general chemical formula CO-NH. They may be produced by the interaction of an amine (NH2) group and a carboxyl (CO2H) group, or they may be formed by the polymerization of amino acids or amino-acid derivatives (whose molecules contain both…

  • Amidei, Saint Bartholomew (Italian friar)

    Seven Holy Founders: John Bonagiunta, Benedict dell’Antella, Bartholomew Amidei, Gerard Sostegni, and Ricoverus Uguccione. Formally Ordo Fratrum Servorum Sanctae Mariae (“Order of Friar Servants of St. Mary”), the order is a Roman Catholic congregation of mendicant friars dedicated to apostolic work.

  • Amidism (Buddhist sect)

    Amidism, sect of Mahāyāna Buddhism centring on worship of Amida (in Japanese; Sanskrit Amitābha; Chinese O-mi-t’o-fo), Buddha (Buddha of Infinite Light), whose merits can be transferred to a believer. Amidism holds that the faithful—by believing in Amida, hearing or saying his name, or desiring to

  • amidot (Jewish prayer)

    Amidah, in Judaism, the main section of morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, recited while standing up. On weekdays the amidah consists of 19 benedictions. These include 3 paragraphs of praise, 13 of petition, and another 3 of thanksgiving. Some call this section of the daily prayer by the

  • amidoth (Jewish prayer)

    Amidah, in Judaism, the main section of morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, recited while standing up. On weekdays the amidah consists of 19 benedictions. These include 3 paragraphs of praise, 13 of petition, and another 3 of thanksgiving. Some call this section of the daily prayer by the

  • Amiel, Henri Frédéric (Swiss writer)

    Henri Frédéric Amiel, Swiss writer known for his Journal intime, a masterpiece of self-analysis. Despite apparent success (as professor of aesthetics, then of philosophy, at Geneva), he felt himself a failure. Driven in on himself, he lived in his Journal, kept from 1847 until his death and first

  • Amiens (France)

    Amiens, city, capital of Somme département, Hauts-de-France région, principal city and ancient capital of Picardy, northern France, in the Somme River valley, north of Paris. Famed since the Middle Ages are its textile industry and its great Gothic cathedral of Notre-Dame, one of the finest in

  • Amiens Cathedral (cathedral, Amiens, France)

    Amiens Cathedral, Gothic cathedral located in the historic city of Amiens, France, in the Somme River valley north of Paris. It is the largest of the three great Gothic cathedrals built in France during the 13th century, and it remains the largest in France. It has an exterior length of 476 feet

  • Amiens, Battle of (World War I [1918])

    Battle of Amiens, (August 8–11, 1918), World War I battle that marked the beginning of what came to be known as the “hundred days,” a string of Allied offensive successes on the Western Front that led to the collapse of the German army and the end of the war. By late July 1918 Allied forces held a

  • Amiens, Mise of (French history)

    United Kingdom: Simon de Montfort and the Barons’ War: The verdict of the Mise of Amiens in 1264, however, was so favourable to Henry III that Simon de Montfort could not accept it.

  • Amiens, Treaty of (France [1802])

    Treaty of Amiens, (March 27, 1802), an agreement signed at Amiens, Fr., by Britain, France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (the Netherlands), achieving a peace in Europe for 14 months during the Napoleonic Wars. It ignored some questions that divided Britain and France, such as the fate of the

  • Amiens, Treaty of (France [1279])

    France: Foreign relations: By the Treaty of Amiens (1279) the Agenais, whose status had been left in doubt when Alphonse of Poitiers died, passed to Edward I of England, who also had unsettled claims in Quercy. Serious conflict was precipitated in 1293, when clashes between French and English seamen caused…

  • Amies, Sir Hardy (British couturier)

    Sir Hardy Amies, British couturier (born July 17, 1909, London, Eng.—died March 5, 2003, Langford, Oxfordshire, Eng.), dressed Queen Elizabeth II of England for half a century and was credited with having been a major influence on the menswear fashion revolution of the 1960s. Though his b

  • Amigo (film by Sayles [2010])

    John Sayles: …to the Philippines to make Amigo (2010), a film account of the Philippine-American War (1899–1902). His later thriller Go for Sisters (2013) saw two women on opposite sides of the law team up to find the kidnapped son of one of them in Mexico.

  • Amigos (album by Santana)

    Santana: …several years before returning, on Amigos (1976), to the formula that brought his initial success. Moonflower, a best-selling double album that included a hit remake of the Zombies’ “She’s Not There,” followed in 1977.

  • Amiiformes (fish order)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Amiiformes (bowfins and fossil relatives) Relatively conservative holosteans with typical holostean characters as given above; some specialized in body shape (elongate); most typical fusiform holosteans. 1 living member of the family Amiidae, with 1 species, Amia calva (bowfin), of North America. Marine and freshwater, almost…

  • Amik (region, Turkey)

    ?Amūq, plain of southern Turkey, bordering Syria. Framed by mountains, the plain is about 190 square miles (500 square km) in area and forms a triangle between the cities of Antioch (southwest), Reyhanl? (southeast), and K?r?khan (north). In the centre of the plain is Lake Amik (Lake Antioch), w

  • amikacin (drug)

    nocardiosis: Amikacin is another drug that is used with patients who do not respond to sulfa drugs.

  • ?amil (Egyptian official)

    Egypt: The ?ūlūnid dynasty (868–905): …by the caliph, and the ?āmil (fiscal officer), who was sometimes appointed by the caliph, sometimes by the governor. When A?mad entered Egypt in 868 he found the office of ?āmil filled by one Ibn al-Mudabbir, who over a period of years had gained control of Egyptian finances, enriching himself…

  • Amiles (French legendary figures)

    Amis and Amiles, chief characters in an Old French metrical romance, based on an older and widespread legend of friendship and sacrifice. In its simplest form the story tells of the knights Amis and Amiles and of their lifelong devotion to one another. The tale, probably of Oriental origin, was

  • ?āmilī, Bahā? ad-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn ?usayn al- (Iranian scholar)

    Bahā? ad-dīn Mu?ammad ibn ?usayn al-?āmilī, theologian, mathematician, jurist, and astronomer who was a major figure in the cultural revival of ?afavid Iran. Al-?āmilī was educated by his father, Shaykh ?usayn, a Shī?ite theologian, and by excellent teachers of mathematics and medicine. After his

  • Amin Dada Oumee, Idi (president of Uganda)

    Idi Amin, military officer and president (1971–79) of Uganda whose regime was noted for the sheer scale of its brutality. A member of the small Kakwa ethnic group of northwestern Uganda, Amin had little formal education and joined the King’s African Rifles of the British colonial army in 1946 as an

  • Amīn Khān, Mu?ammad (Mughal minister)

    India: The emperor, the nobility, and the provinces: In 1720 Mu?ammad Amīn Khan replaced Sayyid ?Abd Allāh Khan as vizier; after Amīn Khan’s death (January 1720), the office was occupied by the Ni?ām al-Mulk for a brief period until Amīn Khan’s son Qamar al-Dīn Khan assumed the title in July 1724 by a claim of…

  • Amīn, al- (?Abbāsid caliph)

    Al-Amīn, sixth caliph of the ?Abbāsid dynasty. As the son of Hārūn ar-Rashīd, the fifth caliph, and Zubayda, a niece of al-Man?ūr, the second caliph, al-Amīn took precedence in the succession over his elder half brother, al-Ma?mūn, whose mother was a Persian slave. In 809, al-Amīn succeeded to the

  • Amin, Hafizullah (president of Afghanistan)

    Hafizullah Amin, leftist politician who briefly served as the president of Afghanistan in 1979. Amin was born into a Ghilzay Pashtun family. After graduating from Kabul University, he traveled to the United States for graduate study at Columbia University in New York. Upon returning to Afghanistan,

  • Amin, Idi (president of Uganda)

    Idi Amin, military officer and president (1971–79) of Uganda whose regime was noted for the sheer scale of its brutality. A member of the small Kakwa ethnic group of northwestern Uganda, Amin had little formal education and joined the King’s African Rifles of the British colonial army in 1946 as an

  • Amin, Mohamed (Kenyan photographer)

    Mohamed Amin, Kenyan news photographer and cameraman whose television reports of the 1984 famine in Ethiopia attracted worldwide attention and prompted a massive outpouring of relief, including the Live Aid concert; his more than 30-year career was ended by the crash of a hijacked Ethiopian

  • Amīn, Mu?ammad al- (?Abbāsid caliph)

    Al-Amīn, sixth caliph of the ?Abbāsid dynasty. As the son of Hārūn ar-Rashīd, the fifth caliph, and Zubayda, a niece of al-Man?ūr, the second caliph, al-Amīn took precedence in the succession over his elder half brother, al-Ma?mūn, whose mother was a Persian slave. In 809, al-Amīn succeeded to the

  • Amin, Mustafa (Egyptian journalist)

    Mustafa Amin, outspoken Egyptian journalist and publisher who was sentenced to life imprisonment under Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser as an American spy in 1965, allegedly because he promoted Western-style democracy and closer ties to the U.S.; he was released by Pres. Anwar as-Sadat in 1974 (b. Feb. 21,

  • āminah (mother of Muhammad)

    Muhammad: Biography according to the Islamic tradition: …Muhammad also loses his mother āminah, and at eight he loses his grandfather. Thereupon responsibility for Muhammad is assumed by the new head of the clan of Hāshim, his uncle Abū ?ālib. While accompanying his uncle on a trading journey to Syria, Muhammad is recognized as a future prophet by…

  • Aminata (American vocalist, songwriter, and actress)

    Abbey Lincoln, (Anna Marie Wooldridge; Gaby Lee; Aminata; Moseka), American vocalist, songwriter, and actress (born Aug. 6, 1930, Chicago, Ill.—died Aug. 14, 2010, New York, N.Y.), wrote songs about black culture and civil rights and sang them in a dramatic, evocative style. She grew up in southern

  • Amindivi Islands (islands, India)

    Lakshadweep: Relief, soils, and climate: 6 km) in breadth; the Amindivis are the northernmost islands of the group, and Minicoy Island is the southernmost island. Almost all the inhabited islands are coral atolls. The higher eastern sides of the islands are the most suited for human habitation, while the low-lying lagoons on the western sides…

  • amine (chemical compound)

    Amine, any member of a family of nitrogen-containing organic compounds that is derived, either in principle or in practice, from ammonia (NH3). Naturally occurring amines include the alkaloids, which are present in certain plants; the catecholamine neurotransmitters (i.e., dopamine, epinephrine,

  • amino acid (chemical compound)

    Amino acid, any of a group of organic molecules that consist of a basic amino group (―NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (―COOH), and an organic R group (or side chain) that is unique to each amino acid. The term amino acid is short for α-amino [alpha-amino] carboxylic acid. Each molecule contains a

  • amino group (chemistry)

    human respiratory system: Transport of carbon dioxide: Amino groups of the hemoglobin molecule react reversibly with carbon dioxide in solution to yield carbamates. A few amino sites on hemoglobin are oxylabile, that is, their ability to bind carbon dioxide depends on the state of oxygenation of the hemoglobin molecule. The change in…

  • amino sugar (chemistry)

    monosaccharide: Amino sugars (i.e., sugars in which one or two hydroxyl groups are replaced with an amino group, ―NH2) occur as components of glycolipids and in the chitin of arthropods.

  • aminoacyl tRNA (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Synthesis of proteins: …the other product is called aminoacyl–tRNA ([88b]). In E. coli the amino acid that begins the assembly of the protein is always formylmethionine (f-Met). There is no evidence that f-Met is involved in protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells.

  • aminoacyl-acceptor site (biochemistry)

    metabolism: Synthesis of proteins: …the aminoacyl–tRNA moves from the aminoacyl-acceptor (A) site on the ribosome to another site, called a peptidyl-donor (P) site.

  • aminoacyl-AMP complex (biochemistry)

    metabolism: Synthesis of proteins: …effects the formation of an aminoacyl–AMP complex ([88a]) in a manner somewhat analogous to reaction [77]; ATP is required, and inorganic pyrophosphate is a product. The aminoacyl–AMP, which remains bound to the enzyme, is transferred to a specific molecule of tRNA in a reaction catalyzed by the same enzyme. AMP…

  • aminoacyl-transfer RNA (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Synthesis of proteins: …the other product is called aminoacyl–tRNA ([88b]). In E. coli the amino acid that begins the assembly of the protein is always formylmethionine (f-Met). There is no evidence that f-Met is involved in protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells.

  • aminobenzoic acid (chemical compound)

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a vitamin-like substance and a growth factor required by several types of microorganisms. In bacteria, PABA is used in the synthesis of the vitamin folic acid. The drug sulfanilamide is effective in treating some bacterial diseases because it prevents the bacterial

  • aminoglycoside (chemical compound)

    Aminoglycoside, any of several natural and semisynthetic compounds that are used to treat bacterial diseases. The term aminoglycoside is derived from the chemical structure of these compounds, which are made up of amino groups (―NH2) attached to glycosides (derivatives of sugar). The first

  • aminohippuric acid (chemical compound)

    renal system: Quantitative tests: Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), when introduced into the bloodstream and kept at relatively low plasma concentrations, is rapidly excreted into the urine by both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Sampling of blood from the renal vein reveals that 90 percent of PAH is removed by a…

  • aminosalicylic acid (chemical compound)

    history of medicine: Antituberculous drugs: …the two most important being para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid. With a combination of two or more of these preparations, the outlook in tuberculosis improved immeasurably. The disease was not conquered, but it was brought well under control.

  • aminotransferase (enzyme)

    Transaminase, any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the amino group (―NH2) of an amino acid to a carbonyl compound, commonly an a-keto acid (an acid with the general formula RCOCOOH). The liver, for example, contains specific transaminases for the transfer of an amino group from

  • Aminta (work by Tasso)

    Battista Guarini: …earlier work in this genre, Aminta (1573), it had a more immediate success, becoming one of the most famous and most widely translated and imitated works of the age. For nearly two centuries Il pastor fido was regarded as a code of gallantry and a guide to manners. An English…

  • Aminta, L’? (work by Tasso)

    Battista Guarini: …earlier work in this genre, Aminta (1573), it had a more immediate success, becoming one of the most famous and most widely translated and imitated works of the age. For nearly two centuries Il pastor fido was regarded as a code of gallantry and a guide to manners. An English…

  • Amiot, Jean-Joseph-Marie (Jesuit missionary)

    Jean-Joseph-Marie Amiot, Jesuit missionary whose writings made accessible to Europeans the thought and life of East Asia. Amiot entered the Society of Jesus in 1737 and was sent as a missionary to China in 1750. While in China, he helped verify certain geographical locations, thereby making a major

  • amīr (Islamic title)

    Emir, (“commander,” or “prince”), in the Muslim Middle East, a military commander, governor of a province, or a high military official. Under the Umayyads, the emir exercised administrative and financial powers, somewhat diminished under the ?Abbāsids, who introduced a separate financial officer. S

  • amīr al-ba?r (Islamic title)

    admiral: …with Muslim Arabs, who combined amīr (“commander”), the article al, and ba?r (“sea”) to make amīr al-ba?r. Shortened to amiral, the title was adopted for naval use by the Sicilians. The French copied the word from the Genoese during the Seventh Crusade (1248–54). The Latin word admirabilis (“admirable”) may have…

  • amīr al-mu?minīn (Islamic title)

    Rashidun: …the Friday sermons; and as umarā? al-mu?minīn (“commanders of the faithful”), they commanded the army.

  • amīr al-umarā? (Islamic title)

    Iran: The Būyids: …other for the office of amīr al-umarā? (commander in chief), who virtually ruled Iraq on behalf of the caliphs. When A?mad gained Khūzestān, he was close to the scene of the amīr al-umarā? contests, which he chose to settle by himself. A?mad entered Baghdad in 945 and assumed control of…

  • Amir Ali, Sayyid (Indian political leader)

    Sayyid Amir Ali, jurist, writer, and Muslim leader who favoured British rule in India rather than possible Hindu domination of an independent India. Amir Ali, who traced his ancestry to the Prophet Muhammad’s daughter Fā?imah, received his law degree from the University of Calcutta. He was called

  • Amīr Barīd (Bidār ruler)

    India: Successors to the Bahmanī: …hands of Qasīm Barīd’s son Amīr Barīd upon his father’s death in 1505, thus establishing what proved to be a dynastic claim for the Barīd Shāhī dynasty of Bidar.

  • Amīr Khosrow (Indian poet)

    Amīr Khosrow, poet and historian, considered one of India’s greatest Persian-language poets. Amīr Khosrow was the son of a Turkish officer in the service of Iltutmish, sultan of Delhi, and for his entire life he enjoyed the patronage of the Muslim rulers of Delhi, especially Sultan Ghīyās-ud-Dīn

  • Amīr Lakes (lake system, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Drainage: …Bābā Mountains known as the Amīr lakes; they are noted for their unusual shades of colour, from milky white to dark green, a condition caused by the underlying bedrock.

  • ?āmir, ?Abd al-?akīm (Egyptian military official and vice president)

    ?Abd al-?akīm ?āmir, military official who helped establish Egypt as a republic in 1952 and, as leader of the army, was one of the most powerful figures in Egypt until his death. As army chief of staff he led Egyptian forces to defeat in the Six-Day War of June 1967. ?āmir attended War College,

  • ?āmirah, al- (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Amratian culture: …Upper Egypt, its type-site being Al-?āmirah near modern Abydos. Numerous sites, dating to about 3600 bce, have been excavated and reveal an agricultural way of life similar to that of the preceding Badarian culture but with advanced skills and techniques. Pottery characteristic of this period includes black-topped red ware and…

  • Amiran-Darejaniani (Georgian literature)

    Georgian literature: Origins and early development: …preceded and perhaps influenced by Amiran-Darejaniani (probably c. 1050; Eng. trans. Amiran-Darejaniani), a wild prose tale of battling knights, attributed by Rustaveli to Mose Khoneli, who is otherwise unknown.

  • Amirante Isles (islands, Seychelles)

    Amirante Isles, group of coral islands in the western Indian Ocean, lying about 200 miles (320 km) southwest of the Seychelles group and forming, with the Seychelles and other islands, the Republic of Seychelles. The Amirante Isles were known to Persian Gulf traders centuries ago and were sighted

  • ?āmirids (Islamic dynasty)

    Abū ?āmir al-Man?ūr: …his family, known as the ?āmirids, retained power for only a few more years.

  • ?āmiriyyah, Al- (Egypt)

    Al-?āmiriyyah: …(Mareotis) on the southwest, is Al-?āmiriyyah town. This town was originally a small gypsum-mining centre on the desert roads leading south to Cairo and west along the coast to Marsā Ma?rū?. Al-?āmiriyyah’s modern development began in the late 1970s, when construction started on major industrial plants in the district, including…

  • ?āmiriyyah, Al- (district, Egypt)

    Al-?āmiriyyah, industrial district of Al-Iskandariyyah (Alexandria) mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northern Egypt. The centre of the 913-square-mile (2,365-square-km) district, which adjoins Lake Maryū? (Mareotis) on the southwest, is Al-?āmiriyyah town. This town was originally a small gypsum-mining

  • Amis (French legendary figures)

    Amis and Amiles, chief characters in an Old French metrical romance, based on an older and widespread legend of friendship and sacrifice. In its simplest form the story tells of the knights Amis and Amiles and of their lifelong devotion to one another. The tale, probably of Oriental origin, was

  • Amis and Amiles (French legendary figures)

    Amis and Amiles, chief characters in an Old French metrical romance, based on an older and widespread legend of friendship and sacrifice. In its simplest form the story tells of the knights Amis and Amiles and of their lifelong devotion to one another. The tale, probably of Oriental origin, was

  • Amis de la Constitution, Société des (French political history)

    Jacobin Club, the most famous political group of the French Revolution, which became identified with extreme egalitarianism and violence and which led the Revolutionary government from mid-1793 to mid-1794. The Jacobins originated as the Club Breton at Versailles, where the deputies from Brittany

  • Amis des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen, Société des (French political history)

    Club of the Cordeliers, one of the popular clubs of the French Revolution, founded in 1790 to prevent the abuse of power and “infractions of the rights of man.” The club’s popular name was derived from its original meeting place in Paris, the nationalized monastery of the Cordeliers (Franciscans).

  • Amis du Manifest et de la Liberté (Algerian organization)

    Ferhat Abbas: …et de la Liberté (AML; Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty), which envisioned an Algerian autonomous republic federated to a renewed, anti-colonial France. After the suppression of the AML and a year’s imprisonment, in 1946 he founded the Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (UDMA; Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto),…

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