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  • American National Standards Institute (American organization)

    drafting: Standards: …in the United States the American National Standards Institute and its predecessors have encouraged this process and published standards for projections, various types of sections, dimensioning and tolerancing, representation of screw threads, all types of fasteners, graphic symbols for various specialties, and a great deal more. In other industrialized nations,…

  • American Nautical Almanac (American periodical)

    Charles Henry Davis: …prime mover in establishing the American Nautical Almanac (1849), supervising its preparation for several years. A tireless worker for scientific progress, Davis was one of the founders of the National Academy of Sciences in 1863. He also wrote several scientific books.

  • American Negro Academy (American organization)

    American Negro Academy, scholarly and artistic organization founded in 1897 in Washington, D.C., that was dedicated to the education and empowerment of African Americans. The American Negro Academy was founded by Alexander Crummell, who was the son of a West African chief and was an important

  • American Negro Theatre (American theatrical company)

    American Negro Theatre (ANT), African American theatre company that was active in the Harlem district of New York City from 1940 to 1951. It provided professional training and critical exposure to African American actors, actresses, and playwrights by creating and producing plays concerning diverse

  • American Newspaper Guild (American labour organization)

    Heywood Broun: He established the American Newspaper Guild, which he served as president until his death.

  • American Notes (work by Dickens)

    American Notes, nonfiction book written by Charles Dickens, published in 1842. It is an account of his first visit to the United States, a five-month tour (January–June 1842) that led him to criticize the vulgarity and meanness he found there. Although he was a vocal critic of Britain’s

  • American Nurses Association (American medical organization)

    American Nurses Association (ANA), national professional organization that promotes and protects the welfare of nurses in their work settings, projects a positive view of the nursing profession, and advocates on issues of concern to nurses and the general public. In the early 21st century the

  • American Occupational Structure, The (work by Duncan and Blau)

    Otis Dudley Duncan: Duncan’s widely referenced The American Occupational Structure (1967; with Peter M. Blau) advanced scientific understanding of the structure and development of work-related mobility patterns in the United States. It was the first national intergenerational survey to represent the influences of family background, education, race, region, size of community,…

  • American oil palm (tree)

    oil palm: The American oil palm (Elaeis oleifera) is native to Central and South America and is sometimes cultivated under the erroneous name Elaeis melanococca. Unlike the African oil palm, the trunk of the American oil palm creeps along the ground and bears flat leaves. Both the American…

  • American organ (musical instrument)

    Melodeon, keyboard instrument sounded by the vibration of free reeds by wind. It is an American development of the harmonium, from which it differs in two principal respects. Its foot-operated bellows draw the air in past the reeds by suction, rather than forcing it out by pressure; and the

  • American Ornithology (work by Bonaparte)

    Charles-Lucien Bonaparte, prince di Canino e di Musignano: His publication of American Ornithology, 4 vol. (1825–33), established his scientific reputation. In 1848–49, when he took part in the political agitation for Italian independence against the Austrians, his scientific career experienced a brief hiatus, and he was forced to leave Italy in July 1849. He went to…

  • American Ornithology (work by Wilson)

    Alexander Wilson: …work on North American birds, American Ornithology, 9 vol., (1808–14), established him as a founder of American ornithology and one of the foremost naturalists of his time.

  • American Orthodox Church

    Orthodox Church in America, ecclesiastically independent, or autocephalous, church of the Eastern Orthodox communion, recognized as such by its mother church in Russia; it adopted its present name on April 10, 1970. Established in 1794 in Alaska, then Russian territory, the Russian Orthodox mission

  • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (American organization)

    American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), U.S. medical organization established in 1972 and headquartered in Rosemont, Illinois. It had its origins in the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and its Committee on Sports Medicine, whose members saw a need for a forum in which

  • American Osteopathic Association (medical organization)

    osteopathy: …institutions are accredited by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), and most are members of the American Osteopathic Hospital Association.

  • American oystercatcher (bird)

    oystercatcher: The American oystercatcher (H. palliatus), of coastal regions in the Western Hemisphere, is dark above, with a black head and neck, and white below. The black oystercatcher (H. bachmani), of western North America, and the sooty oystercatcher (H. fuliginosus), of Australia, are dark except for the…

  • American paddlefish (fish)

    paddlefish: The American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), also called the Mississippi paddlefish or spoonbill, is greenish or gray and averages about 18 kg (40 pounds); however, some specimens can grow up to 2.2 metres (7.2 feet) long and 90.7 kg (200 pounds) in weight. It lives in open…

  • American Paint Horse Association

    Pinto: The American Paint Horse Association, formed in 1965 by merger of the American Paint Quarter Horse Association and the American Paint Stock Horse Association, also considers breeding for registration and is concerned only with stock- and quarter-type horses. Pintos have colour patterns called overo (white spreading…

  • American Painters and Sculptors, Association of (art organization)

    Armory Show: …conceived by its organizers, the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, as a selection of representational works exclusively by American artists, members both of the National Academy of Design and of the more progressive Ashcan School and The Eight. The election of Arthur B. Davies as president of the association…

  • American Party (political party, United States)

    Know-Nothing party, U.S. political party that flourished in the 1850s. It was an outgrowth of the strong anti-immigrant and especially anti-Roman Catholic sentiment that started to manifest itself during the 1840s. A rising tide of immigrants, primarily Germans in the Midwest and Irish in the East,

  • American parula warbler (bird)

    wood warbler: …or American, parula warbler (Parula americana), which breeds in eastern North America, is pale blue with white wing bars, a partial white eye ring, and a yellow breast crossed by a narrow dark band. The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia), common east of the Rockies, is streaked and has creeperlike…

  • American Pastoral (novel by Roth)

    Philip Roth: For his next work, American Pastoral (1997; film 2016), Roth was awarded a Pulitzer Prize. The novel, about a middle-class couple whose daughter becomes a terrorist, is the first entry in the American Trilogy series, all three books of which are narrated by Zuckerman. The later installments are I…

  • American Pastoral (film by McGregor [2016])

    Jennifer Connelly: …costarred with Ewan McGregor in American Pastoral (2016), an adaptation of the novel by Philip Roth. She then played the wife of a firefighter in Only the Brave (2017), which was inspired by the true events of the Granite Mountain Hotshots’ efforts to contain the Arizona wildfires during the summer…

  • American Pavilion (pavilion, Brussels, Belgium)

    Edward Durell Stone: His design for the American Pavilion for the Brussels World’s Fair of 1958, a circular structure 340 feet (104 m) in diameter with a free-span translucent roof, also attracted attention.

  • American pawpaw (fruit and tree, Asimina species)

    Pawpaw, (Asimina triloba), deciduous tree or shrub of the custard-apple family, Annonaceae (order Magnoliales), native to the United States from the Atlantic coast north to New York state and west to Michigan and Kansas. It can grow 12 metres (40 feet) tall with pointed, broadly oblong, drooping

  • American peregrine falcon (bird)

    peregrine falcon: The American peregrine falcon (F. peregrinus anatum), which once bred from Hudson Bay to the southern United States, was formerly an endangered species. It had completely vanished from the eastern United States and eastern boreal Canada by the late 1960s. After Canada had banned DDT use…

  • American periodical

    American literature, the body of written works produced in the English language in the United States. Like other national literatures, American literature was shaped by the history of the country that produced it. For almost a century and a half, America was merely a group of colonies scattered

  • American persimmon (plant and fruit)

    Diospyros: Major species: …species are the common, or American, persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), native to North America, and the Japanese, or kaki, persimmon (D. kaki), native to China but widely cultivated in other temperate regions. The globular orange fruit of the common persimmon is about 4 cm (1.5 inches) in diameter. The tree grows…

  • American Petroleum Institute gravity scale (chemical measurement)

    crude oil: …petroleum industry, however, uses the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity scale, in which pure water has been arbitrarily assigned an API gravity of 10°. Liquids lighter than water, such as oil, have API gravities numerically greater than 10. On the basis of their API gravity, crude oils can be classified…

  • American Pharoah (racehorse)

    American Pharoah, (foaled 2012), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who in 2015 became the 12th winner of the American Triple Crown—by winning the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes—an accomplishment that ended a 37-year drought since Affirmed captured that honour in 1978.

  • American Philosophical Society (science organization)

    American Philosophical Society, oldest extant learned society in the United States, founded under the impetus of Benjamin Franklin in 1743. At the beginning of the 21st century, it had more than 850 members, elected for their scholarly and scientific accomplishments in any of five areas—the

  • American Photographs (book by Evans and Kirstein)

    Walker Evans: The Farm Security Administration: … in New York City published American Photographs to accompany a retrospective exhibition of Evans’s work to that time. The book’s 87 pictures were made between 1929 and 1936 and selected by Evans. It is remarkable that more than a third of the pictures were made during the brief but astonishingly…

  • American Place, An (gallery, New York City, New York, United States)

    Alfred Stieglitz: Later career: …from 1925 to 1929, and An American Place, from 1929 until his death in 1946. These small galleries were dedicated almost exclusively to the exhibition of the American Modernist artists in whom Stieglitz believed most deeply: Demuth, Arthur G. Dove, Hartley, John Marin, and O’Keeffe. (To a lesser extent, he…

  • American plane tree (plant)

    plane tree: The American plane tree, or sycamore (P. occidentalis), also known as buttonwood, buttonball, or whitewood, is the tallest, sometimes reaching a height of more than 50 m (160 feet). Its pendent, smooth, ball-shaped seed clusters usually dangle singly and often persist after leaf fall. Native from…

  • American plum weevil (insect)

    Plum curculio, (Conotrachelus nenuphar), North American insect pest of the family Curculionidae (order Coleoptera); it does serious damage to a variety of fruit trees. The adult has a dark brown body, about six millimetres (14 inch) long, with gray and white patches and conspicuous humps on each

  • American Podiatric Medical Association (American medical organization)

    podiatry: …in 1912 and became the American Podiatric Medical Association in 1983. The term podiatry was coined by M.J. Lewi of New York in 1917.

  • American Podiatry Association (American medical organization)

    podiatry: …in 1912 and became the American Podiatric Medical Association in 1983. The term podiatry was coined by M.J. Lewi of New York in 1917.

  • American poetry

    American literature, the body of written works produced in the English language in the United States. Like other national literatures, American literature was shaped by the history of the country that produced it. For almost a century and a half, America was merely a group of colonies scattered

  • American Poets, Academy of (American organization)

    Claudia Rankine: …elected a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets, and in the following year she published Citizen: An American Lyric, a compelling chronicle of racial aggression and the continuum of violence in the United States. For that work, Rankine received both the PEN Open Book Award and the NAACP Image…

  • American pokeweed (plant)

    Pokeweed, (Phytolacca americana), strong-smelling plant with a poisonous root resembling that of a horseradish. Pokeweed is native to wet or sandy areas of eastern North America. The berries contain a red dye used to colour wine, candies, cloth, and paper. Mature stalks, which are red or purplish

  • American Political Science Association (American organization)

    Carole Pateman: …she was president of the American Political Science Association. She was a fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia (1980), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1996), and the British Academy (2007). Her scholarship was recognized with many prestigious honours and awards, including the Johan Skytte Prize…

  • American Politician, An (work by Crawford)

    Gilded Age: An American Politician, by Francis Marion Crawford (1884), focuses upon the disputed election of Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, but its significance as a political novel is diluted by an overdose of popular romance.

  • American Pomological Society (American organization)

    horticulture: Horticultural education and research: The American Pomological Society, dedicated to the science and practice of fruit growing, was formed in 1848. The American Horticultural Society, established in 1922, is devoted largely to ornamentals and gardening. The American Society for Horticultural Science was established in 1903 and became perhaps the most…

  • American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (political party, Peru)

    APRA, political party founded by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (1924), which dominated Peruvian politics for decades. Largely synonymous with the so-called Aprista movement, it was dedicated to Latin American unity, the nationalization of foreign-owned enterprises, and an end to the exploitation of

  • American President, The (film by Reiner [1995])

    Aaron Sorkin: …before penning the political romance The American President (1995), about the relationship between a widowed U.S. president (played by Michael Douglas) and a lobbyist (Annette Bening). About this time Sorkin also made uncredited contributions to several other film scripts.

  • American Presidential Election (United States government)

    American voters went to the polls on November 6, 2012, to determine—for the 57th time—their country’s president for the next four years. Incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama’s reelection bid was, from the outset, expected to be closely contested as the United States faced a number of

  • American primitive (art)

    William Billings: …foremost composer of the early American primitive style, whose works have become an integral part of the American folk tradition. A tanner by trade, he was self-taught in music. Among his friends were many prominent figures of the American Revolution, including Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

  • American Primitive (poetry by Oliver)

    Mary Oliver: Her volume American Primitive (1983), which won a Pulitzer Prize, glorifies the natural world, reflecting the American fascination with the ideal of the pastoral life as it was first expressed by Henry David Thoreau. In House of Light (1990) Oliver explored the rewards of solitude in nature.…

  • American Printing House for the Blind (publishing company)

    Louisville: The American Printing House for the Blind (1858), which publishes books in Braille, is located in Louisville, as is the headquarters of the Hillerich & Bradsby Company, makers of the famed Louisville Slugger baseball bats (although most bats are now made elsewhere).

  • American Professional Baseball Association (sports game)

    baseball: Fantasy baseball: …entrepreneur Dick Seitz, known as APBA (American Professional Baseball Association). A similar game called Strat-o-matic first appeared in the 1960s. Having purchased the APBA or Strat-o-matic board game, players annually ordered cards that listed the statistical data for the ballplayers from the prior season. A combination of data given on…

  • American Professional Football Association (American sports organization)

    National Football League (NFL), major U.S. professional gridiron football organization, founded in 1920 in Canton, Ohio, as the American Professional Football Association. Its first president was Jim Thorpe, an outstanding American athlete who was also a player in the league. The present name was

  • American Promise to African Americans, The (speech by Kennedy)
  • American prose literature

    American literature, the body of written works produced in the English language in the United States. Like other national literatures, American literature was shaped by the history of the country that produced it. For almost a century and a half, America was merely a group of colonies scattered

  • American Protective Association (American political organization)

    American Protective Association (APA), in U.S. history, an anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant group that briefly acquired a membership greater than 2,000,000 during the 1890s. A successor in spirit and outlook to the pre-Civil War Know-Nothing Party, the American Protective Association was founded by

  • American Psychiatric Association (American organization)

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) replaced these terms with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Then in 1987 the APA linked ADD with hyperactivity, a condition that sometimes accompanies attention disorders but may exist independently. The new syndrome was named attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.

  • American Psycho (film by Harron [2000])

    Christian Bale: …serial killer Patrick Bateman in American Psycho (2000) brought Bale additional attention.

  • American Psycho (novel by Ellis)

    American Psycho, novel by Bret Easton Ellis, published in 1991. A successful movie version of the novel, starring Christian Bale in the lead role, appeared in 2000. American Psycho is, above all, an ugly book. It is an extraordinarily graphic description of obscene violence, which is spliced with

  • American Psychological Association (American organization)

    American Psychological Association (APA), professional organization of psychologists in the United States founded in 1892. It is the largest organization of psychologists in the United States as well as in the world. The American Psychological Association (APA) promotes the knowledge of psychology

  • American quaking aspen (plant)

    aspen: tremula) and the American quaking, or trembling, aspen (P. tremuloides) are similar, reaching a height of 27 metres (90 feet). P. tremuloides is distinguished by its leaves, which have more pointed tips, and it grows by root suckers. Individual clones of the plants persist for thousands of years even…

  • American Quarter Horse (breed of horse)

    American Quarter Horse, one of the oldest recognized breeds of horses in the United States. The breed originated about the 1660s as a cross between native horses of Spanish origin used by the earliest colonists and English horses imported to Virginia from about 1610. By the late 17th century, these

  • American Quarter Horse Association (American organization)

    American Quarter Horse: In 1940, however, the American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) was organized, and in 1950 it was reorganized to include other Quarter Horse organizations. The AQHA controls the American Quarter Horse Stud Book and Registry. With more than 2.5 million horses registered in its stud book by the late 20th…

  • American Quartet (work by Dvo?ák)

    American Quartet, string quartet by Bohemian composer Antonín Dvo?ák. Written during the composer’s residency in the United States, it premiered on January 1, 1894, in Boston. Although he quotes no actual American melodies, in his American Quartet Dvo?ák set out to capture the spirit of American

  • American Quilter (American journal)

    quilting: The quilt revival: …Quilts, Quilt World, and the American Quilter. The latter promotes the American Quilter’s Society, founded by William and Meredith Schroeder in 1984, with an annual contest and show in Paducah, Kentucky.

  • American Railway Express Company (American company)

    REA Express, Inc., American company that at one time operated the nation’s largest ground and air express services, transporting parcels, money, and goods, with pickup and delivery. American Railway Express Company was established by the U.S. government in 1918, during World War I, at the same time

  • American Railway Union (American labour organization)

    Eugene V. Debs: …(1893) of the newly established American Railway Union. Debs successfully united railway workers from different crafts into the first industrial union in the United States. At the same time, industrial unionism was also being promoted by the Knights of Labor.

  • American Recordings (album by Cash)

    Johnny Cash: …on the label, the acoustic American Recordings, was a critical and popular success, and it won him a new generation of fans. Later records included Unchained (1996), American III: Solitary Man (2000), American IV: The Man Comes Around (2002), and the posthumous American V: A Hundred Highways (2006). The recipient…

  • American Recordings (American company)

    Johnny Cash: …after signing with Rick Rubin’s American Recordings, which was best known for its metal and rap acts. Cash’s first release on the label, the acoustic American Recordings, was a critical and popular success, and it won him a new generation of fans. Later records included Unchained (1996), American III: Solitary…

  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (United States [2009])

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), legislation, enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by Pres. Barack Obama in 2009, that was designed to stimulate the U.S. economy by saving jobs jeopardized by the Great Recession of 2008–09 and creating new jobs. In December 2007 the U.S.

  • American Red Cross (humanitarian organization)

    American Red Cross, U.S. humanitarian and disaster-relief organization, a national affiliate of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. In 1881, after observing the success of the International Red Cross in Europe, social reformer and nursing pioneer Clara Barton founded the American

  • American red elder (plant)

    elderberry: Major species and uses: Red-berried, or American red, elder (S. pubens), with dark pith, is a similar North American species. Danewort, or dwarf, elderberry (S. ebulus), widespread in Eurasia and North Africa, is a perennial with annually herbaceous growth to 1 metre (3 feet). Its clusters of black berries…

  • American redstart (bird)

    redstart: The common, or American, redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) breeds from Canada to the southern United States and winters in tropical America; the male is mostly black, with red wing and tail markings. Another strikingly marked form is the painted redstart (S. picta), found from southern Arizona to Nicaragua. Both…

  • American Releasing Corporation (American company)

    Roger Corman: …Releasing Corporation, which later became American International Pictures (AIP), for which Corman produced and directed many of his most noted films. In 1955 he directed his first feature film, Five Guns West, a romantic western. The titles of many of Corman’s films of the 1950s—The Beast with a Million Eyes…

  • American Relief Administration (American organization)

    20th-century international relations: Allied approaches to the Bolsheviks: (In 1921 the American relief commission nonetheless began distribution of food that saved countless Russians from starvation.)

  • American Renaissance (American literature)

    American Renaissance, period from the 1830s roughly until the end of the American Civil War in which American literature, in the wake of the Romantic movement, came of age as an expression of a national spirit. The literary scene of the period was dominated by a group of New England writers, the

  • American Republic, The (work by Brownson)

    Orestes Augustus Brownson: … (1854); The Convert (1857); and The American Republic (1865), in which he based government on ethics, declaring the national existence to be a moral and even a theocratic entity, not depending for validity upon the sovereignty of the people.

  • American Residencies (outreach program)

    National Symphony Orchestra: …participated in the Kennedy Center’s American Residencies outreach program. Through this initiative, the orchestra offers an array of performances, workshops, school presentations, and other events during one or more periods of “residency” in a selected state. By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the orchestra had…

  • American restriction (checkers)

    checkers: The three-move, or American, restriction is an extension of the two-move to black’s second move, with about 300 prescribed openings. Eleven-man ballot is a less popular method, in which one piece is removed by lot from each side before the start of a game. The original…

  • American Revolution (United States history)

    American Revolution, (1775–83), insurrection by which 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies won political independence and went on to form the United States of America. The war followed more than a decade of growing estrangement between the British crown and a large and influential segment

  • American Revolution Reconsidered, The (work by Morris)

    Richard B. Morris: The American Revolution Reconsidered (1967), a detailed examination of the long-term effects of both the French and American revolutions, presents his theory that the American Revolution was the true social revolution, in comparison with the more ephemeral influence of the French Revolution.

  • American Revolutionary War (United States history)

    American Revolution, (1775–83), insurrection by which 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies won political independence and went on to form the United States of America. The war followed more than a decade of growing estrangement between the British crown and a large and influential segment

  • American rhinoceros beetle (insect)

    rhinoceros beetle: The American rhinoceros beetle (Xyloryctes jamaicensis) is a dark brown scarab a little more than 25 mm (1 inch) long. The male possesses a single upright horn; the female has only a small tubercle. One European species, Oryctes nasicornis, has rear-pointing horns. The eastern Hercules beetle…

  • American roach (fish)

    minnow: The golden shiner, or American roach (Notemigonus cryseleucas), a larger, greenish and golden minnow attaining a length of 30 cm and a weight of 0.7 kg (1.5 pounds), is both edible and valuable as bait.

  • American robin (bird)

    robin: The American robin (Turdus migratorius), a large North American thrush, is one of the most familiar songbirds in the eastern United States. Early colonial settlers named it robin because its breast colour resembled that of a smaller thrush, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula).

  • American Rolling Mill Company (American company)

    Armco Inc., American corporation first incorporated, as the American Rolling Mill Company, on Dec. 2, 1899. It was newly incorporated on June 29, 1917, and was subsequently renamed (using an acronym of the original) in 1948 and 1978 to reflect its diversified interests. Headquarters are in

  • American round (sports)

    American round, in archery, a target-shooting event consisting of five ends (six arrows each), shot from distances of 60, 50, and 40 yards (55, 46, and 37 m). Two American rounds and two York rounds, consisting of 12 ends of 6 arrows each, constituted the U.S. men’s championship until 1968, when o

  • American Rowing Association (sports)

    Henley Royal Regatta: The American Rowing Association, founded in 1902 to stimulate intercollegiate competition in the U.S., ends its season each year with a regatta at the regulation Henley distance, alternately at Philadelphia and Boston, that has become known as the American Henley. A similar event called the Royal…

  • American sable (mammal)

    marten: The American marten (M. americana) is a North American species of northern wooded regions. It is also called pine marten; its fur is sometimes sold as American, or Hudson Bay, sable. Its adult length is 35–43 cm (14–17 inches), exclusive of the 18–23-cm (7–9-inch) tail. It…

  • American Saddle horse (breed of horse)

    American Saddlebred horse, breed of riding horse possessing several easy riding gaits and great vigour and style. It is the prevailing riding horse of horse shows in the United States. The Thoroughbred, Morgan, Standardbred, Arabian, pacers, and easy riding horses of a mixed background contributed

  • American Saddlebred horse (breed of horse)

    American Saddlebred horse, breed of riding horse possessing several easy riding gaits and great vigour and style. It is the prevailing riding horse of horse shows in the United States. The Thoroughbred, Morgan, Standardbred, Arabian, pacers, and easy riding horses of a mixed background contributed

  • American Samoa (territory, Pacific Ocean)

    American Samoa, unincorporated territory of the United States consisting of the eastern part of the Samoan archipelago, located in the south-central Pacific Ocean. It lies about 1,600 miles (2,600 km) northeast of New Zealand and 2,200 miles (3,500 km) southwest of the U.S. state of Hawaii. The

  • American Samoa, flag of (United States territorial flag)

    U.S. territorial flag consisting of a blue field (background) and a white isosceles triangle with its base at the fly end and its apex touching the centre of the hoist, the triangle bordered in red on its longest sides and bearing an American bald eagle. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 10 to

  • American Samoa, National Park of (park, American Samoa)

    National Park of American Samoa, tropical preserve of rainforest and coral reef in the south-central Pacific Ocean islands of the U.S. territory of American Samoa. The park was established in 1988 and covers 14 square miles (36 square km) in three separate sections: the north-central part of the

  • American Samoa, Territory of (territory, Pacific Ocean)

    American Samoa, unincorporated territory of the United States consisting of the eastern part of the Samoan archipelago, located in the south-central Pacific Ocean. It lies about 1,600 miles (2,600 km) northeast of New Zealand and 2,200 miles (3,500 km) southwest of the U.S. state of Hawaii. The

  • American Saturday Night (album by Paisley)

    Brad Paisley: …album Play (2008), Paisley recorded American Saturday Night (2009), which earned critical plaudits for its casual embrace of attitudes not typically associated with country music. The title track, for instance, was a sly paean to multiculturalism, and on “Welcome to the Future,” which Paisley claimed was inspired by the election…

  • American Scene painting (painting)

    Social Realism: …American life usually categorized as American Scene painting and Regionalism, which may or may not manifest socially critical comment.

  • American Scholar (American periodical)

    history of publishing: The United States: …faculty of Columbia University; the American Scholar (founded 1932), “a quarterly for the independent thinker” edited by the united chapters of Phi Beta Kappa; Foreign Affairs (founded 1922), a quarterly dealing with the international aspects of America’s political and economic problems; and Arts in Society (founded 1958), a forum for…

  • American Scholar, The (work by Emerson)

    Ralph Waldo Emerson: Mature life and works: In a lecture entitled “The American Scholar” (August 31, 1837), Emerson described the resources and duties of the new liberated intellectual that he himself had become. This address was in effect a challenge to the Harvard intelligentsia, warning against pedantry, imitation of others, traditionalism, and scholarship unrelated to life. Emerson’s…

  • American School Citizenship League (American organization)

    Fannie Fern Phillips Andrews: …and pacifism in organizing the American School Peace League. Through her remarkable talents for publicizing and enlisting support, the league grew rapidly throughout the country. Pacifist literature and study courses produced by the league, much of the material written by Andrews, were circulated widely and in 1912 began to be…

  • American School for the Deaf (school, West Hartford, Connecticut, United States)

    West Hartford: … and the seat of the American School for the Deaf (the oldest institution of its kind in the country), founded in 1817 by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. The University of Hartford (formed in 1957 by the union of three colleges, one of which dates from 1877) and the University of Saint…

  • American School of Archaeology (school, Jerusalem)

    Charles Cutler Torrey: …of Archaeology (later renamed the American School of Oriental Research) at Jerusalem.

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