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  • American School of Classical Studies (school, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: The Agora: …to the Agora, which the American School of Classical Studies started restoring in 1931, paying $2.5 million compensation to the several hundred families living there. Financed by, among others, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Marshall Plan, and the Greek government, the work went on until 1960. It includes what has been…

  • American School of Oriental Research (school, Jerusalem)

    Charles Cutler Torrey: …of Archaeology (later renamed the American School of Oriental Research) at Jerusalem.

  • American School Peace League (American organization)

    Fannie Fern Phillips Andrews: …and pacifism in organizing the American School Peace League. Through her remarkable talents for publicizing and enlisting support, the league grew rapidly throughout the country. Pacifist literature and study courses produced by the league, much of the material written by Andrews, were circulated widely and in 1912 began to be…

  • American sea rocket (plant)
  • American seat (horse racing)

    horse racing: Racing strategy: …and a crouching posture—this “American seat” eventually became standard worldwide for all distances. As longer, elliptical racetracks were built in New York and throughout the South, a greater onus was placed on jockeys to pace their horses. Because Thoroughbred horses are capable of running only about a quarter of…

  • American shad (fish)

    shad: The American shad (Alosa sapidissima), formerly found only on the Atlantic coast from Florida to Newfoundland, was introduced into the Pacific Ocean in 1871 and now ranges from San Diego to British Columbia. It is a migratory plankton eater and evidently enters deep water in fall.…

  • American Shakespeare Festival (theatre, Stratford, Connecticut, United States)

    Morris Carnovsky: …John Houseman to join the American Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Conn., where he appeared in such parts as Shylock in The Merchant of Venice and as Lear in King Lear. He later made two more motion pictures, A View from the Bridge (1962) and The Gambler (1974). He was inducted…

  • American Shingle (architectural style)

    Norman Shaw: …in the development of the American Shingle style. Shaw was also chosen to design the castle-like New Scotland Yard building in Whitehall, London, which opened in 1890. It was renamed the Norman Shaw Building after the present Scotland Yard edifice was opened in 1967.

  • American shrew mole (mammal)

    mole: Mole diversity: The smallest mole is the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii), which weighs only 7 to 11 grams (0.25 to 0.39 ounce) and has a body 3 to 4 cm (less than 2 inches) long and a slightly shorter tail. The largest is the Russian desman (Desmana moschata) of central Eurasia,…

  • American Sign Language (communications)

    American Sign Language (ASL), visual-gestural language used by most of the deaf community in the United States and Canada. ASL is a natural language with a structure quite different from spoken English. It is not a manual-gestural representation of spoken English, nor is it pantomime. Instead, ASL

  • American Skin (41 Shots) (song by Springsteen)

    Bruce Springsteen: Without The Big Man: …of Tom Joad” and “American Skin (41 Shots).” The latter song—a complex exploration of the death in 1999 of Amadou Diallo, an unarmed Guinean immigrant who was shot repeatedly by New York City police officers who thought he was going for a gun when he reached for his wallet—took…

  • American smelt (fish)

    smelt: The American smelt (Osmerus mordax) has been introduced from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes and supports a sizable commercial fishery. The largest smelt, about 37.5 cm (15 inches) long, spawns in late winter or spring, its sticky eggs adhering to objects they touch. The…

  • American Sniper (film by Eastwood [2014])

    Clint Eastwood: 2000 and beyond: …a Navy SEAL sniper’s memoir, American Sniper (2014), was lauded for the finesse with which it depicted both the violence of the Iraq War and the difficulty of a soldier’s adjustment to civilian existence. The film received an Academy Award nomination for best picture. Eastwood continued to draw inspiration from…

  • American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States (abolitionist organization)

    American Colonization Society, American organization dedicated to transporting freeborn blacks and emancipated slaves to Africa. It was founded in 1816 by Robert Finley, a Presbyterian minister, and some of the country’s most influential men, including Francis Scott Key, Henry Clay, and Bushrod

  • American Society for Horticultural Science (American organization)

    horticulture: Horticultural education and research: The American Society for Horticultural Science was established in 1903 and became perhaps the most widely known scientific society devoted to horticulture. The International Society for Horticultural Science, formed in 1959 in Belgium, sponsors international congresses every four years. Most societies and horticultural organizations publish periodicals,…

  • American Society for Testing and Materials

    cement: Strength: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification requires tensile tests on a 1:3 cement-sand mortar and compressive tests on a 1:2.75 mortar. The British Standards Institution (BSI) gives as alternatives a compressive test on a 1:3 mortar or on a concrete specimen. An international…

  • American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (American organization)

    cruelty to animals: …in England in 1824; the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was chartered in 1866. In varying degrees, cruelty to animals is illegal in most countries, and interest in endangered species gave further impetus to the anticruelty movement in the late 20th century. Reflecting such interest, many…

  • American Society of Civil Engineers (American organization)

    map: Government and other mapping agencies: …American Society of Photogrammetry, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and others, lend their support to mapping programs and activities. They issue technical papers and hold frequent meetings where new processes and instrumentation are discussed and displayed. The Manual of Photogrammetry and Journal, produced by the American Society of Photogrammetry,…

  • American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (music organization)

    ASCAP, American organization, established in 1914, that was the first such body formed to protect the rights of composers and collect fees for the public performances of their music. In accordance with intellectual-property and copyright laws, it collects royalties and licensing fees from music

  • American Society of Crime Lab Directors (American organization)

    crime laboratory: Crime laboratory issues: …by an arm of the American Society of Crime Lab Directors. That accreditation signifies that the lab meets certain minimum standards in physical plant, documentation, analytical processes, and personnel but does not assess the qualifications and competency of the employees. Additionally, as many state or provincial and municipal labs are…

  • American Society of Industrial Designers (American organization)

    industrial design: Modern design in the United States: …eventually merged to form the Industrial Designers Society of America (1965). As with the Deutscher Werkbund and most professional organizations, these served to validate the profession in the view of the public and to facilitate communication among their members.

  • American Society of International Law (American organization)

    James Brown Scott: …and president (1929–39) of the American Society of International Law, he also served as editor in chief of its journal, the first English-language periodical of its kind. He was a delegate to the peace conferences at The Hague (1907) and Paris (1919).

  • American Society of Photogrammetry (American organization)

    map: Government and other mapping agencies: …on Surveying and Mapping, the American Society of Photogrammetry, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and others, lend their support to mapping programs and activities. They issue technical papers and hold frequent meetings where new processes and instrumentation are discussed and displayed. The Manual of Photogrammetry and Journal, produced by…

  • American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses of the United States and Canada

    Mary Adelaide Nutting: …for Nursing Education; now the National League for Nursing) and twice served as president.

  • American Sociological Association (American organization)

    sociology: Academic status: Ten years later the American Sociological Society was organized, also to be followed by a large number of national, regional, international, and specialized sociological organizations. These groups institutionalized the subject and continue to guide its directions and define its boundaries. Eventually in 1949 the International Sociological Association was established…

  • American Sociological Society (American organization)

    sociology: Academic status: Ten years later the American Sociological Society was organized, also to be followed by a large number of national, regional, international, and specialized sociological organizations. These groups institutionalized the subject and continue to guide its directions and define its boundaries. Eventually in 1949 the International Sociological Association was established…

  • American sole (fish family)

    pleuronectiform: Annotated classification: …20 species Family Achiridae (American soles) Eyes small, dextral; sensory papillae on head; margin of preoperculum represented by a superficial groove; dorsal and anal fins free from caudal fin; right pelvic fin attached to anal fin. 7 genera and about 30 species. Marine and freshwater, along the Atlantic and…

  • American Solutions for Winning the Future (American organization)

    Newt Gingrich: 2012 presidential campaign: In 2007 he founded American Solutions for Winning the Future, a public policy organization. Amid speculation that he would run for president in 2012, Fox terminated his contract in May 2011. Shortly thereafter Gingrich announced his candidacy. Gingrich’s campaign was almost over before it began, however, when many of…

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    speech disorder: Development of speech correction: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), founded in 1925 in New York City as the American Academy of Speech Correction, became the organizing, examining, and supervisory body for a rapidly growing membership, which surpassed 130,000 by 2008. Many colleges and universities in the United States are accredited…

  • American Spelling Book, The (work by Webster)

    Noah Webster: …American lexicographer known for his American Spelling Book (1783) and his American Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vol. (1828; 2nd ed., 1840). Webster was instrumental in giving American English a dignity and vitality of its own. Both his speller and dictionary reflected his principle that spelling, grammar, and usage…

  • American spider beetle (insect)

    spider beetle: … (Ptinus fur) and the shiny American spider beetle (Mezium americanum) are household pests in North America.

  • American spikenard (plant, Aralia species)

    spikenard: American spikenard (A. racemosa) is a North American member of the ginseng family (Araliaceae). The plant is characterized by large spicy-smelling roots and is cultivated as an ornamental. It grows 3.5 metres (11 feet) tall and has leaves divided into three heart-shaped parts. The flowers…

  • American spiny rat (rodent)

    American spiny rat, (family Echimyidae), any of at least 80 nocturnal species of medium-sized Central and South American rodents that have a bristly coat of flat flexible spines, although a few have soft fur. Like “true” rats and mice (family Muridae), spiny rats are slender and have short limbs,

  • American Splendor (film by Berman [2003])

    Paul Giamatti: …first leading role came in American Splendor (2003), a critically lauded film about American comic-book author Harvey Pekar. He followed with the enormously successful Sideways (2004), in which Giamatti played a failed novelist and recently divorced high-school English teacher who travels with his friend to the wine-making regions of California…

  • American spreading globeflower (plant)

    globeflower: The American spreading globeflower (T. laxus), with greenish-yellow flowers, is native to the swamps of the eastern United States; T. laxus albiflorus is a white-flowered variety found in the northwestern United States.

  • American squash rackets (sport)

    squash rackets: …“British,” or “international,” version) and hardball (the “American” version). In softball, which is the standard game internationally, the game is played with a softer, slower ball on the kind of wide, tall court shown in the accompanying diagram. The ball stays in play far longer, and there is more court…

  • American Staffordshire Terrier (breed of dog)

    American Staffordshire Terrier, breed of dog, originally called Staffordshire Terrier when registered with the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1936, that was developed in the United States and based on the smaller British Staffordshire Bull Terrier. The ancestry of the American Staffordshire Terrier,

  • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (communications)

    ASCII, a standard data-transmission code that is used by smaller and less-powerful computers to represent both textual data (letters, numbers, and punctuation marks) and noninput-device commands (control characters). Like other coding systems, it converts information into standardized digital f

  • American Standard Version (religious literature)

    biblical literature: The American Standard Version: According to the original agreement between the British and American scholars who worked on the Revised Version, the preferred readings and renderings of the American revisers that their British counterparts had declined to accept were published in an appendix to the Revised…

  • American Standardbred (breed of horse)

    Standardbred, breed of horse developed in the United States in the 19th century and used primarily for harness racing. The foundation sire of this breed was the English Thoroughbred Messenger (1780–1808), imported to the United States in 1788. His progeny, of great trotting capacity, were bred

  • American star thistle (plant)

    Basket-flower, (Plectocephalus americanus), annual garden and wildflower of the family Asteraceae, native to southwestern North America. Resembling a spineless thistle, the basket-flower grows up to 150 cm (5 feet) tall and has stout branching stems that bear oblong leaves arranged alternately. The

  • American States, Organization of

    Organization of American States (OAS), organization formed to promote economic, military, and cultural cooperation among its members, which include almost all of the independent states of the Western Hemisphere. The OAS’s main goals are to prevent any outside state’s intervention in the Western

  • American Steel & Wire Company (American company)

    John Warne Gates: …barbed-wire plant into the $90,000,000 American Steel & Wire Co.

  • American stint (bird)

    sandpiper: The least sandpiper (C. minutilla), less than 15 cm in length, is the smallest sandpiper. It is sometimes called the American stint and is abundant in Alaska and across sub-Arctic Canada to Nova Scotia. It winters on coasts from Oregon and North Carolina to South America.…

  • American Stock Exchange (finance)

    NYSE Amex Equities, major U.S. stock exchange that also handles trades in options, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), corporate bonds, and other investment vehicles. Trading on NYSE Amex Equities—originally known as the “Curb” (because its transactions took place outdoors during much of its

  • American stroke (rowing)

    Hiram Boardman Conibear: …distinctive style known as the American stroke (also called the Washington stroke and the Conibear stroke) that revolutionized college rowing and had an effect on the sport that lasted for 30 years.

  • American Stud Book (American horse breed registry)

    jockey club: …North America, it maintains the American Stud Book, which includes all Thoroughbreds foaled in or imported into the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. It also serves as the major registry of stable names and racing silks (colours and patterns) in the United States.

  • American Subarctic people

    American Subarctic peoples, Native American peoples whose traditional area of residence is the subarctic region of Alaska and Canada. Those from Alaska are often referred to in aggregate as Native Alaskans, while in Canada they are known as First Nations peoples (see Sidebar: Tribal Nomenclature:

  • American Sugar Refining Company (American company)

    United States v. E.C. Knight Company: …Company gained control of the American Sugar Refining Company. By 1892 American Sugar enjoyed a virtual monopoly of sugar refining in the United States, controlling 98 percent of the industry.

  • American sweet gum (plant)

    sweet gum: The American sweet gum, or bilsted (Liquidambar styraciflua), which sometimes reaches 45 metres (150 feet) in moist lowlands but is usually half that height at maturity, is grown for its handsome foliage, shade, and scarlet autumnal colour. It is also valued for its heartwood, called red…

  • American sycamore (plant)

    plane tree: The American plane tree, or sycamore (P. occidentalis), also known as buttonwood, buttonball, or whitewood, is the tallest, sometimes reaching a height of more than 50 m (160 feet). Its pendent, smooth, ball-shaped seed clusters usually dangle singly and often persist after leaf fall. Native from…

  • American System (19th-century economic plan)

    Henry Clay: …who was noted for his American System (which integrated a national bank, the tariff, and internal improvements to promote economic stability and prosperity) and was a major promoter of the Missouri Compromise (1820) and the Compromise of 1850, both efforts to shield the American union from sectional discord over slavery.…

  • American system (livestock farming)

    farm building: Livestock barns and shelters: …first of these is the American system, with very large groups of animals and a wide surface per animal. In the western United States the open feedlots include only fences, troughs, and alleys for feed distribution. In the Midwest Corn Belt a shelter is often included. The second, the European…

  • American System (industry)

    American System, production of many identical parts and their assembly into finished products. Though Eli Whitney has been credited with this development, the ideas had appeared earlier in Europe and were being practiced in arms factories in the United States. (See armoury practice.) Marc Brunel,

  • American Tabloid (novel by Ellroy)

    James Ellroy: trilogy, American Tabloid (1995), which treats the years 1958–63, ending with the assassination of U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy. Its sequel, The Cold Six Thousand (2001), covers the turbulent years between the president’s assassination and that of his brother Robert in 1968. The final volume of…

  • American Telephone & Telegraph Building (building, New York City, New York, United States)

    Philip Johnson: …with the New York City American Telephone and Telegraph headquarters (1984; now the Sony building). Designed with a top resembling a Chippendale cabinet, the building was considered by critics to be a landmark in the history of postmodern architecture. Johnson turned explicitly to the 18th century for his design of…

  • American Telephone & Telegraph Company (American company)

    AT&T Corporation, American corporation that provides long-distance telephone and other telecommunications services. It is a descendant of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, which built much of the United States’ long-distance and local telephone networks, becoming the world’s largest

  • American Textile History Museum (museum, Lowell, Massachusetts, United States)

    quilting: The quilt revival: …museums and collections include the American Textile History Museum and New England Quilt Museum, both in Lowell, Massachusetts; the Museum of the American Quilter, Paducah, Kentucky; the International Quilt Study Center, Lincoln, Nebraska; the Rocky Mountain Quilt Museum, Golden, Colorado; the San Jose Museum of Quilts and Textiles, San Jose,…

  • American Theatre Association (American theatre)
  • American Theatre Wing (American organization)

    Antoinette Perry: She helped found the American Theatre Wing (ATW), which operated the well-known Stage Door Canteens in several cities and otherwise provided hospitality and entertainment for servicemen, and was its chairman from 1941 to 1944. She also staged an ATW production of The Barretts of Wimpole Street, with Katharine Cornell,…

  • American toad (amphibian)

    toad: True toads, of which the American toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. Their size ranges from about 2 to 25 cm (1 to 10 inches). The thick, dry, often warty…

  • American Tobacco Company (American industrial conglomerate)

    American Tobacco Company, American industrial conglomerate that was once the world’s largest cigarette maker. The history of the American Tobacco Company traces to the post-Civil War period in North Carolina, when a Confederate veteran, Washington Duke, began trading in tobacco. In 1874 he and his

  • American Tragedy, An (novel by Dreiser)

    An American Tragedy, novel by Theodore Dreiser, published in 1925. It is a complex and compassionate account of the life and death of a young antihero named Clyde Griffiths. The novel begins with Clyde’s blighted background, recounts his path to success, and culminates in his apprehension, trial,

  • American transit (instrument)

    theodolite: The transit is a variety of theodolite that has the telescope so mounted that it can be completely reversed, or transited. The phototheodolite, a combination camera and theodolite mounted on the same tripod, is used in terrestrial photogrammetry for mapmaking and other purposes.

  • American tree moss (plant)

    tree moss: …in North America, and the American tree moss (C. americanum). Both are about 5 to 10 centimetres (2 to 4 inches) high, with the branches clustered at the top of the shoot. The reddish-brown capsules (spore cases), borne on the female plant, have lids with long beaks and mature in…

  • American treecreeper (bird)

    treecreeper: Formerly, the American treecreeper or brown creeper (C. americana) of North America was thought to be a subspecies of C. familiaris.

  • American Tribune Soldiers Colony Company (military organization)

    Fitzgerald: The American Tribune Soldiers Colony Company was organized and purchased land near Swan, a tiny lumber camp. The town was laid out symmetrically with street names honouring both North and South.

  • American trypanosomiasis (infectious disease)

    Chagas disease, infection with the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is transmitted to humans by bloodsucking reduviid bugs and is endemic in most rural areas of Central and South America. The disease is most often transmitted by contact with the feces of infected insects, commonly through

  • American tulip tree (tree)

    Tulip tree, (Liriodendron tulipifera), North American ornamental and timber tree of the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae), order Magnoliales, not related to the true poplars. The tulip tree occurs in mixed-hardwood stands in eastern North America. It is taller than all other eastern broad-leaved

  • American Turners (American organization)

    turnverein: …the organization now called the American Turners was founded. Similar organizations, called Sokols (see Sokol), formed in Bohemia (modern Czech Republic) in the 1860s, emphasized social and communal unity rather than nationalism.

  • American Union Against Militarism (American organization)

    Lillian D. Wald: …Trade Union League, and the American Union Against Militarism, which she, Kelley, and Jane Addams helped organize in 1914 and of which she was elected president. During World War I she headed the committee on home nursing of the Council of National Defense. She led the Nurses’ Emergency Council in…

  • American Unitarian Association

    Unitarianism and Universalism: American Unitarianism: In 1825 the American Unitarian Association (AUA), an association of individuals, was organized.

  • American University (university, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    American University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Washington, D.C. The American University was incorporated in 1891 as a graduate school and research centre with ties to the Methodist church. It was chartered by an act of the U.S. Congress in 1893 but did not begin to

  • American Utopia (album by Byrne)

    David Byrne: …also that year he released American Utopia, on which he again partnered with Eno. The album inspired the Broadway production David Byrne’s American Utopia (2019– ), which also featured songs from Talking Heads.

  • American Visionary Art Museum (museum, Baltimore, Maryland, United States)

    American Visionary Art Museum (AVAM), landmark museum in Baltimore, Md., displaying works by self-taught artists whose aesthetic sensibilities are personal rather than developed from an existing cultural tradition. The mission of the AVAM is to collect and display the work of self-taught artists.

  • American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America (television program)

    Robert Hughes: …television series for PBS called American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America. Like his richly illustrated companion book of the same title, the highly acclaimed series explored the emergence of art in the United States as a reflection of contemporary political and social events. A six-part series, Australia:…

  • American Voluntary Medical Team (American organization)

    Cindy McCain: In 1988 she founded the American Voluntary Medical Team (AVMT), a nonprofit organization that provided medical care to people in impoverished and war-ravaged countries throughout the world. Cindy herself led more than 50 excursions to deliver aid and supplies. In the late 1980s she became addicted to prescription painkillers, and…

  • American Volunteer Group (United States military)

    Flying Tigers, American volunteer pilots recruited by Claire L. Chennault, a retired U.S. Army captain, to fight the Japanese in Burma (Myanmar) and China during 1941–42, at a time when Japan’s control over China’s ports and transportation system had almost cut off China’s Nationalist government

  • American Voter, The (work by Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes)

    political science: Behavioralism: In The American Voter (1960), Angus Campbell, Philip Converse, William Miller, and Donald Stokes used the results of studies by the SRC to develop the concept of party identification—the long-term psychological attachment of a voter to a political party. The long-recognized influences of religion, social class,…

  • American Waltham Watch Company

    Aaron Lufkin Dennison: …in 1859, ultimately becoming the Waltham Watch Company, which was the leading American maker of railroad chronometers as well as one of the most popular pocket watches before the company phased out American production in the 1950s. Dennison severed his connection with the company in 1862 and eventually moved to…

  • American water shrew (mammal)

    water shrew: The North American water shrew (S. palustris) is found throughout much of the western United States and Canada, from the plains to the mountains. It is the smallest and least specialized species of water shrew, weighing up to 18 grams, with a body 6 to 9…

  • American water spaniel (breed of dog)

    American water spaniel, breed of sporting dog originating in the United States in the late 1800s, bred to retrieve on land or to leap into the water from a boat to retrieve birds. Its ancestors are unknown, but the breed likely was developed from other spaniels and the Irish water spaniel or the

  • American water vole (rodent)

    vole: …States and Canada, the semiaquatic American water voles (M. richardsoni) dwell close to clear spring-fed or glacial streams and the edges of ponds. They are adept swimmers and divers whose pathways extend along and cross over springs and streams. Their burrow entrances may be at water level or submerged. Their…

  • American Watercolor Society (American organization)

    Samuel Colman: Smillie, he founded the American Water Color Society (1866), becoming its first president. His own watercolour paintings are particularly fine. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Design in 1862. Among his works are “The Ships of the Western Plains” and “The Spanish Peaks, Colorado.”

  • American Way (American company)

    marketing: Direct selling: …used by companies such as Amway and Shaklee, distributors are rewarded not only for their direct sales but also for the sales of those they have recruited to become distributors. In 2007 Amway’s parent company tested an Internet recruitment model by launching Fanista, a Web site that sells entertainment media…

  • American Way of Death, The (work by Mitford)

    Jessica Mitford: Mitford’s second book, The American Way of Death (1963), a caustic examination of unscrupulous practices in the American funeral industry, became a best-seller. Her long-standing interest in civil-rights cases found expression in the book The Trial of Dr. Spock (1969), an account of the famous pediatrician’s trial on…

  • American wayfaring tree (plant)

    viburnum: The American wayfaring tree, or hobblebush (V. alnifolium), native to eastern North America, grows to 3 metres (10 feet) tall; it has roundish leaves, with white flower clusters and red berries that turn purple-black at maturity. The wayfaring tree of Europe, V. lantana, grows to 5…

  • American Western University (university, Athens, Ohio, United States)

    Ohio University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Athens, Ohio, U.S., about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Columbus. It was the first institution of higher education in the Northwest Territory. The university has branches in Chillicothe, Ironton, Lancaster, St. Clairsville,

  • American white hellebore (plant)

    hellebore: …as an arrow poison, and American white hellebore (V. viride), also called itchweed. The plants have simple, parallel-veined leaves and terminal clusters of small flowers.

  • American whitewood (tree)

    Tulip tree, (Liriodendron tulipifera), North American ornamental and timber tree of the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae), order Magnoliales, not related to the true poplars. The tulip tree occurs in mixed-hardwood stands in eastern North America. It is taller than all other eastern broad-leaved

  • American wigeon (bird)

    Baldpate, popular North American game duck, also known as the American wigeon. See

  • American wild bunch grape (plant)

    Vitaceae: vinifera) and the North American fox grape (V. labrusca), the parent species of most of the cultivated slipskin American grapes. The Boston ivy (q.v.; Parthenocissus tricuspidata) and the Virginia creeper (q.v.; P. quinquefolia) are well-known woody vines common in the eastern United States.

  • American wisteria (plant)
  • American wit

    American literature, the body of written works produced in the English language in the United States. Like other national literatures, American literature was shaped by the history of the country that produced it. For almost a century and a half, America was merely a group of colonies scattered

  • American witch hazel (plant)

    witch hazel: American, or common, witch hazel (H. virginiana), up to 4 12 metres (15 feet) tall, bears its flowers in late fall, with the explosive fruits ripening in the following year. Its yellow, cuplike calyx (the collection of sepals) persists through the winter. The common name…

  • American Woman (album by the Guess Who)

    the Guess Who: International success: …It was the next album, American Woman (1970), however, that made the Guess Who stars. Its title track, the first recording by a Canadian rock group to hit No. 1 in the United States on the Billboard Hot 100, had serendipitous origins, beginning as a riff improvised by Bachman while…

  • American Woman (song by the Guess Who)

    Burton Cummings: The Guess Who years: …“No Sugar Tonight,” and “American Woman” (the first song by a Canadian band to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart) before Bachman’s departure in May 1970. While Bachman initially took Cummings under his wing, the relationship between the two became strained after the group achieved stardom.…

  • American Woman Suffrage Association (American organization)

    American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), American political organization that worked from 1869 to 1890 to gain for women the right to vote. Based in Boston, Massachusetts, the AWSA was created by Lucy Stone, Henry B. Blackwell, Julia Ward Howe, T.W. Higginson, and others when two factions of the

  • American Women’s Voluntary Services (American organization)

    Alice Throckmorton McLean: In 1940 she organized the American Women’s Voluntary Services (AWVS). Despite the prevailing mood of isolationism in the nation at that time, McLean succeeded in rapidly building a sizable organization interested in preparing the home front for war. By the time of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the AWVS numbered…

  • American Wood Paper Company (American company)

    Hugh Burgess: Keen, founded the American Wood Paper Company at Royersford, Pa., in 1863, serving as manager until his death. Although this firm eventually went bankrupt, it established the soda process in the paper industry.

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