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Historians, ABB-BRY

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Abbadi, Mostafa El-
Mostafa El-Abbadi, Egyptian historian who was regarded as the leading Egyptian scholar of the Greco-Roman world and was the visionary who conceived of and successfully pushed for a revival of the Library of Alexandria in the form of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Abbadi graduated (1951) from the...
Abrahams, Israel
Israel Abrahams, one of the most distinguished Jewish scholars of his time, who wrote a number of enduring works on Judaism, particularly Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (1896). In 1902, after teaching for several years at Jews’ College, London, Abrahams was appointed reader in Talmudics (rabbinic...
Abreu, Capistrano de
Capistrano de Abreu, Brazilian historian best known for his large-scale interpretive work on Brazil’s colonial history. After serving at the National Library of Rio de Janeiro (1875–83), Abreu became professor of history at the Colégio Dom Pedro II in 1883. Influenced by the sociology of Auguste...
Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur
Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur, khan (ruler) of Khiva and one of the most prominent historians in Chagatai Turkish literature. The son of ?Arab Mu?ammad Khan, Abū al-Ghāzī spent most of his early life in Urgench. When his father died and a dynastic struggle arose among Abū al-Ghāzī and his brothers for the...
Acosta, Joaquín
Joaquín Acosta, Colombian scientist, historian, and statesman who sought to preserve knowledge of his country’s early history. Acosta entered a military career in 1819, becoming an officer in the patriot army under Simón Bolívar. He subsequently became a member of virtually all the scientific and...
Acropolites, George
George Acropolites, Byzantine scholar and statesman, the author of Chronike Syngraphe (“Written Chronicle”), a history of the Byzantine Empire from 1203 to 1261. He also played a major diplomatic role in the attempt to reconcile the Greek and Latin churches. Acropolites was reared at the imperial...
Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, 1st Baron
John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, 1st Baron Acton, English Liberal historian and moralist, the first great modern philosopher of resistance to the state, whether its form be authoritarian, democratic, or socialist. A comment that he wrote in a letter, “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power...
Adam of Bremen
Adam Of Bremen, German historian whose work on the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen provides valuable information on German politics under the Salian emperors and is also one of the great books of medieval geography. Of Franconian origin, he was probably educated at the cathedral school in Bamberg but...
Adams, Brooks
Brooks Adams, historian who questioned the success of democracy in the U.S. and who related the march of civilization to the westward movement of trade centres. Adams graduated from Harvard in 1870 and practiced law in Boston until 1881. Son of the diplomat Charles Francis Adams and grandson of...
Adams, Hannah
Hannah Adams, American compiler of historical information in the study of religion. Adams was the daughter of a notably eccentric bibliophile father whose lack of business acumen kept the large family in poverty. She inherited his love of books and his remarkable memory, and, although she received...
Adams, Henry
Henry Adams, historian, man of letters, and author of one of the outstanding autobiographies of Western literature, The Education of Henry Adams. Adams was the product of Boston’s Brahmin class, a cultured elite that traced its lineage to Puritan New England. He was the great-grandson of John Adams...
Adams, Herbert Baxter
Herbert Baxter Adams, historian and educator, one of the first to use the seminar method in U.S. higher education and one of the founders of the American Historical Association. The son of a successful merchant and manufacturer, Adams graduated from Amherst College, Massachusetts, in 1872 and...
Adhémar de Chabannes
Adhémar De Chabannes, Frankish chronicler whose major work, Chronicon Aquitanicum et Francicum (“Chronicle of Aquitaine and France”), traces the history of Aquitaine and of the Franks from the times of the legendary king Pharamond. The first two books of Adhémar’s history are of little value...
Aelred of Rievaulx, Saint
Saint Aelred of Rievaulx, writer, historian, and outstanding Cistercian abbot who influenced monasticism in medieval England, Scotland, and France. His feast day is celebrated by the Cistercians on February 3. Of noble birth, Aelred was reared at the court of King David I of Scotland, whose life...
Afanasev, Aleksandr Nikolayevich
Aleksandr Nikolayevich Afanasev, historian and scholar of Russian folklore known for his compilation of Russian folktales. Afanasev studied law at Moscow University. His early work included a study of Russian satirical journals of the late 18th century (1859) and commentaries on contemporary...
Africanus, Sextus Julius
Sextus Julius Africanus, first Christian historian known to produce a universal chronology. His life is not well documented, but evidence indicates that Africanus traveled considerably in Asia, Egypt, and Italy and later lived chiefly at Emmaus, in Palestine, where he served as prefect. He was...
Agathias
Agathias, Byzantine historian and poet of part of Justinian I’s reign. After studying law at Alexandria, he completed his training at Constantinople and practiced in the courts as an advocate. He wrote a number of short love poems in epic metre, called Daphniaca, and compiled an anthology of...
Aguilar, Grace
Grace Aguilar, poet, novelist, and writer on Jewish history and religion, best known for her numerous sentimental novels of domestic life, especially for Home Influence (1847) and The Mother’s Recompense (1851). Aguilar was the daughter of Sephardic Jews. She was tutored in the classics at home and...
Aimoin
Aimoin, French Benedictine monk whose history of the Franks was highly esteemed in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. After his arrival at the Abbey of Fleury-sur-Loire (between c. 980 and 985), near Orléans, Aimoin wrote about St. Benedict, completing the second and third books of the...
Alamán, Lucas
Lucas Alamán, politician and historian, the leader of Mexican conservatives for nearly 30 years and the spokesman for a strong, centralized government that would support industrialization, educational expansion, and agricultural modernization. Living during a corrupt and brutal period of Mexican...
Albert of Aix
Albert of Aix, canon of the church of Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) and historian of the First Crusade. He gathered oral and written testaments of participants in the Crusade and provided a chronicle on the subject, the Historia expeditionis Hierosolymitanae (“History of the Expedition to Jerusalem”)....
Alexander Polyhistor
Alexander Polyhistor, philosopher, geographer, and historian whose fragmentary writings provide valuable information on antiquarian and Jewish subjects. Imprisoned by the Romans in the war of the Roman general Sulla against King Mithradates VI of Pontus, Alexander was sold as a slave to a patrician...
Ali Haji bin Raja Amhad, Raja
Raja Ali Haji bin Raja Amhad, Bugis-Malay prince who, as a scholar and historian, led a renaissance in Malay letters in the mid-19th century. A grandson of the famed Bugis leader Raja Haji, Raja Ali was born into the Bugis-Malay world of the Riau-Lingga archipelago, last legacy outside the Malay...
Amalrik, Andrey Alekseyevich
Andrey Alekseyevich Amalrik, Soviet-born historian, playwright, and political dissident who was twice exiled to Siberia and was imprisoned in a labour camp before being granted an exit visa in 1976. Amalrik first came into conflict with the authorities as a student; his university thesis was...
Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus, last major Roman historian, whose work continued the history of the later Roman Empire to 378. Ammianus was born of a noble Greek family and served in the army of Constantius II in Gaul and Persia under the general Ursicinus, who was dismissed after he allowed the Persians to...
Ampère, Jean-Jacques-Antoine
Jean-Jacques Ampère, French historian and philologist who initiated important studies of the diverse cultural origins of western European languages and mythology. A world traveler, he wrote both scholarly works and Romantic poetry. The son of the scientist André-Marie Ampère, Jean-Jacques Ampère in...
Andrews, Charles McLean
Charles McLean Andrews, U.S. teacher and historian whose Colonial Period of American History, vol. 1 of 4, won him a Pulitzer Prize in 1935. After teaching at various American universities, Andrews was professor of American history at Yale University from 1910 to 1931. Well started on his important...
Anezaki Masaharu
Anezaki Masaharu, Japanese scholar who pioneered in various fields of the history of religions. After graduating from Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo), Anezaki went to India and Europe for further studies (1900–03). Returning to Japan, he was appointed to the chair of s...
Anna Comnena
Anna Comnena, Byzantine historian and daughter of the emperor Alexius I Comnenus. She is remembered for her Alexiad, a history of the life and reign of her father, which became a valuable source as a pro-Byzantine account of the early Crusades. Anna received a good education, studying, among other...
Anselm of Saint Mary
Anselm Of Saint Mary, genealogist and friar whose history of the French royal family and nobility is a valuable source of detailed and unusual information. Anselm entered the order of the Discalced Hermits of St. Augustine in 1644 and, remaining in their monastery (Couvent des Petits Pères), ...
Anthony of Novgorod
Anthony Of Novgorod, monk and archbishop of Novgorod, Russia (1211–c. 1231), noted for his political and commercial diplomacy with the West and for the earliest cultural and architectural chronicle of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and a résumé of the Greek Orthodox liturgy at the basilica of ...
Anthony, Michael
Michael Anthony, West Indian author of novels, short stories, and travelogues about domestic life in his homeland of Trinidad. Written in a sparse style, his works were often coming-of-age stories featuring young protagonists from his native village of Mayaro. In the mid-1950s Anthony left Trinidad...
Antonio, Nicolás
Nicolás Antonio, first systematic historian of Spanish literature. His Bibliotheca Hispana appeared in two parts (Nova, 1672; Vetus, 1696). The first is a vast bibliography of Peninsular and Spanish colonial writers after 1500, with critical evaluations. The second, a history of Peninsular...
Apollodorus of Athens
Apollodorus of Athens, Greek scholar of wide interests who is best known for his Chronika (Chronicle) of Greek history. Apollodorus was a colleague of the Homeric scholar Aristarchus of Samothrace (both served as librarians of the great library in Alexandria, Egypt). Apollodorus left Alexandria...
Appian of Alexandria
Appian of Alexandria , Greek historian of the conquests by Rome from the republican period into the 2nd century ad. Appian held public office in Alexandria, where he witnessed the Jewish insurrection in ad 116. After gaining Roman citizenship he went to Rome, practiced as a lawyer, and became a...
Aptheker, Herbert
Herbert Aptheker, American historian who wrote and lectured extensively on black history and on his Marxist political views. Aptheker graduated with a doctorate in history from Columbia University in 1943. Because of his membership in the Communist Party of the United States, which he joined in...
Arai Hakuseki
Arai Hakuseki, Japanese statesman and scholar who was a chief adviser to the Tokugawa shoguns in the early years of the 18th century. Born into an impoverished samurai, or warrior, family, Arai educated himself under conditions of extreme hardship. He found employment in 1682 under Hotta Masatoshi...
Arciniegas Angueyra, Germán
Germán Arciniegas, Colombian historian, essayist, diplomat, and statesman whose long career in journalism and public service strongly influenced the cultural development of his country in the 20th century. His contributions abroad as an educator and diplomat played an important role in introducing...
Ari Thorgilsson the Learned
Ari Thorgilsson the Learned, Icelandic chieftain, priest, and historian whose íslendingabók (Libellus Islandorum; The Book of the Icelanders) is the first history of Iceland written in the vernacular. Composed before 1133 and covering the period from the settlement of Iceland up to 1120, it...
Aristophanes of Byzantium
Aristophanes Of Byzantium, Greek literary critic and grammarian who, after early study under leading scholars in Alexandria, was chief librarian there c. 195 bc. Aristophanes was the producer of a text of Homer and also edited Hesiod’s Theogony, Alcaeus, Pindar, Euripides, Aristophanes, and perhaps...
Arkell, Anthony John
Anthony John Arkell, historian and Egyptologist, an outstanding colonial administrator who combined a passion for the past with a humanitarian concern for the peoples of modern Africa. After serving with the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force, Arkell joined the Sudan Political Service in...
Arneth, Alfred, Ritter von
Alfred, Ritter von Arneth, historian important chiefly for his work in evaluating and publishing sources for Austrian history found in the Vienna state archives. In 1841 Arneth was appointed by the Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich to a post at the state archives, of which he became keeper...
Aron, Raymond-Claude-Ferdinand
Raymond Aron, French sociologist, historian, and political commentator known for his skepticism of ideological orthodoxies. The son of a Jewish jurist, Aron obtained his doctorate in 1930 from the école Normale Supérieure with a thesis on the philosophy of history. He was a professor of social...
Arrian
Arrian, Greek historian and philosopher who was one of the most distinguished authors of the 2nd-century Roman Empire. He was the author of a work describing the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Titled Anabasis, presumably in order to recall Xenophon’s work of that title, it describes Alexander’s...
Aubigné, Théodore-Agrippa d’
Théodore-Agrippa d’ Aubigné, major late 16th-century poet, renowned Huguenot captain, polemicist, and historian of his own times. After studies in Paris, Orléans, Geneva, and Lyon, he joined the Huguenot forces and served throughout the Wars of Religion on the battlefield and in the council...
Aulard, Fran?ois-Alphonse
Fran?ois-Alphonse Aulard, one of the leading historians of the French Revolution, noted for the application of the rules of historical criticism to the revolutionary period. His writings dispelled many of the myths surrounding the Revolution. Aulard obtained his doctorate in 1877 and until 1884...
Aventinus
Aventinus, Humanist and historian sometimes called the “Bavarian Herodotus.” A student at the universities of Ingolstadt, Vienna, Kraków, and Paris, Aventinus served as tutor (1509–17) to the younger brothers of Duke William IV of Bavaria, during which time he published a Latin grammar and a h...
A??kpa?azade
A??kpa?azade, one of the most important early Ottoman historians. The great-grandson of the famous mystic poet of Anatolia, A??k Pa?a, A??kpa?azade also had affiliations with a Muslim mystical order. Very little is known about his early life. In 1413 he claimed to have met Yah?i Fakih, whose early...
Backus, Isaac
Isaac Backus, controversial American religious leader and historian. A member of the New Light Church, a Separatist sect, Backus began preaching in 1746, traveling throughout Connecticut and Massachusetts. He was ordained in 1748 and established a congregation in the precinct of Titicut, Mass....
Badā?ūnī, ?Abd al-Qādir
?Abd al-Qādir Badā?ūnī, Indo-Persian historian, one of the most important writers on the history of the Mughal period in India. As a young boy Badā?ūnī lived in Basāvar and studied at Sambhal and āgra. In 1562 he moved to Badaun (hence his name) and then to Patiāla, where he entered the service of...
Bainville, Jacques
Jacques Bainville, French political writer and historian, a leading exponent of conservative ideals between World Wars I and II. Although born into a family of republican sympathies, Bainville came under the influence of the royalist propagandists Maurice Barrès and Charles Maurras and early...
Baker, Sir Richard
Sir Richard Baker, British writer and author of A Chronicle of the Kings of England. Baker was educated at Hart Hall, Oxford, studied law in London, and traveled abroad. A member of Parliament in 1593 and 1597, he was knighted in 1603 and was high sheriff of Oxfordshire from 1620 to 1621....
Baluze, étienne
étienne Baluze, French scholar, notable both as a historian and as the collector and publisher of documents and manuscripts. At the Collège St. Martial at Toulouse, he studied chiefly ecclesiastical history and canon law, becoming in 1654 secretary to the archbishop of Toulouse, who was a noted...
Balādhurī, al-
Al-Balādhurī, Muslim historian best known for his history of the formation of the Arab Muslim empire. Al-Balādhurī lived most of his life in Baghdad and studied there and in Syria. He was for some time a favoured visitor at the Baghdad court of the ?Abbāsid caliphs. His chief extant work, a...
Ban Biao
Ban Biao, eminent Chinese official of the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce) who is reported to have begun the famous Han shu (“Book of Han”), considered the Confucian historiographic model on which all later dynastic histories were patterned. Ban Biao intended the work to supplement the Shiji...
Ban Gu
Ban Gu, Chinese scholar-official of the Dong (Eastern), or Hou (Later), Han dynasty and one of China’s most noteworthy historians. His Han shu (translated as The History of the Former Han Dynasty) became the model most frequently used by later Chinese historians. Ban Gu was the son of Ban Biao (ad...
Ban Zhao
Ban Zhao, renowned Chinese scholar and historian of the Dong (Eastern) Han dynasty. The daughter of a prominent family, Ban Zhao married at age 14, but her husband died while she was still young. She never remarried, devoting herself instead to literature and the education of her son. Her father,...
Bana
Bana, one of the greatest masters of Sanskrit prose, famed principally for his chronicle, Harshacharita (c. 640; “The Life of Harsha”), depicting the court and times of the Buddhist emperor Harsha (reigned c. 606–647) of northern India. Bana gives some autobiographical account of himself in the...
Bancroft, George
George Bancroft, American historian whose comprehensive 10-volume study of the origins and development of the United States caused him to be referred to as the “father of American history.” Bancroft’s life presented a curious blend of scholarship and politics. Although he was educated at Harvard...
Bancroft, Hubert Howe
Hubert Howe Bancroft, historian of the American West who collected and published 39 volumes on the history and peoples of western North America. His work remains one of the great sources of information on the West. Born into a sternly religious and hard-working family, Bancroft abandoned formal...
Bar, Fran?ois de
Fran?ois de Bar, French historiographer and scholar of ecclesiastical law, whose church histories are considered the most detailed and complete of his time. Named prior of the Benedictine abbey of Anchin in 1576, Bar served during a time of religious and political power struggles. His main...
Barante, Amable-Guillaume-Prosper Brugière, baron de
Amable-Guillaume-Prosper Brugière, baron de Barante, French statesman, historian, and political writer, a liberal representative under the Bourbon restoration and a leading member of the narrative school of Romanticist historians who portrayed historical episodes with high literary style and in the...
Baranī, ?iyā? al-Dīn
?iyā? al-Dīn Baranī, the first known Muslim to write a history of India. He resided for 17 years at Delhi as nadim (boon companion) of Sultan Mu?ammad ibn Tughluq. Using mainly hearsay evidence and his personal experiences at court, Baranī in 1357 wrote the Tārīkh-e Fīrūz Shāhī (“History of Fīrūz...
Barnave, Antoine
Antoine Barnave, prominent political figure of the early French Revolutionary period whose oratorical skill and political incisiveness made him one of the most highly respected members of the National Assembly. Of an upper-bourgeois Protestant family, Barnave was privately trained in law. In 1789...
Baron, Salo Wittmayer
Salo Wittmayer Baron, Austrian-born American historian who spent much of his life compiling the multivolume magnum opus A Social and Religious History of the Jews (1937), originally published in three volumes but later revised and expanded into 18 volumes. Baron, who was ordained a rabbi at the...
Baronius, Caesar
Caesar Baronius, ecclesiastical historian and apologist for the Roman Catholic Church. He joined the Oratory in Rome in 1557, eventually succeeding Philip Neri as superior in 1593. Clement VIII, whose confessor he was, made him cardinal in 1596, and in the following year he became Vatican...
Barros Arana, Diego
Diego Barros Arana, Chilean historian, educator, and diplomat best known for his Historia general de Chile, 16 vol. (1884–1902; “General History of Chile”). Barros Arana originally studied for a legal career but gave up the law to pursue his interests in history and literature. In 1859 the Chilean...
Barros, Jo?o de
Jo?o de Barros, Portuguese historian and civil servant who wrote Décadas da ásia, 4 vol. (1552–1615), one of the first great accounts of European overseas exploration and colonization. Barros was educated in the household of the Portuguese heir-apparent and became a good classical scholar. His...
Bartold, Vasily Vladimirovich
Vasily Vladimirovich Bartold, Russian anthropologist who made valuable contributions to the study of the social and cultural history of Islam and of the Tajik Iranians and literate Turkic peoples of Central Asia. Bartold joined the faculty of the University of St. Petersburg in 1901 and for the...
Basin, Thomas
Thomas Basin, French bishop and historian. After studying liberal arts at Paris and law at Pavia and Leuven (Louvain), Basin took part in the Council of Basel before returning to teach canon law at Caen. In 1447 he became bishop of Lisieux. After the French recovery of Normandy from the English...
Bassett, John Spencer
John Spencer Bassett, American historian and founder of the South Atlantic Quarterly, influential in the development of historiography in the American South. A graduate of Trinity College (now Duke University), Durham, N.C., in 1888, he received a doctorate in 1894 from Johns Hopkins University,...
Beard, Charles A.
Charles A. Beard, American historian, best known for his iconoclastic studies of the development of U.S. political institutions. His emphasis on the dynamics of socioeconomic conflict and change and his analysis of motivational factors in the founding of institutions made him one of the most...
Beatus, Rhenanus
Beatus Rhenanus, German humanist, writer, and advocate of Christian reform whose editorial work helped to preserve a wealth of classical literature. In 1505 Rhenanus received the master of arts degree from the University of Paris, where he studied Aristotelian philosophy. In 1511 he settled in...
Beauchamp, Alphonse de
Alphonse de Beauchamp, French historian whose many works were of popular interest; though they were based upon authentic documents, they were largely compilations and not wholly trustworthy. Beauchamp became an officer in a Sardinian regiment (1784), but after the outbreak of war between Sardinia...
Becker, Carl
Carl Becker, American historian known for his work on early American intellectual history and on the 18th-century Enlightenment. Becker studied at the University of Wisconsin (B.A., 1896; Ph.D., 1907) and Columbia University. He taught at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, from 1902 to 1916 and at...
Bede the Venerable, St.
St. Bede the Venerable, ; canonized 1899; feast day May 25), Anglo-Saxon theologian, historian, and chronologist. St. Bede is best known for his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (“Ecclesiastical History of the English People”), a source vital to the history of the conversion to Christianity...
Beer, Israel
Israel Beer, Israeli military analyst who was convicted (1962) for treason as a Soviet agent. Arriving in Palestine (1938), Beer joined the Haganah, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Israeli army. After retiring from military service (1949), he held the chair of military history at...
Belloc, Hilaire
Hilaire Belloc, French-born poet, historian, and essayist who was among the most versatile English writers of the first quarter of the 20th century. He is most remembered for his light verse, particularly for children, and for the lucidity and easy grace of his essays, which could be delightfully...
Bentivoglio, Guido
Guido Bentivoglio, Italian churchman, diplomat, and historian, whose writings give precise accounts of his diplomatic activities and of affairs in the countries he visited. Pope Paul V sent him as nuncio to Flanders (1607–15) and to France (1616–21) and created him cardinal (January 1621). Among...
Berlin, Sir Isaiah
Sir Isaiah Berlin, British philosopher and historian of ideas who was noted for his writings on political philosophy and the concept of liberty. He is regarded as one of the founders of the discipline now known as intellectual history. Berlin and his family emigrated from the Soviet Union to...
Berosus
Berosus, Chaldean priest of Bel in Babylon who wrote a work in three books (in Greek) on the history and culture of Babylonia dedicated to Antiochus I (c. 324–261 bc). It was widely used by later Greek compilers, whose versions in turn were quoted by religious historians such as Eusebius of...
Berr, Henri
Henri Berr, French historian and philosopher who founded a series of Parisian institutes and journals dedicated to the synthesis of historical and scientific scholarship. Educated at the école Normale Supérieure in Paris (1881–84), Berr taught for several years in Douai and Tours and between 1896...
Beveridge, Albert J.
Albert J. Beveridge, orator, U.S. senator, and historian. Beveridge was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1887 and began the practice of law in Indianapolis. He first attracted national attention by his eloquent speeches defending the increasing power of the federal government and advocating U.S....
Biondo, Flavio
Flavio Biondo, humanist historian of the Renaissance and author of the first history of Italy that developed a chronological scheme providing an embryonic notion of the Middle Ages. Biondo was well educated and trained as a notary before he moved in 1433 to Rome, where he was appointed apostolic...
Blainey, Geoffrey
Geoffrey Blainey, Australian historian, teacher, and writer known for his authoritative texts on Australian economic and social history. Blainey attended Wesley College, Melbourne, and graduated from Queens College of the University of Melbourne and accepted a free-lance writing assignment that...
Bloch, Marc
Marc Bloch, French medieval historian, editor, and Resistance leader known for his innovative work in social and economic history. Bloch, the son of a professor of ancient history, grandson of a school principal, and great-grandson of a combatant in the French Revolution, descended from a family of...
Blondel, Georges
Georges Blondel, historian and juridical scholar, the leading French authority on Germany and Austria before 1914. After receiving his doctorate in 1881 and the rank of agrégé (highest teaching degree) in 1883, he was appointed to a chair of law at Lyon in 1884 and 10 years later was named...
Bobrzyński, Micha?
Micha? Bobrzyński, Polish historian and Conservative politician who maintained that the weakening of the central government had been the main cause of the 18th-century partitions of Poland and, on that basis, inaugurated a reappraisal of Poland’s history. Professor of legal history at the...
Bod, Péter
Péter Bod, Hungarian Protestant clergyman, historian, and author who wrote the first work of literary history in Hungarian. Bod came from an impoverished noble family. Upon completing his studies in Hungary, he received a scholarship to the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. On his return to...
Boece, Hector
Hector Boece, historian and humanist, author of an important Latin history of Scotland. Boece was educated at Dundee and the University of Paris, where he was appointed regent (professor) of philosophy and became a friend of Desiderius Erasmus. He was chief adviser to William Elphinstone, bishop of...
Bolland, Jean
Jean Bolland, Jesuit ecclesiastical historian known for his major role in the compilation of the Acta Sanctorum, a vast collection of lives of the Christian saints, and as the founder of the Bollandists, a small group of Jesuits who continued to edit and publish the collection. Apart from...
Bolton, Edmund
Edmund Bolton, English historian, antiquarian, and poet whose lyrics are among the best in the miscellany Englands Helicon (1600), a widely known anthology of late 16th-century lyric and pastoral poetry. Bolton was educated at Cambridge and the Inner Temple, London. He obtained a minor position at...
Bolton, Herbert Eugene
Herbert Eugene Bolton, American historian and educator, one of the first scholars to stress the importance of a hemispheric rather than a national concept of the Americas. Bolton received his Ph.D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1899 and began teaching medieval history in 1901 at the...
Bonfini, Antonio
Antonio Bonfini, Italian humanist who was the court historian for Matthias I, the king of Hungary. Bonfini went to Buda for the first time in 1486, at the invitation of Matthias. At first he served as reader to Queen Beatrix. Later Matthias commissioned him to write Hungary’s history from the time...
Boorstin, Daniel J.
Daniel J. Boorstin, influential social historian and educator known for his studies of American civilization, notably his major work, The Americans, in three volumes: The Colonial Experience (1958), The National Experience (1965), and The Democratic Experience (1973; Pulitzer Prize, 1974). Boorstin...
Botta, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta, Italian-born French historian and politician who supported Napoleon. Having graduated in medicine at the University of Turin in 1786, Botta was in his youth inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution. Arrested as a spy for the French in 1794, he left Italy for...
Boulainvilliers, Henri de, comte de Saint-Saire
Henri de Boulainvilliers, count de Saint-Saire, French historian and political writer who set forth a broad cultural conception of philosophical history that influenced intellectual developments in the 18th century. He was among the first modern historians to claim that historical studies can...
Braudel, Fernand
Fernand Braudel, French historian and author of several major works that traversed borders and centuries and introduced a new conception of historical time. As leader of the post-World War II Annales school, Braudel became one of the most important historians of the 20th century. Braudel’s family...
Bryant, Sir Arthur
Sir Arthur Bryant, British historian and biographer particularly noted for his three-volume life of Samuel Pepys (1933, 1935, 1938). His histories have an epic sweep that gained them popular readership. Typical of his approach is the panoramic view of English history he began during World War II...

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